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Political Parties

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120 Terms

1

Political Parties

organizations of individuals with broad, common interests who organize to win elections, to operate the government, and to thereby influence government policy.

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2

Two Party System

2 political parties competing in an election

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3

Democratic party

One of the two major U.S political party;founded in 1828 by Andrew Jackson to support a decentralized government and state's rights

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4

Republican party

1854 - anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free Soilers and reformers from the Northwest met and formed party in order to keep slavery out of the territories

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5

Third Parties

Smaller minor Parties competing with the 2 major.

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6

Single issue parties

formed to promote a social, economic, or moral issue.

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7

Ideological Parties

parties that support a particular philosophy or political doctrine.

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8

Multiparty Systems

three or more parties compete for control of the government.

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9

One party system

the party and the government are nearly the same thing.

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10

Platform

a series of statements expressing the party's principles, beliefs, and positions on election issues.

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11

National committee

helps raise funds for presidential elections and organizes the party's national convention. Each party has one.

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12

Caucuses

meetings where political parties chose their candidates

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13

Precinct

a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters

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14

Direct Primary

Election in which voters choose party nominees.

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15

Closed Primary

A primary in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote

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16

Open primary

Primary election in which any voter, regardless of party, may vote.

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17

Ballot

the list of candidates on which you cast your vote.

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18

Absentee Ballot

Citizens who cannot get to the polls on Election Day can vote by absentee ballot.

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19

Exit poll

a poll of people leaving a polling place, asking how they voted.

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20

Electorate

all the people in a country or area who are entitled to vote in an election.

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21

Initiative

is a way that citizens can propose new laws or state constitutional amendments.

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22

Proposition

If enough people sign the petition, the proposed law, or proposition, is put on the ballot at the next general election.

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23

Referendum

is a way for citizens to approve or reject a state or local law.

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24

Recall

a power reserved to the voters that allows the voters, by petition, to demand the removal of an elected official.

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25

Propaganda

an attempt to promote a particular person or idea.

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26

Political Action Committees

organizations set up by interest groups especially to collect money to support favored candidates.

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27

Incumbent

politicians who have already been elected to office.

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28

Public opinion

the ideas and attitudes that most people hold about a particular issue or person.

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29

Interest group

Made up of Individuals who share a point of view about an issue sometimes unite to promote their beliefs.

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30

Public agenda

a list of subjects or problems (issues) to which government officials as well as individuals outside the government are paying serious attention to at any given time.

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31

Nonpartisan

group that educates voters about candidates and issues.

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32

Lobbyist

a person who takes part in an organized attempt to influence legislators.

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33

Role of the Public Opinion

Shapes the decisions of every president

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34

Personal Background

__ __ and lives greatly affect their opinions.

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35

The Mass Media

Mass Communication that reaches far across the world

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36

Direction

The public opinions on topics is an important question that government officials have to consider.

Public usually has mixed opinions.

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37

Public Opinion Polls

A request of individuals to survey questions with results that measures the presidents popularity

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38

Random Samples

Pollsters select random groups of people to ask them unbiased questions about their political opinions.

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39

Push Polls

Questions worded with the intention of influencing people's responses.

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40

Hamilton vs. Jefferson-

Political parties first emerged when followers of __ ____ and __ ____ disagreed over major issues on the Constitution and government.

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41

Jeffersons Group

Took the name Democratic-Republicans. They feared a Strong central government

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42

Hamiltons Group

wanted a strong national government with a powerful chief executive.

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43

Whigs and Democrats

Made up the 2 major parties for 2 decades in the 1800's

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44

Liberal

One who believes government should be active in supporting political & social change; open to new behavior & ideas that are nontraditional; progressive

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45

Conservative

One who favors traditional views & values in government & society & who is cautious regarding change; proponent of limited government and private property

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46

Foreign Policy

refers to the actions a nation takes in every aspect of its relationships with other countries—diplomatic, military, commercial, etc.

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47

The State Department

Headed by the Secretary of state and Appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate

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48

Foreign Policy Goals of State Department

  1. protect the United States and Americans;

  2. Advance democracy, human rights, and other global interests;

  3. Promote international understanding of American values and policies; and

  4. Support U.S. diplomats, government officials, and all other personnel at home and abroad who make these goals a reality.

