Cell Bio Ch 10, Ch 8, Ch 3, cell list 2

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692 Terms

1

Circum

Around, about

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2

Clast

Broken

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3

Coel

Hollow

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4

Con

With, jointly

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5

Coron

Crown

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6

Cost

Rib

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7

Crani

skull

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8

cumul

mass, heap

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9

cyan

blue

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10

cyst

capsule, sac, vesicle

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11

dactyl

finger

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12

dec(a), deka

ten

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13

demi

half

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14

dendr

tree

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15

derm

skin

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16

deut

second

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17

di(a)

two

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18

dict

speak

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19

diplo

double

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20

duct

to lead

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21

dur

hard, lasting

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22

dys

abnormal, bad, difficult

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23

ecto

outside external

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24

effer

carrying away

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25

-emia

blood condition or disease

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26

encephalo

brain

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27

epi

upon, above, among

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28

erythro

red

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29

ex

out of, outer

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30

-fer, -ferent

carry, bring

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31

flagell

whip

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32

foramen

opening

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33

fract-, frag

break

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34

gangli

knot

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35

gen

produce, to give birth

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36

geo

earth, soil

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37

giga

a billion

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38

glyco

sugar, sweet

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39

gon

angle

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40

-gram, -graph

write, record

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41

halo

salt, sea

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42

clar

clear

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43

coccus

berry, grain

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44

com

with, together

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45

contra (o)

opposite, against

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46

corp(o)

body

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47

counter

against, opposite

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48

cryo

cold

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49

cuti

skin

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50

cycl

circle, ring

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51

cyto

cell

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52

de

reduce, away, remove

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53

deci

a tenth

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54

dem(o)

people

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55

dent, dont

tooth

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56

desmo

band

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57

dextro

right

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58

dia

through, across, between

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59

digit

finger

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60

dorso

back

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61

duo

two

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62

dyna

power, energy

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63

echino

spiny

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64

-ectomy

remove, excise

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65

em

in, into

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66

endo

inside, within

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67

equi

horse, equal

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68

eu

well, good, true

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69

exo

outside

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70

feli

cat

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71

fil

thread

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72

-form

shape

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73

gam-, gamo

united, joined, sexual

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74

gast(e)r

stomach, pouch

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75

-genic

producing, generating

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76

ger

old age

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77

glia

glue

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78

gnath

jaw

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79

gono

seed, sexual, reproductive

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80

gyn

woman, female

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81

haplo

single, simple

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82

explain transcription

initiation -> elongation -> termination

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83

Initiation of transcription

RNA polymerase binds to the promoter which pries apart the two DNA strands and initiates mRNA synthesis at the start on the template strand

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84

Elongation of transcription

As the RNA polymerase moves along the template strand, elongating the mRNA transcript one base at a time, it unwinds the DNA double helix before it and rewinds the double helix behind it

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85

Termination of transcription

mRNA synthesis ends when the termination signal is reached, RNA polymerase and the completed mRNA transcript are reached

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86

DNA-RNA hybrid

16-18 base pairs of DNA are unwound and the most recently made RNA is still bound to DNA

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87

where does transcription happen

nucleus

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88

where does translation happen

cytoplasm

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89

where can many key stages of gene expression be regulated?

in eukaryotic cells

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90

translation

the synthesis of proteins as directed by mRNA templates, the first step in the formation of functional proteins

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91

polypeptide chains must

fold into appropriate conformations and often undergo various processing steps, sorting, and transport

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92

gene expression is regulated when

at the level of transition (as well as transcription) in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

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93

control between DNA and RNA trasncription

transcriptional control

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94

control between RNA transcript and mRNA

RNA processing control

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95

control between mRNA (nucleus) and mRNA (cytosol)

RNA transport and localized control (in the cytosol)

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96

control between mRNA and inactive mRNA

mRNA degradation control

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97

control between mRNA and proteins

translation control

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98

control between protein and inactive protein

protein activity control

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99

amino acid

specified by three bases (a codon) in the mRNA

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100

translation

is carried out on ribosomes with tRNAs serving as adaptors

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