AP World Modern Unit 2

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Silk road

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Silk road

An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea

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Trans-Saharan Trade Route

gold-salt trade; linked North and West Africa; across Sahara Desert; spread Islam

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Indian Ocean Trade

connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.

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Mongols

People from Central Asia when united ended up creating the largest single land empire in history.

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Camel Saddle

An invention which gives camel riders more stability on the animal and its invention and basic idea traveled along the Trans-Saharan Caravan Trade Route

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Caravans

Groups of people traveling together for safety over long distances

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Ibn Battuta

Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.

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Marco Polo

Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

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Margery Kempe

Wrote the Book of Margery Kempe - considered the 1st autobiography in the Eng. language. Chronicles her pilgrimages to holy sites in Europe and Asia.

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Genghis Khan

Also known as Temujin; he united the Mongol tribes into an unstoppable fighting force; created largest single land empire in history.

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Khanate

one of several separate territories into which Genghis Khan's empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons

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Bubonic Plague

disease brought to Europe from the Mongols during the Middle Ages. It killed 1/3 of the population

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Caravansaries

an inn where desert travelers found food and shelter

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overgrazing

Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover

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deforestation

The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.

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soil erosion

wearing away of surface soil by water and wind

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Champa Rice

a quick-maturing, drought resistant rice brought to China from Vietnam

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Diffusion

The process of spread of an item or trend from one place to another over time

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Zheng He

(1371-1433?) Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.

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Lateen sail

triangular sail that made it possible to sail against the wind; used in the Indian Ocean trade

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Stern Rudder

controls the sailing direction of a ship

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Astrolabe

An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets

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Magnetic Compass

Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north

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Monsoon winds

The seasonal wind of the Indian Ocean and southern Asia, blowing from the southwest in summer and from the northeast in winter.

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Diaspora

A dispersion of people from their homeland

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Yuan dynasty

Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368)

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Ming Dynasty

Chinese dynasty that ruled from 1368 to 1644; took over after the fall of the Yuan dynasty

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Pax Mongolica

Era of relative peace and stability created by the Mongol Empire

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Junk

A very large flat bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.

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Hanseatic League

An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.

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Nomadic

wandering from place to place

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Mansa Musa

Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.

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Ortogh

Mongol empire, commercial alliances created to minimize risk

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Kashgar

Located on Western edge of China where Northern and Southern routes of the Silk Road met

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Samarkand

City in modern day Uzbekistan, stopping point on the Silk Road between China and Mediterranean

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flying cash

Enabled merchants to deposit good or cash at one location and draw the equivalent in cash or merchandise elsewhere in China.

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Paper money

legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins

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Bill of exchange

a document stating that the holder was legally promised payment of a set amount on a set date

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Banking Houses

an establishment or office in which, or a firm by whom, banking is done, Emerged in Europe

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Khan

A Mongol ruler

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Batu

Grandson of Genghis Khan and ruler of the Golden Horde; invaded Russia in 1236.

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Golden Horde

Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam.

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Moscow

Major city in Russia

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Hulegu

Grandson of Genghis Khan and ruler of Ilkhan khanate; captured and destroyed Abbasid Baghdad.

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Il-Khanate

Mongol empire that ruled over Iran (Persia) & the Middle East

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Kublai Khan

Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China

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Yuan Dynasty

Dynasty in China set up by the Mongols under the leadership of Kublai Khan, replaced the Song (1279-1368)

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White lotus society

Secret religious society dedicated to overthrow of Yuan dynasty in China; typical of peasant resistance to Mongol rule

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Malacca

Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the Strait of Malacca.

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Gujarat

Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing.

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Swahili City States

dominated trade along the east African coast

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Spice Islands

Modern day Malaysia and Indonesia, known for its spices like nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves, and cardamom

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Calicut

Great spice port on west coast of India

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Mali

Power trading society in West Africa, rich in gold and ivory

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Sundiata

the founder of Mali empire. He crushed his enemies and won control of the gold trade routes

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Songhai Kingdom

Largest African trading kingdom during its time; Helped rebel against Mali

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Timbuktu

Mali trading city that became a center of wealth and learning

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Mecca

the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace

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Swahili

Bantu language with Arabic loanwords spoken in coastal regions of East Africa.

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Urdu

official language of Pakistan, mixed grammatical patterns of Hindi with the vocabulary of Arabic and some elements of Farsi

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Hangzhou

China's capital during the Song dynasty, with a population of more than a million people.

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Constantinople

Capital of the Byzantine Empire

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Money economy

an economic system based on money rather than barter

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