HN World History Midterm

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What is the Reformation?


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European History

Age of Reformation


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What is the Reformation?

A movement that sought to correct abuses and introduce reform into the Catholic Church. It led to a split within the Church and the establishment of Protestantism.

What events led to the Reformation?

-Political, theological trouble in the medieval Church

-Avignon Papacy + Great Schism

-Increase in Church secularism

-Social, political, and cultural shifts, like Renaissance

Who were two men that made early calls for reform?

John Wycliffe and Jan Hus

Who were John Wycliffe and Jan Hus?

Both had been labeled heretics, John had questioned the pope's authority and been burned at the stake b/c of it.

Who were some of the Great Continental Reformers?

Philip Melanchthon, Martin Luther, Jan Hus, John Calvin, Gustavus Adolphus, Ulrich Zwingli, Johannes Bugenhagen, Ulrich von Hutten

What were indulgences?

People could pay money and be freed of their sins.

What logic did the Church use to justify indulgences?

The saints had preformed more good deeds then they needed to get into heaven and the "excess" could be sold off by the Church

Who is Martin Luther?

A german monk who was a leader of the Reformation. Became a monk after he survived a storm.

Who was John Tetzel?

A man who came to Luther's town selling indulgences

What did the money from the selling of indulgence go to?

Paying for part of the reconstruction of St. Peter's Cathedral

When did Luther post his 95 Theses?

October 31, 1517

What were the 95 Theses?

A list of everything Luther thought about religion and the church and indulgences. His protest. He did not intend to leave the Church, just wanted it to change

What were some of the ideas of Luther's 95 Theses?

No one could perform any sort of work to obtain salvation or forgiveness. Thought indulgences couldn't do anything in the first place. Questioned why the pope made people pay for the indulgences.

What was the Pope's response to Luther?

Told him that indulgences were not forgiveness. Luther thought this wasn't enough but Pope Leo X did not want to lose the revenue.

What happened at the Diet of Augsburg?

Luther and papal people argued, Luther's friends hid him afraid of what may happen.

What happened at the Diet of Worms?

The new holy roman emperor Charles V declared Luther a heretic and forbade the printing of his writings. Ordered him to appear at the Imperial Diet in Worms.

What happened when Luther refused to recant his ideas?

Charles V declared him an outlaw and Luther hid in Wartburg Castle.

What Church/university did Luther form?


What was the first city to convert to Lutheranism?


What was the Peasants' Revolt?

English peasants revolted against low wages and lords freezing serfs movements in society. Peasants killed lords and burned manors. Looked to Luther for support but he didn't at all.

What did Luther's rejection of the peasants' violence gain him?

respect from the upper classes

What happened after the Peasant revolt?

Luther became dependent on political leaders for protection and support.

What did the Peace of Augsburg do?

Allowed German princes to decide what religion would be followed in their lands

What were some of Luther's theological views?

Favor of religion being based on faith. Everyone responsible for their own religious life. Holding services in Latin.

Who was Ulrich Zwingli?

The head of the reformation in Switzerland. Argued that he hadn't copied Luther

What were some of Zwingli's ideas/reforms?

no church decor, no music, salvation by faith alone, rejected purgatory, eliminated monasteries, scripture alone

What happened with Zwingli's reform?

caused controversy, summoned to disputation where he prevailed.

What was the Marburg Colloquy?

A disagreement with Luther and Zwingli that split the Protestants. Philip of Hesse called conference to try to create a unified Protestant theology.

What was the Swiss Civil War?

war between Protestant and Catholic cantons of Switzerland. Zwingli fought and was killed.

Who was John Calvin?

A french lawyer who traveled to Geneva where he organized a Protestant movement (later became puritans)

What were some of Calvin's theological ideas?

predestination, value in hard work, justification by faith alone, consubstantiation.

What is predestination?

T - total depravity = humans are sinful

U - unconditional election = people are chosen for salvation b/c of God

L - limited atonement = only some are chosen

I - irresistible grace = cannot resist the call of God

P - perseverance of the saints = afterlife exists for the elect

Where did Calvin implement his ideas?

Council in Geneva

What did Calvin create to monitor the morality of the citizens of Geneva?


What was Calvin's moral code for the Consistory?

no plays, fortune telling banned, no laughing during a sermon, what color of clothes people could wear.

How did Calvinism spread?

Geneva became known as "Protestant Rome", Calvin replaced Luther, reformists would come from all over and take the ideas home with them.

Who were the Anabaptists?

A protest group that believed in baptizing only those persons who were old enough to decide to be Christian and in separation of church and state

What were the beliefs of anabaptists?

members should live simple lives, church was a voluntary organization, all members were equal.

What did the radical anabaptists in Munster do?

saw Munster as new Jerusalem. Took over the city and made everything communal. gained control by force.

Who were the Mennonites?

after incident in Munster, anabaptists devoted themselves to pacifism. Menno Simons revitalized the anabaptism. urged followers to pursue peace

What began the Reformation in England?

Henry VIII's break with the Roman Church through his divorce with Catherine of Aragon

Who avoided granting Henry VIII an annulment?

Charles V + Pope Clement VII

What happened after Henry sought an annulment through the British Ecclesiastical Courts?

Secretly married Anne Boleyn and had Elizabeth I

What were the three acts passed by Henry that enforced the break between Parliament and Rome?

Act of Restraint in Appeals

Act of Supremacy

Act of Succession

What was the Act in Restraint of Appeals?

denied the pope's authority

What was the Act of Supremacy?

made the king the head of the English Church

What was the Act of Succession?

required all subjects to take a loyalty to the king as head of church

Who was the mom of Edward VI?

Jane Seymour

Who was Sir Thomas More?

named Lord Chancellor in 1529, opposed the reform movement and Henry's new marriage. Was a friend of Henrys. refused to acknowledge Henry's acts.