Biology CH. 12 & 13 Vocab

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Double Helix

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Biology

10th

24 Terms

1

Double Helix

two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA

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2

Nucleotide

A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.

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3

Purine

Adenine and Guanine

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4

Pyrimidine

Cytosine and Thymine

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5

Chromatin

DNA and protein

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6

Gene

A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait

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7

DNA replication

the process of making a copy of DNA

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8

DNA Polymerase

Unzips DNA

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9

RNA

single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose

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10

Protein Synthesis

the formation of proteins by using information contained in DNA and carried by mRNA

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11

DNA Transcription

the process of copying a section of DNA in order to make proteins

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12

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

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13

Introns

regions of DNA that do not code for proteins

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14

Exons

Coding segments of eukaryotic DNA.

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15

Codon

three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid

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16

rRNA

ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome

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17

Initiation

mRNA attaches to ribosome

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18

tRNA

transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome

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19

Anticodon

group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon

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20

Elongation

addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain; continues until it reaches a stop codon

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21

Termination

the ribosome reaches a stop codon on the mRNA and protein synthesis stops.

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22

Gene Mutation

a change in the base sequence of a gene

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23

frameshift mutation

the mutation that causes the reading frame of mRNA codons to shift

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24

point mutation

a mutation affecting only one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence.

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