All the empires Blaze test (12/13/2022)

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Mehmed II


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Mehmed II

an Ottoman sultan who captured Constantinople, he blasted down the walls with his siege guns and after conquering the city he brought back it's glory. he turned the Cathedral of St. Sophia into a great mosque (Hagia Sophia) and repaired aqueducts, markets, and the city's defenses. He generally improved Constantinople.


They were elite soldier who had control over artillery and firearms, which were the most powerful weapon in the Ottoman army. Technically slaves who were forcibly recruited as teen boys from conquered Christian areas, like the Balkans. Tried to translate their military service to political influence. They ended up controlling a lot of the government, by basically 'choosing' which son would ascend the throne.


The overall head of the imperial administration, technically had more power than the sultan. In later years when the quality of sultans declined, the Grand vizier really stepped up and took control for the sultan. He ran day to day stuff, while the sultan was just the one in power.

Sail al-Din

The founder of the Safavid empire who disliked the religious tolerance and how the Sultans of the Ottoman empire became greedy and indulgent.

Red Heads

the followers of Sail-al Din, who wore distinctive red hats, they were also called the Quizilbash, the Safavid version of the Janissary.


A shiite man who had little to no religious tolerance, hated the sunni Ottomans. It was because of him the Battle of Chaldiran occurred. After the technical loss he was depressed, then he got drunk all the time, then he died. After his death was turmoil.


The battle between the Safavids and the Ottomans. It was a technical Ottoman win, but it was the beginning of the end for them. On the other hand, it wasn't a win for the Safavids because they couldn't expand further West. The Ottomans couldn't maintain their empire, so that prompted their decline.

shah abbas the great

He saved the Safavids from the turmoil after Ismail's death. He took away nobility's power and consolidated power. He also reformed the army and made it into one like the Jannisary (made up of a bunch of slave boys).

Babur 'the tiger'

The founder of the Mughal empire (first sultan). He wrote history, he played the lute, but was a poor administrator. He took over Lodi in an attempt to take back his homeland, but just ended up with a giant empire.

Akbar (the great)

He was much better than his dad and grandpa even though he was illiterate. He ascended to the throne at the age of 13. He administered everything properly and was an insomniac. He reconciled and cooperated with the Hindu princes by encouraging intermarriage. He abolished the jizya (tax on non muslims). He also said muslims must respect cows like the hindus. He also created Din I Ilahi.


A new religious formed the Akbar the Great, it was a mix of Islam and Hinduism. But it really wasn't that appealing and wan't successful.

Taj Mahal

beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife, Nur Jahan.


The great grandson of Akbar the great who basically screwed up everything Akbar did before him. He eliminated religious tolerance, and drained the treasury with his expensive military conquests.

Nur Jahan

The wife of Shah Jahan (Jahangir) who did most of the ruling, most powerful ruler in Indian History


Akbar's son and ruler of India; left the state affairs to his wife.

Shah Jahan

Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666).


The first Inca ruler who used his military alliances and military campaigns to take over. He settled the warring chiefdoms who were fighting for power before him.


Inca word for their empire; region from Colombia to Chile and eastward into Bolivia and Argentina.

Split inheritance

Inca practice of descent; all titles and political power went to successor, but wealth and land remained in hands of male descendants for support of cult of dead Inca's mummy.

temple of the sun

Inca religious center located at Cuzco; center of state religion; held mummies of past Incas.

incan socialism

Garcilaso de la vega's depiction of the Incan empire being somewhat of a utopia where every community contributed to the whole and the state fairly distributed resources.

sunni ali

the first ruler of Songhai. He was ruthless, and a tactical commander who expanded borders, created administration, captured Timbuktu, and participated in both Muslim and African religions. Similarly to Akbar he created a unique brand of Islam (pagan + muslim). He also didn't want to force conversion.

