Basic Clinical Skills - Medical Terminology

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239 Terms
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Abate

To lessen, ease, decrease, or cease

  • Used to note the lessening of pain or the decrease in severity of symptoms

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Abnormal

Pertaining to away from the norm or rule

  • A condition that is considered to be not normal

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Abscess

Localized collection of pus, which may occur in any part of the body

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Acute

Sudden, sharp, severe

  • Used to describe a disease that has a sudden onset, sever symptoms, and a short course

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Adhesion

Literally means a process of being stuck together

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Afferent

Carrying impulses toward a center

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Ambulatory

Condition of being able to walk, not confined to bed

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Antidote

Substance given to counteract poisons and their effects

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Antipyretic

Pertaining to an agent that is used to lower an elevated body temperature (fever)

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Antiseptic

Pertaining to an agent that works against sepsis

  • A technique or product used to prevent or limit infections

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Antitussive

Pertaining to an agent that works against coughing

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Apathy

Condition in which one lacks feelings and emotions and is indifferent

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Asepsis

Without decay

  • Sterile, free from all living microorganisms

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Axillary

Pertaining to the armpit

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Biopsy (Bx)

Surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination

  • Used to determine a diagnosis of disease processes in the body

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Cachexia

Condition of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting

  • May occur in chronic diseases like cancer or pulmonary tuberculosis

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Centigrade

Literally means having 100 steps or degrees

  • Unit of temperature measurement with a boiling point at 100 degrees and freezing point at 0 degrees

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Centimeter

One hundredth of a meter

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Chemotherapy

The use of chemical agents in the treatment of disease, specifically drugs used in cancer therapy

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Chronic

Pertaining to time

  • Denotes a disease with little change or of slow progression

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Diagnosis (Dx)

Process of identifying a disease or disorder which is determined through the use of scientific and skillful methods of knowledge

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Diaphoresis

To carry through sweat glands

  • Profuse sweating

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Disease

A disruption of normal functioning of the body by a process that can congenital or infectious, or the failure of normal activity to maintain and sustain health

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Disinfectant

Chemical substance that can be applied to objects to destroy pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria

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Efferent

Carrying impulses away from a center

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Empathy

The ability to sense intellectually and emotionally the feelings of another person

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Epidemic

The rapid, widespread occurrence of an infectious disease that can be spread by any pathological organism transmitted by and to humans, birds, insects, and other living things

  • Can be used to describe any problem that has grown out of control

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Etiology

Study of the cause(s) of disease

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Excision

Process of cutting out, surgical removal

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Febrile

Pertaining to fever, a sustained body temperature above 98.6°F

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Heterogenous

Literally means pertaining to a different formation; composed of unlike substances

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Illness

State of being sick

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Incision

Process of cutting into

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Macroscopic

Pertaining to objects large enough to be examined by the naked eye

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Malaise

A general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness

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Malformation

Literally means a process of being badly shaped, deformed

  • A structural defect that fails to form normal shape and therefore can affect the function

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Malignant

Literally means formation of a bad kind

  • Growing worse, harmful, cancerous

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Maximal

Pertaining to the greatest possible quantity, number or degree

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Microorganism

Small living organisms that are not visible to the naked eye

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Microscope

Scientific instrument designed to view small objects that are not visible to the naked eye

  • With its magnification, we can see cells and even tiny structures within cells

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Minimal

Pertaining to the least possible quantity, number, or degree

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Morbidity

State of being diseased

  • Refers to the disease rate or number of cases of a particular disease in a given age range, gender, or occupation, or other relevant population-based grouping

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Mortality

Refers to the death rate reflected by the population in a given region, age range, or other relevant statistical grouping

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Multiform

Occurring in or having many shapes

  • An object that has more than one defined shape

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Necrosis

Abnormal condition of tissue death

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Oncology

Literally means the study of tumors

  • Medical specialty that studies the etiology, characteristics, treatments of cancer

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Pallor

Paleness, a l

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Palmar

Pertaining to the palm of the hand

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Paracentesis

Surgical puncture of a body cavity for fluid removal

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Pathogenic

Pertaining to producing disease

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Prognosis

Literally means a state of foreknowledge

  • Prediction of the course of a disease and the recovery rate of the affected person

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Prophylactic

Pertaining to preventing or protecting against disease or pregnancy

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Pyrogenic

Pertaining to the production of heat (a fever)

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Radiology

Study of x-rays and other imaging modalities that use x-rays

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Rapport

Relationship of understanding between 2 individuals, especially between patient and physician

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Sequela

The late or residual effect after the acute phase of an illness or injury has ended

  • EX.: deafness after treatment with an ototoxic drug

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Syndrome

A group of signs and symptoms occurring together that characterize a specific disease or pathological condition

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Triage

A system of prioritizing and classifying patient injuries to determine priority of need and treatment

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Abrasion

Process of scraping away from a surface, such as skin or teeth, by friction

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Anesthetize

To induce a loss of feeling or sensation with the administration of an anesthetic agent

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Asymmetrical

Unequal in size or shape

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Bilateral

Pertaining to 2 sides

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Comatose

Literally means pertaining to a state of deep sleep

  • Total lack of consciousness

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Gynecoid

Literally means to resemble a female

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Hyperactive

Nature or quality of excessive activity

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Hypoplasia

Underdevelopment of a tissue, organ, or body

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Infection

Process whereby a pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganism invades the body, reproduces, multiplies, and causes disease

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Insomnia

Condition of not being able to sleep

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Intravenous

Pertaining to within a vein

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Latent

Lying hidden; quiet, not active

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Lumen

Space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube

  • it is also the hollow core of a hypodermic needle, which forms an ovalshaped opening when exposed at the beveled (flat, slanted surface) point

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Palpate

To use the hands or fingers to examine by touch; to feel

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Patent

Wide open; freely open

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Pericardial

Pertaining to the pericardium (a fibrous sac surrounding the heart)

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Polydactyly

Pertaining to having more than the normal number of fingers and toes

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Premenstrual

Pertaining to the number of days before the discharge of the menses

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Steroid

applies to any one of a large group of substances chemically related to sterols

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Superinfection

An infection following a previous infection produced by an overgrowth of a resistant strain of bacteria, fungi, or yeast

  • It can occur as an adverse effect of antibiotic usage or overusage

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Trauma

Physical injury or wound caused by external force, violence, or a toxic substance

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Turgor

Generally refers to the expected resiliency of the skin caused by the outward pressure of the cells and interstitial fluid

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Unconscious

An abnormal state in which the person is not aware of his or her environment

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Abdomen

Abdomin/o

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Ankle

tars/o

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Arm

Brach/i, brachi/o

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