Cell Biology For Separate Science (copy)

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The genetic material in a plant and animal cell is found in the

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Biology

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1

The genetic material in a plant and animal cell is found in the

Nucleus

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2

Plant and animal cells both have

A nucleus, a cell membrane and cytoplasm

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3

Bacterial cells are also known as

Prokaryotic cells

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4

Plant and animal cells are also known as

Eukaryotic cells

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5

What is the size of bacterial cells compared to eukaryotic cells

Bacterial cells are smalle

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6

Bacterial cells have small rings of DNA called

Plasmids

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7

What is different about the genetic material in bacterial cells compared to animal cells?

It is not enclosed in a nucleus

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8

What material is the cell wall of plant and algal cells made from?

Cellulose

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9

What parts of a plant cell are not found in animal cells

Chloroplasts Permanent vacuole

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10

What is found in the permanent vacuole of a plant cell

Cell sap

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11

What is the function of the nucleus?

Controls the activities of the cell. It is where the genetic material is found

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12

What is the function of the cytoplasm?

A liquid gel where most chemical reactions take place

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13

What is the function of the cell membrane?

Controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell

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14

What is the function of the mitochondria?

Where aerobic respiration takes place, releasing energy for the cell

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15

What is the function of the ribosomes?

Where protein synthesis takes place

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16

What is the function of the chloroplasts?

Contain chlorophyll Chlorophyll absorbs light so the plant can make food by photosynthesis

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17

What is the function of the permanent vacuole?

Important for keeping the cells rigid to support the plant

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18

What is the function of the cell wall?

Made of cellulose which helps strengthen the cell and provides support

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19

What is the function of the plasmids?

Where some of the genetic material is found in bacterial cells

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20

What type of microscope would you use to observer ribosomes?

Electron microscope

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21

Give a specialisation of a sperm cell

A large nucleus containing genetic information A long tail to assist with movement The mid-section is full of mitochondria to transfer energy for movement

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22

Give a specialisation of a nerve cell

A long axon to carry information over long distances Numerous dendrites to pass information to neighbouring nerve cells

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23

Give a specialisation of a muscle cell

Contain mitochondria to transfer the energy needed for contracting

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24

Give a specialisation of a root hair cell

Root Hair increases the surface area for efficient water uptake Large permanent vacuole to maintain water potential

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25

Give a specialisation of a xylem cell

Lignin builds up in the cell wall increasing the strength of the xylem allowing them to withstand the water pressure The Xylem cells die forming long hollow tubes that allow water move with little resistance up the plant

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26

Give a specialisation of a phloem cell

Cell walls between neighbouring cells breaks down to form sieve plates that allow water to move freely Phloem cells have relatively few organelles but are kept alive by companion cells

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27

When do most types of animal cells differentiate?

At an early stage

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28

What is different about when most type of plant and animal cells differentiate?

Many types of plant cells retain the ability to differentiate throughout life

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29

In mature animals what is cell division for?

Repair and Replacement

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30

What do we call a cell that has differentiated?

A specialised cell

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31

What is the definition for magnification?

How many times bigger an object appears

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32

What is the definition for resolution?

The ability to distinguish between two separate points

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33

Which has a higher resolving power? An electron or light microscope

Electron microscope

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34

Why are electron microscopes more useful

They can study cells in much finer detail and see more sub-cellular structures

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35

What formula links magnification, size of image and size of real object

Magnification = Size of image/Size of real object

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36

Which type of microscope has a higher magnification

Electron microscope

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37

What does the nucleus of a cell contain?

Genetic Information / Chromosomes

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38

What are chromosomes made from?

DNA molecules

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39

In body cells how are the chromosomes normally found?

In pairs

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40

Cells divide in a series of stages. What is this called?

The cell cycle

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41

What happens in the first stage of the cell cycle?

The number of sub-cellular structures increases The DNA replicates The cell increases in mass

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42

What happens in the second stage of the cell cycle?

Mitosis occurs The chromosomes are pulled to each end of the cell The nucleus divides

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43

What happens in the third stage of the cell cycle?

The cytoplasm and cell membrane divide to form two identical cells

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44

What is mitosis important for?

Growth and development

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45

How many cells are produced in mitosis?

2

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46

What are the cells produced in mitosis like?

