Endocrine System

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49 Terms

1

endocrine system

Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.

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2

Glands

Organ that produces/releases a substance of secretion

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3

exocrine glands

secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

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4

endocrine glands

Glands of the endocrine system that release hormones into the bloodstream

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5

Hormones

chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

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6

steroid hormones

enter the target cells and have a direct effect on the DNA of the nucleus

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7

non-steroid hormones

(amines, proteins, peptides, glycoproteins) bind to cell receptors on cell membrane

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8

Hypothalamus

controls the secretions of the pituitary gland

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9

pituitary gland

Secretes hormones that directly regulate many body functions or control the actions of other endocrine glands (master gland)

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10

pineal gland

secretes melatonin that controls our daily rhythms

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11

Thyroid

regulates metabolism

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12

Thymus

the site of T cell maturation and is larger in children and adolescents.

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13

adrenal glands

a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.

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14

Pancreas

Produce insulin and glucagon to help keep the blood glucose level stable

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15

Gonads

ovaries and testes

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16

Ovaries

produce estrogen and progesterone that help growth and development in eggs and prepares uterus for fertilized egg

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17

Testes

Secretes testosterone that stores and produce sperm

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18

diabetes mellitus

insulin is not secreted adequately or tissues are resistant to its effects

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19

Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Immune system kills beta cells, causing little to no secretion of insulin

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20

Type II Diabetes

type of diabetes in which the body produces insulin but the insulin cannot be used by body cells

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21

negative feedback

There is a mechanism on how to stop the first chemical in the reaction that allowed the hormones to increase in the bloodstream

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22

target cells

cells that have receptors for a particular hormone

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23

Insulin

Decrease blood sugar back to normal levels

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24

Glucagon

Increase blood sugar back to normal levels

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25

Glycogen

stored glucose in liver cells

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26

Positive feedback

Feedback that tends to magnify a process or increase its output.

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27

beta cells of pancreas

produce insulin

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28

alpha cells of pancreas

produce glucagon

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29

adrenal cortex

outer section of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones

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30

Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

Promotes secretion of growth hormone (GH)

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31

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

Promotes secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

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32

Thyrotopin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Release of thyroid stimulating hormone and prolactin

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33

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Promotes secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)

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34

Prolactin Releasing Hormone (PRH)

stimulates release of prolactin

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35

Prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH)

inhibits secretion of prolactin

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36

growth hormone

hormone secreted by anterior pituitary gland that stimulates growth and repair of tissues

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37

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Tells thyroid how much thyroid hormones it needs to make

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38

luteinizing hormone (LH)

causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteum; causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes

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39

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Triggers growth of ovarian follicles and sperm production

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40

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

Triggers adrenal glands to produce cortisol and androgens and control metabolism

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41

Prolactin (PRL)

stimulates milk production

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42

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

promotes retention of water by kidneys (H2O balance)

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43

Oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.

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44

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

regulate the rate of metabolism

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45

Calcitonin

Lowers blood calcium levels

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46

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

raises blood calcium level

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47

Aldosterone

Controls balance of water and salt in the kidney

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48

Glucorticoids

increase blood glucose

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49

adrenal androgens

Play a role in early development of reproductive organs

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