Appeal of Islam

Egalitarian teachings - all Muslims are equal (social mobility)

appeal of islam

reinforced African kings' authority (religious icon)------- but there was a difference between what the rules were and what actually occurs.

ivan III

The prince that made Moscow the new capital of Russia, and he overthrew the Mongols that were dominating Russsia, by making Moscow not in debt to those Mongols. He created a strong army that would remain for quite some time after his death.

third rome

The early tsars invoked the example of the Roman empire saying that Russia was the "third Rome". Both the Romans and the Russians were very Catholic so it was fit that Moscow was called the "third Rome".

ivan IV the terrible

He was a pretty good ruler at first until he stabbed his son with a pointy scepter and then there was no heir because he didn't marry and his son's wife killed herself. This led to the time of troubles after his death.


aristrocratic landlords who were given the power during the time of troubles. They realized that they weren't doing so hot so they established the Romanov Dynasty (Michael Romanov). They're kind of like the Russian congress.

time of troubles

The time after Ivan the Terrible died and there was no heir. The boyars tried to gain back the power they lost by trying to fill the vacuum left by Ivan's death. It ended up being Michael Romanov who was placed as tsar.

romanov dynasty

They expanded the empire, abolished noble assemblies (parlament-like), the orthodox faith was state controlled, and they exiled threats to siberia.

Alexis romanov

The son of michael Romanov, he abolished the assemblies of nobles and used his power over the Russian church to purge it of the superstitions.

old believers

religious conservatives who didn't like Peter the Great's ideas. A lot of them were exiled to places like Siberia and southern russia.

Peter I the great

he was tall and western educated in France. He thought that England was better than Russia. He was an autocrat (one person in charge, but not a tyrant). he also quelled revolts with cruelty due to an organized military that he created. He devalued parliament and recruited bureaucrats outside of the nobility because the nobles were corrupt. He also created a secret police to prevent dissent, basically to spread fear so people wouldn't disobey.

st. Petersburg

Built by Peter the Great of Russia to attract europeans and to get warm water ports. Named after Peter the great.

catherine the great

A German princess named Sophie who married Peter the II and overthrew him (had him banished to Siberia). She used some ideas of french enlightenment, made new law codes (made a school for Russian elite girls), centralized power, put down rebellions (pugachev), and was a selective westernizer like Peter the great.

partitions of Poland

Poland divided between Russia, Austria, and Prussia, Catherine The great drew the lines and took all the good parts of Poland and left the rest for the other guys.

pugachev revolt

the cossack emelion Pugachev, claimed to be a legitimate tsar. He gathered the support of peasants, but was brutally slaughtered and the revolts were shut down.


First Ming emperor, he kept administrators in line by getting rid of the chief minister position and he's cane corrupt officials (which could lead to death). He also tried to get rid of conspiracy by making court wives poor, exiling threats, and having strict censorship. He also helped the poor by giving unoccupied land to the poor, but landlords eventually got richer and manipulated the system.


One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.


One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.

Zhenghe expeditions

Expeditions led by Zheng He in order to explore lands overseas to proclaim the glory of the Ming dynasty to other nations. The last couple expeditions reached as far as Persia, southern Arabia, and the East Coast of Africa.


The first Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms and due to this he was able to defeat all the other daimyos leading to a unified Japan. When the westerners come over to Japan he starts to act like them, but he's accused of being 'un-japaneese'.

toyotomi hideyoshi

He took over after Nobunaga dies, he tried to invade Korea but failed.

tokugawa Ieyasu

He took over after Toyotomi hideyoshi. He focuses on internal conquests, starts the tokugawa shogunate (administration), ends the civil war, moves the capital to Edo, and makes the Daimyos loyal to the Shogun. He closed the borders.


Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.

fur trade

The trading of animal pelts (especially beaver skins) by Indians for European goods in North America.

rise ottomans

Their military was very powerful and they expanded very quickly. Due to the Jannisary and siege guns, the Ottomans were able to overpower their opponents.

fall ottomans

Their empire was too big, they couldn't control it. Soon enemies began to chip away at the empire little by little, until it was deemed the "sick man of Europe". It took a big hit from the Safavids, which basically was one of the tipping points. They also had bad/corrupt government officials,and regional officials retained revenue for themselves. The Sultans became incompetent, the Jannisaries refused to upgrade, and they eventually fell behind the Europeans and failed to expand.

rise safavids

They broke away from the Ottomans because they felt the Sultans became corrupt. Their military was also very good, like the Ottomans.