Identical

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47

What is a stem cell?

An undifferentiated cell of an organism which can become other types of cell

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48

Where are the two main sources of human stem cells?

Embryos Adult Bone Marrow

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49

In which type of plant tissue do you find cells that can differentiate into any type of plant cell?

Meristem

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50

What conditions could treatment with stem cells help?

Diabetes and Paralysis

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51

What is produced in therapeutic cloning?

An embryo with the same genes as the patient

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52

What is the advantage of using stem cells from embryos for medical treatment?

They will not be rejected from the patient

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53

What are the risks of using stem cells?

The transfer of viral infections

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54

What can the stem cells from meristems in plants be used for?

To produce clones of plants quickly and economically

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55

How can rare species of plants benefit from meristem tissue?

Rare species can be cloned to protect from extinction

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56

How can crop plants benefit from meristem tissue?

Crop plants with special features such as disease resistance can be cloned to produce large numbers of identical plants for farmers

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57

What is the definition of diffusion?

The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from a higher to a lower concentration

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58

What substances may be transported into animal cells?

Oxygen

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59

What substance my be transported out of animal cells?

Carbon dioxide, Urea

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60

Which factors affect the rate of diffusion?

The difference in concentration The temperature The surface area of the membrane

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61

What is the surface area : volume ratio like in a single celled organism?

High

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62

How are the small intestines adapted as exchange surfaces

Villi to increase the surface area

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63

How are the lungs adapted as exchange surfaces?

Alveoli to increase the surface area Lots of capillaries for efficient exchange Thin walls to provide a short pathway

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64

How are gills in fish adapted as exchange surfaces?

Excellent blood supply Large surface area

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65

How are roots adapted as exchange surfaces?

Large surface area

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66

What increases the effectiveness of an exchange surface?

Large surface area Thin membrane for short diffusion pathway Efficient blood supply (animals) Ventilated (Animals for gaseous exchange)

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67

What moves via osmosis?

Water

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68

What is the definition of osmosis?

The diffusion of water from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane

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69

What does osmosis require for it to occur?

Partially permeable membrane

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70

What is the definition of active transport?

Active transport moves substances from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution (against a concentration gradient)

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71

What does active transport require?

Energy from respiration

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72

Where does active transport occur in plants?

Active transport occurs in the plant root hairs, allowing mineral ions to be absorbed from very dilute solutions in the soil

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73

Why do plants require ions?

Healthy growth

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74

Where does active transport take place in humans?

It allows sugar molecules to be absorbed from low concentrations in the gut into the blood

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75

Why do humans require sugar molecules?

Cellular respiration

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76

Where does the energy in active transport come from?

Respiration

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77

What do we call the process in which bacteria reproduce?

Binary fission

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78

How often will bacteria reproduce?

Once every 20 minutes

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79

When will bacteria reproduce?

Enough nutrients and suitable temperature

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80

Where can bacteria grow?

Nutrient broth or as colonies on an agar plate

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81

At what temperature should cultures be incubated at?

25oC

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82

What do we use to transfer microorganisms to the media?

Inoculating loops

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83

How do you sterilise the inoculating loop?

Passing through a flame

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84

How should the Petri dish be secured?

With adhesive tape on the side and stored upside down

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85

Where is amylase produced?

Salivary Glands Pancreas Small Intestine

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86

Where is protease produced?

Stomach Pancreas Small Intestine

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87

Where is lipase produced?

Pancreas Small Intestine

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88

What does amylase break down?

Starch

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89

What do carbohydrases break down?

Carbohydrates to simple sugars

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90

What do proteases break down?

Proteins into amino acids

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91

What do lipases break down?

Lipids (fats) into glycerol and fatty acids

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92

Where is bile made?

The Liver

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93

Where is bile stored?

The Gall Bladder

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94

What is the pH of Bile?

Alkaline

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95

What does bile neutralise?

Hydrochloric acid from the stomach

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96

What does bile do to fat?

Emulsifies the fat to form small droplets which increase the surface area to increase the rate of breakdown

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97

What is the test for sugars?

Benedict's test

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98

What is the test for starch?

Iodine test

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99

What is the test for protein?

Biuret test

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100

What colour change would you see if you successfully tested for sugar?

Blue to Orange

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