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133 Terms

1

pluralism

groups with shared interests influence public policy by pressing their concerns through organized efforts

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2

elitism

upper class holds the power and there are inequalities and gaps in society

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3

hyperpluralism

competing interest groups are so strong that the government is weakened

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4

policy making system

process by which a policy is made and evolved

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5

new jersey plan

each state is equally represented in congress

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6

virginia plan

each state has representation proportional to population

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7

connecticut compromise

house of representatives based on population and each state has two votes in the senate

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8

ex post facto acts

crimes committed before they became illegal

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9

bills of attainder

act of punishment without trial

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10

federalists

supporters of the constitution

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11

anti-federalists

opponents of the constitution

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12

federalist papers

essays that support ratification

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13

judicial review

power of courts to determine whether acts of congress and executive branch are in accord with constitution

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14

federalism

a way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government share formal authority over the same area and people

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15

unitary government

a central government holds supreme power in a nation

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16

intergovernmental relations

the entire set of interactions between local, state, and national government

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17

confederation

states have most or all power while the national government is weak

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18

supremacy clause

the constitution, national laws, and treaties are supreme over state laws

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19

1st amendment

freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition

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20

2nd amendment

right to bear arms

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21

3rd amendment

restricts quartering of soldiers in homes

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22

4th amendment

no unreasonable searches and seizures

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23

5th amendment

right to remain silent/no self incrimination

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24

6th amendment

right to speedy trial by jury

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25

7th amendment

right to jury trial in civil lawsuits

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26

8th amendment

no cruel or unusual punishment or excessive fines/bail

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27

9th amendment

rights not enumerated in the constitution are retained by the people

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28

10th amendment

federal government only has the powers of the constitution and all other powers are reserved to the states or the people

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29

11th amendment

states are immune from suits from citizens of other states

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30

state sovereign immunity

a person cannot sue a state without the state's permission

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31

injunctive relief

require an officer to do or refrain from certain acts

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32

McCulloch v. Maryland

established supremacy national government over state governments and that congress has implied powers

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33

enumerated powers

powers of the federal government that are explicitly in the constitution

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34

implied powers

powers of the federal government to go beyond the constitution

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35

elastic clause

authorizes congress to pass all laws necessary to carry out enumerated powers

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36

Gibbons v. Ogden

defined power of congress to regulate interstate commerce as encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity

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37

full faith and credit

recognize the public acts, records, and proceedings in other states

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38

extradition

state surrenders a person charged with a crime to the state that the crime is alleged to have been committed

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39

privileges and immunities

citizens have the privileges of the states they are in (except out of state tuition or voting)

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40

dual federalism

states and the national government each are supreme in their own spheres with different powers

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41

cooperative federalism

states and national government share powers and policy

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42

devolution

transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local governments

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43

grants-in-aid

sends revenues derived from federal taxes to state and local governments

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44

fiscal federalism

pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system

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45

categorical grants

federal grants for specific purposes or categories of state and local spending

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46

block grants

federal grants given automatically to states or communities to support broad problems

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47

project grants

federal grants given based on merit

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48

formula grants

categorical grants distributed based on a specific formula from legislation

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49

mandates

temporary laws

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50

descriptive representation

representing constituents by mirroring characteristics

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51

substantive representation

representing interests of groups the person is not a part of

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52

incumbents

people who already hold office

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53

advantages of incumbency

Frankie's privilege (free mail), name recognition, credit claiming, endorsements

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54

Baker v. Carr

allows federal courts to review boundaries of legislative districts

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55

bicameral legislature

a legislature divided into two houses

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56

The House

revenues bills and impeaches presidents

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57

The Senate

ratifies treaties and confirms presidential nominations

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58

speaker of the house

spokesperson of the party who appoints leaders and staff, assigns committees, 2nd in line to vice president

<p>spokesperson of the party who appoints leaders and staff, assigns committees, 2nd in line to vice president</p>
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59

majority leader

schedules bills, rounds up votes, ally to speaker of the house or the majority party's manager in the senate

<p>schedules bills, rounds up votes, ally to speaker of the house or the majority party&apos;s manager in the senate</p>
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60

minority leader

spokesperson of minority party

<p>spokesperson of minority party</p>
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61

reapportionment

assigning of congress of congressional seats after each census

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62

redistricting

the redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines after each census

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63

gerrymandering

the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent

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64

safe seat

an elected office that is predictably won by one party or the other

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65

party caucus

a meeting of the members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and to develop party policy

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66

whip

a party leader who is the liaison between the leadership and general legislature

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67

closed rule

prohibits any amendments to bills

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68

open rule

permits floor amendments

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69

president pro tempore

officer of the senate selected by the majority party to act as chair in the absence of the vice president

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70

hold

senator temporarily blocks the consideration of the bill or nomination

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71

filibuster

a senator refuses to relinquish the floor, delaying proceedings and preventing a vote

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72

cloture

a procedure for terminating debate in the senate

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73

senatorial courtesy

the custom of submitting names of prospective appointees for approval to senators from the states in which the appointees are to work

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74

standing committee

a permanent committee established in the legislature that usually focuses on a policy area

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75

special or select committee

a committee created for a specific purpose

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76

joint committee

composed of members of both the House of Reps and the Senate

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77

Earmarks

special pending projects on behalf of an individual member of congress for their constituents

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78

seniority rule

chair of the committee or subcommittee is the longest serving member of the majority party

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79

conference committee

reconciles bills from the house and the senate

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80

delegate

an official who represents the views of their constituents even when having different views

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81

trustee

an official who votes independently based on their own judgement

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82

logrolling

mutual aid and vote trading among legislators

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83

attentive public

citizens that follow public affairs

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84

discharge petition

if signed by a majority of the House of Representatives it will bring a bill to the floor

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85

rider

a provision attached to a bill in order to secure its passage or defeat

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86

pocket veto

exercised by the president after congress has adjourned, if the president doesn't take action for 10 days the bill does not become law

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87

override

the action of congress to reverse the presidential veto that requires two-thirds majority in each chamber

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88

federalist 10

the union will help against factions

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89

federalist 51

outlines checks and balances

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90

brutus 1

federal power is bad and the constitution gives too much power to the federal government

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91

current supreme court justices

Roberts Thomas Alito Sotomayor Kagan Gorsuch Kavanaugh Barrett Jackson

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92

factions

interest groups arising from unequal distribution of property or wealth

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93

Marbury v. Madison

right of the supreme court to determine the meaning of the constitution

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94

writ of mandamus

a court order forcing action

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95

Shaw v. Reno

unlawful to gerrymander based on race

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96

double tracking

temporarily putting aside a decision and putting forth something else

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97

instructed delegate

a delegate bound to vote according to a constituency's expressed wishes

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98

congressional research service

provides legislative research and analysis

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99

22nd amendment

president has 2 terms in office

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100

25th amendment

vice president becomes the active president if the vice president and the cabinet determine the president is disabled

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