Basic Clinical Skills - Medical Terminology

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239 Terms

1

Abate

To lessen, ease, decrease, or cease

  • Used to note the lessening of pain or the decrease in severity of symptoms

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2

Abnormal

Pertaining to away from the norm or rule

  • A condition that is considered to be not normal

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3

Abscess

Localized collection of pus, which may occur in any part of the body

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4

Acute

Sudden, sharp, severe

  • Used to describe a disease that has a sudden onset, sever symptoms, and a short course

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5

Adhesion

Literally means a process of being stuck together

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6

Afferent

Carrying impulses toward a center

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7

Ambulatory

Condition of being able to walk, not confined to bed

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8

Antidote

Substance given to counteract poisons and their effects

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9

Antipyretic

Pertaining to an agent that is used to lower an elevated body temperature (fever)

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10

Antiseptic

Pertaining to an agent that works against sepsis

  • A technique or product used to prevent or limit infections

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11

Antitussive

Pertaining to an agent that works against coughing

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12

Apathy

Condition in which one lacks feelings and emotions and is indifferent

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13

Asepsis

Without decay

  • Sterile, free from all living microorganisms

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14

Axillary

Pertaining to the armpit

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15

Biopsy (Bx)

Surgical removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination

  • Used to determine a diagnosis of disease processes in the body

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16

Cachexia

Condition of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting

  • May occur in chronic diseases like cancer or pulmonary tuberculosis

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17

Centigrade

Literally means having 100 steps or degrees

  • Unit of temperature measurement with a boiling point at 100 degrees and freezing point at 0 degrees

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18

Centimeter

One hundredth of a meter

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19

Chemotherapy

The use of chemical agents in the treatment of disease, specifically drugs used in cancer therapy

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20

Chronic

Pertaining to time

  • Denotes a disease with little change or of slow progression

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21

Diagnosis (Dx)

Process of identifying a disease or disorder which is determined through the use of scientific and skillful methods of knowledge

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22

Diaphoresis

To carry through sweat glands

  • Profuse sweating

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23

Disease

A disruption of normal functioning of the body by a process that can congenital or infectious, or the failure of normal activity to maintain and sustain health

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24

Disinfectant

Chemical substance that can be applied to objects to destroy pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria

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25

Efferent

Carrying impulses away from a center

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26

Empathy

The ability to sense intellectually and emotionally the feelings of another person

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27

Epidemic

The rapid, widespread occurrence of an infectious disease that can be spread by any pathological organism transmitted by and to humans, birds, insects, and other living things

  • Can be used to describe any problem that has grown out of control

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28

Etiology

Study of the cause(s) of disease

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29

Excision

Process of cutting out, surgical removal

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30

Febrile

Pertaining to fever, a sustained body temperature above 98.6°F

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31

Heterogenous

Literally means pertaining to a different formation; composed of unlike substances

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32

Illness

State of being sick

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33

Incision

Process of cutting into

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34

Macroscopic

Pertaining to objects large enough to be examined by the naked eye

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35

Malaise

A general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness

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36

Malformation

Literally means a process of being badly shaped, deformed

  • A structural defect that fails to form normal shape and therefore can affect the function

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37

Malignant

Literally means formation of a bad kind

  • Growing worse, harmful, cancerous

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38

Maximal

Pertaining to the greatest possible quantity, number or degree

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39

Microorganism

Small living organisms that are not visible to the naked eye

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40

Microscope

Scientific instrument designed to view small objects that are not visible to the naked eye

  • With its magnification, we can see cells and even tiny structures within cells

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41

Minimal

Pertaining to the least possible quantity, number, or degree

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42

Morbidity

State of being diseased

  • Refers to the disease rate or number of cases of a particular disease in a given age range, gender, or occupation, or other relevant population-based grouping

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43

Mortality

Refers to the death rate reflected by the population in a given region, age range, or other relevant statistical grouping

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44

Multiform

Occurring in or having many shapes

  • An object that has more than one defined shape

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45

Necrosis

Abnormal condition of tissue death

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46

Oncology

Literally means the study of tumors

  • Medical specialty that studies the etiology, characteristics, treatments of cancer

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47

Pallor

Paleness, a l

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48

Palmar

Pertaining to the palm of the hand

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49

Paracentesis

Surgical puncture of a body cavity for fluid removal

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50

Pathogenic

Pertaining to producing disease

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51

Prognosis

Literally means a state of foreknowledge

  • Prediction of the course of a disease and the recovery rate of the affected person

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52

Prophylactic

Pertaining to preventing or protecting against disease or pregnancy

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53

Pyrogenic

Pertaining to the production of heat (a fever)

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54

Radiology

Study of x-rays and other imaging modalities that use x-rays

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55

Rapport

Relationship of understanding between 2 individuals, especially between patient and physician

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56

Sequela

The late or residual effect after the acute phase of an illness or injury has ended

  • EX.: deafness after treatment with an ototoxic drug

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57

Syndrome

A group of signs and symptoms occurring together that characterize a specific disease or pathological condition

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58

Triage

A system of prioritizing and classifying patient injuries to determine priority of need and treatment

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59

Abrasion

Process of scraping away from a surface, such as skin or teeth, by friction

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60

Anesthetize

To induce a loss of feeling or sensation with the administration of an anesthetic agent

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61

Asymmetrical

Unequal in size or shape

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62

Bilateral

Pertaining to 2 sides

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63

Comatose

Literally means pertaining to a state of deep sleep

  • Total lack of consciousness

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64

Gynecoid

Literally means to resemble a female

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65

Hyperactive

Nature or quality of excessive activity

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66

Hypoplasia

Underdevelopment of a tissue, organ, or body

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67

Infection

Process whereby a pathogenic (disease-producing) microorganism invades the body, reproduces, multiplies, and causes disease

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68

Insomnia

Condition of not being able to sleep

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69

Intravenous

Pertaining to within a vein

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70

Latent

Lying hidden; quiet, not active

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71

Lumen

Space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube

  • it is also the hollow core of a hypodermic needle, which forms an ovalshaped opening when exposed at the beveled (flat, slanted surface) point

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72

Palpate

To use the hands or fingers to examine by touch; to feel

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73

Patent

Wide open; freely open

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74

Pericardial

Pertaining to the pericardium (a fibrous sac surrounding the heart)

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75

Polydactyly

Pertaining to having more than the normal number of fingers and toes

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76

Premenstrual

Pertaining to the number of days before the discharge of the menses

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77

Steroid

applies to any one of a large group of substances chemically related to sterols

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78

Superinfection

An infection following a previous infection produced by an overgrowth of a resistant strain of bacteria, fungi, or yeast

  • It can occur as an adverse effect of antibiotic usage or overusage

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79

Trauma

Physical injury or wound caused by external force, violence, or a toxic substance

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80

Turgor

Generally refers to the expected resiliency of the skin caused by the outward pressure of the cells and interstitial fluid

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81

Unconscious

An abnormal state in which the person is not aware of his or her environment

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82

Abdomen

Abdomin/o

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83

Ankle

tars/o

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84

Arm

Brach/i, brachi/o

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85

Back

poster/o

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86

Bones

oste/o

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87

breast

mast/o, mamm/o

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88

Cheek

bucc/o

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89

Chest

thorac/o

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90

Ear

aur/i, ot/o

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91

elbow

cubit/o, olecran/o

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92

Eye

ophthalm/o, ocul/o, opt/o

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93

finger

dactyl/o

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94

foot

pod/o

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95

gums

gingiv/o

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96

hand

chir/o

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97

head

cephal/o

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98

heart

cardi/o

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99

hip

isch/i

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100

leg

crur/o

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