Medical Interventions Unit 2

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Amniocentesis

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Medicine

11th

28 Terms

1

Amniocentesis

A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus

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2

Anneal

To be capable of combining with complementary nucleic acid by a process of heating and cooling

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3

Carrier Screening

Indiscriminate examination of members of a population to detect heterozygotes for serious disorders

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4

Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

A technique for diagnosing genetic and congenital defects in a fetus by removing and analyzing a sample of the fetal portion of the placenta

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5

Denaturation

In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix.

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6

Gene

A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence of DNA

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7

Genetic Counseling

A process of communication that deals with the occurrence or risk that a genetic disorder will occur in a family

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8

Genetic Testing

The use of methods to determine if someone has a genetic disorder, will develop one, or is a carrier

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9

Genome

The complement of an organism's genes; an organisms genetic material

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10

Genotype

The genetic makeup of an organism

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11

Karyotype

A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape

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12

Newborn Screening

The analysis of a neonate's blood for metabolic or genetic disorders to prevent mental retardation, disability or death

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13

Phenotype

The physical and physiological traits of an organism

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14

Polymerase Chain Reaction

A technique that involves copying short pieces of DNA and then making millions of copies in a short period of time

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15

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

In assisted reproductive technology, the determination of genetic abnormalities in the embryo before it is transferred to the uterus

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16

Primer

A short piece of DNA or RNA that is complementary to a section of template strand and acts as an attachment and starting point for the synthesis strand during DNA replication

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17

Restriction Enzyme

A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.

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18

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)

One base-pair variation in the genome sequence

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19

Supernatant

The (usually) clear liquid left behind after a precipitate has been spun down to the bottom of a vessel by centrifugation

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20

Taq Polymerase

A DNA synthesis enzyme that can withstand the high temperatures of PCR

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21

Thermal Cycler

An instrument that automatically cycles through different temperatures used to complete PCR reactions

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22

Ultrasonography

A noninvasive technique involving the formation of a two-dimensional image used for the examination and measurement of internal body structures and the detection of bodily abnormalities

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23

Cloning

Using a somatic or body cell from a multicellular organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals

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24

Gene Therapy

The alteration of the genes of a person afflicted with a genetic disease (Hemophilia)

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25

In Vitro Fertilization

A procedure in which gametes are fertilized in a dish in the laboratory, and the resulting zygote is implanted in the uterus for development

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26

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

In assisted reproductive technology, the determination of genetic abnormalities in the embryo before it is transferred to the uterus

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27

Sex Selection

Methods used to predetermine or diagnose the sex of an embryo for the purpose of selecting only those embryos of a particular sex for transplanting to the uterus of a woman

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28

Vector

An agent (as a plasmid or virus) that contains or carries modified genetic material and can be used to introduce extra genes into the genome of an organism

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