M2- Worship and Work

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1

surviving written records focus on performance of

imported religious music

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2

one of the earliest Atlantic settlements in Jacksonville was what + established when and by who

Fort Caroline + 1564 by French Huguenots

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3

Huguenots are what religion and were persecuted by

Protestant + Catholics

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4

Huguenots sang from what book?

Bible’s Book of Psalms

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5

Who did Huguenots teach psalm melodies to?

Native American Indian tribes

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6

most influential advocate of psalm-singing

Jean Calvin

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7

Jean Calving occupation + birthplace

theologian + Switzerland

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8

Jean Calvin believed what about singing (4)

  • Protestants should sing as a congregation

  • should sing in Latin

  • should sing in unison (polyphony is distracting from message)

  • words come from Bible

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9

term for “in the chapel style”

a cappella

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10

vocal music with no instrumental support

a cappella

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11

underlined places emphasize

which syllables are stressed

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12

Common Meter pattern

8.6.8.6

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13

Long Meter pattern

8.8.8.8

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14

Short Meter

6.6.8.6

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15

rhymed settings AKA

metrical psalms

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16

number of psalms in Bible

150

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17

published books with retranslated psalms

psalters

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18

Jean Calvin oversaw creation of

“Genevan Psalter”

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19

Psalm 134 is

“Arise, you servants of the Lord”

  • Protestant Doxology

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20

Sternhold and Hopkins Psalter AKA

“Old Psalter”

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21

Old Psalter borrowed tune of 134 for

Psalm 100

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22

Doxology nickname

“Old Hundred”

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23

Pilgrims carried which copy of 134

1612 Ainsworth Psalter

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24

Puritans in Massachusetts Colony Bay weren’t happy with overseas psalms so

30 ministers retranslated psalms

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25

30 minister retranslation book called

“The Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully translated into English Metre

  • Bay Psalm Book

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26

How many meters did Massachusetts Bay Colony ministers use?

6 (therefore only 6 tunes were used)

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27

How many copies of Bay Psalm Book were published over 120 years?

30

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28

1698 Bay Psalm Book had (9th edition)

appendix with 13 melodies

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29

9th Bay Psalm Book is first

notated music printed in northern colonies

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30

small numbers of meters in 17th century meant

musical literacy was shrinking

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31

precentor

church member with strong voice

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32

lining-out

precentor sets the tune + remaining singers echo

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33

Thomas Walter quote on lining-out

“confused and disorderly Noises”

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34

Who published a sermon against lining-out in 1720?

Thomas SymmesT

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35

Thomas Symmes term for lining-out

Usual Way

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36

Regular Music AKA

musical literacy

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37

Regular Singing was argued to be

“more pleasing in the sight of God.”

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38

1721 was milestone for Regular Singing b/c (2)

2 separate music instruction books published:

  • Reverend John Tufts (An Introduction to the Singing of Psalm Tunes)

  • Thomas Walter (The Grounds and Rules of Musick, Explained; or, An Introduction to the Art of Singing by Note)

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39

What was potentially the first “original” piece published in the Atlantic colonies?

100 Psalm New Tune (in Tuft’s 5th edition with 37 pieces)

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40

Walter published which potentially original piece

Southwel New

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41

singing schools started around

1714

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42

singing schools would wean people away from

secular music (non-religious)

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43

How were singing schools advertised?

newspaper or broadside

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44

milestone for new collections of psalm tunes (after 1721)

James Lyon’s Urania

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45

Urania had how many pages + compositions

198 pages + 96 compositions

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46

Urania mostly contained publications from

England (pirated)

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47

Urania had broader repertory such as

hymns + anthems

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48

hymns definition

strophic religious texts that were not scriptural in origin

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49

hymns were four-voice homophonic AKA

plain tunes

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50

anthems were crafted as

set-pieces

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51

set-pieces definition

compositions designed to support a particular (non-strophic) sacred poem

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52

God Save the King was used for which American tune

America

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53

1760s publications expanded American repertory by

300 (quadruple)

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54

1770 landmark

first New World publication devoted entirely to works by a single American-born composer

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55

1st New World publication for specifically America works composer + name

William Billings + The New England Psalm-Singer (American Chorister)

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56

Billings was the 1st American to

try to make music primary income

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57

How many volumes + pieces did William Billings compose?

6 volumes + 375 pieces

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58

Where was Usual Way prominent?

rural areas

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59

Usual Way has a clear feeling of

community

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60

Why was there more demand for tunebooks in late 17th century?

more enthusiasm for harder music due to Regular Singing

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61

fugues were made popular by

European Baroque composers

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62

fugue 2 parts

homophonic (sacred 4-voice) plain tune + polyphony fugue

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63

Billings 2nd tunebook

The Singing Master’s Assistant (1778)

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64

The Singing Master’s Assistant has how many fuging tunes

10

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65

new wave of American composers in late 18th century called

Yankee Tunesmiths + First New England School

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66

Daniel Read composed how many tunes

400+

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67

Daniel Read life story

  • born poor in Massachusetts

  • served as private in Revolutionary War

  • moved to New Haven to run a publishing business

  • ran general store

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68

Daniel Read was the first to

publish a music periodical in America

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69

Daniel Read’s periodical name

The American Music Magazine

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70

Read story with wooing

wanted to marry Jerusha Sherman but was too poor so her father wouldn’t allow it

  • married after his businesses prospered

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71

Read was the 2nd American to

produce a volume of compositions by one person (after Billings)

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72

Read’s tunebooks

The American Singing Book + The Columbian Harmonist (borrowed music)

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73

Which of Read’s books were issued with supplements + how many supplements?

The American Singing Book (5)

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74

Sherburne has been reprinted __ times b/w 1785-1810

78

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75

English copyright law

Statute of Anne

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76

Statute of Anne

provided British subjects 14 years of exclusive copyright

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77

Who petitioned for copyright law to the Connecticut General Assembly?

Andrew Law

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78

When was the 1st Federal Copyright Law passed?

1790

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79

Who pirated from the American Singing Book + Read stole from in return?

The Worcester Collection

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80

Sherburne’s poetry is from who + what was the topic

Nahum Tate + Christmas hymn

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81

Tate based Christmas hymn on what

nativity story of Bible (Gospel of Luke)

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82

Sherburne is what metrical pattern

Common Meter

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83

Sherburne is in what key?

D major

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84

What prefaced The American Singing Book?

Concise Rules (explanation of C symbol)

  • cut-time

  • Allegro tempo

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85

“revival” camp

religious gatherings of 25,000 people

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86

popular collection of songs

The Sacred Harp

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87

What did Carolinas, Georgia, and Virginia support with tax revenues?

Anglican Church

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88

What was central to the Anglican Church?

organ

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89

Who forbade the use of an organ?

Calvinist churches

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90

Beverly Diamond says what about Native American music access

most Native Americans do not favor complete restriction

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91

new groups of Christian communities who didn’t speak English formed

foreign enclaves

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92

Moravian Church original name

Unitas Fratrum (Unity of Brethren)

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93

Moravians originated from

Czech Republic

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94

Moravian sect nearly collapsed during the

Thirty Years’ War

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95

Who provided Moravians with refuge?

aristocrat in Saxony

  • Count Nikolaus Ludwig von Zizendorf

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96

With protection, Moravians focused on

missionary efforts

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97

Why was Georgia founded?

to serve as a buffer b/w Florida and Carolinas

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98

Who founded Georgia?

James Edward Oglethorpe

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99

Oglethorpe was a driving force in

Act of 1735 (forbade slavery)

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100

Oglethorpe viewed religious groups as

stabilizing the colony

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