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49

Diplomacy

the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations, typically by a country's representatives abroad.

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50

Passport

is a legal document that identifies a person as a citizen of his/her state.

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51

Ambassadors

Official Representatives of a state in the conduct of foreign affairs.

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52

Public Policy

the action the government takes to address an issue, solve a problem, or meet the needs and wishes of citizens.

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53

Census

Population count by the congress

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54

Gerrymander

An oddly shaped district created to boost the voting strength of a group

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55

Speaker of the House

Steers legislature through the house and leads floor debates

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56

Standing Committees

are permanent bodies with specific responsibilities and jurisdictions that are defined in the Senate's rules.

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57

Seniority

years of service

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58

Expressed powers

Clearly listed powers.

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59

Implied Powers

Not explicitly stated in the constitution

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60

Lobbyist

Hired by private groups to influence government officials who make decisions.

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61

Pork-barrel Projects

Benefit the home district and state- They are government projects

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62

Joint Resolutions

Passed by both houses of congress, becomes laws when signed by the president.

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63

Filibuster

Talking until the sponsor withdrawals the bill.

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64

Electoral College

Every state appoints electors who vote for major candidates in elections.

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65

Presidential Succession Act

Indicates the line of succession after the VP

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66

25th Amendment

If a president dies or is unable to be president, the VP becomes president

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67

Executive order

A rule or command that has the force of law.

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68

Pardon

Forgiveness and freedom towards someone's punishment.

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69

Commander in Chief

The president

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70

National Security

Keeping the country safe from attack.

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71

Cabinet

A group of presidential advisors.

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72

Federal bureaucracy

Employees of the executive branch.

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73

Spoils system

Government jobs given to people as an award for their political support

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74

Jurisdiction

The authority to hear and decide a case.

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75

District courts

Federal courts where trials are held and lawsuits begin

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76

Appeals courts

Reviews decisions made in lower courts.

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77

Appellate jurisdiction

authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court.

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78

Opinion

offers a detailed explanation of the legal thinking behind the court's decision.

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79

Precedent

gives guidance to other judges by offering a model upon which to base their own decisions on similar cases.

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80

Federal Judges

Interprets laws and protects rights the constitution guarantees.

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81

Judicial Review

means that the Court can review any federal, state, or local law or action to see if it is constitutional.

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82

Constitutional

allowed by the constitution.

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83

Marbury v. Madison

A case that established the principle of Judicial Review.

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84

Majority opinion

presents the views of the majority of the justices on a case.

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85

Dissenting opinion

Justices who oppose the majority decision issue a __

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86

State

A political community that lives in a definite area. States have a government that makes and enforces laws.

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87

Nation

A large group of people that are connected by language, customs, bonds of race and sometimes tradition.

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88

Consensus

A consensus is an agreement. When states have a consensus about basic beliefs, they usually have a more stable government.

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89

Sovereignty

When a state has complete power over their territory. They have the freedom to make their own laws and course of action.

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90

Government

An institution that maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces laws and decisions, which everyone must follow.

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91

Social contract

a theory that says that government and state comes from the people who all agreed to sign the contract which gave the government the power to protect their rights. Also, the the right to life, liberty, and property were all natural rights in humans.

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92

Federal system

A government that divides power between the government and state.

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93

Constitution

A plan that gives the rules for government. It decides the government's powers and what they have to do, sets thoughts that the people agree with, and makes the laws that the country must follow.

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94

Constitutional government

A limited government in which the government's power is decided by a constitution.

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95

Politics

They want to change and decide the law and the way the government does things . The government and ___ are closely related.

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96

Autocracy

A government where all of the power is in the hands of one person. Such power is usually gained from military power or inheritance.

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97

Monarchy

A type of autocratic government where those who are royalty hold the powers of government. This power is inherited.

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98

Oligarchy

A government where a small group of people hold all of the power over the country.

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99

Democracy (Direct and representative democracy)

A form of government where the people hold the sovereign power.

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100

Republic

A government that gets its power from the people voting on representatives to express the wants of the people.

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