Science - Unit 2 Quiz

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Genetics

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28 Terms

1

Genetics

The study of genes and heredity

<p>The study of genes and heredity</p>
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2

Heredity

The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.

<p>The passing of physical characteristics from parents to offspring.</p>
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3

Homozygous recesive

The genotype of an organism with two recessive alleles

<p>The genotype of an organism with two recessive alleles</p>
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4

Homozygous dominant

The genotype of an organism with two dominant alleles

<p>The genotype of an organism with two dominant alleles</p>
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5

Heterozygous

The genotype of an organism with two different alleles

<p>The genotype of an organism with two different alleles</p>
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6

Allele

The alternative form or versions of a gene

<p>The alternative form or versions of a gene</p>
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7

Gene

The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to child

<p>The basic unit of heredity passed from parent to child</p>
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8

Fertilization

A process when egg and sperm join.

<p>A process when egg and sperm join.</p>
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9

Phenotype

the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment

<p>the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment</p>
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10

Genotype

The organism genetic makeup

<p>The organism genetic makeup</p>
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11

Punnet Square

Tool that helps to identift allelic combination

<p>Tool that helps to identift allelic combination</p>
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12

75%

The probability of 3 out of 4 outcomes

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13

50%

The probability of 2 out of 4 outcomes

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14

25%

The probability of 1 out of 4 outcomes

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15

100%

The probability of 4 out of 4 outcomes

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16

0%

The probability of 0 out of 4 outcomes

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17

Hybrid

The same as Heterozygous

<p>The same as Heterozygous</p>
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18

Purebred

The same as Homozygous

<p>The same as Homozygous</p>
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19

Dominant allele

An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when it is present.

<p>An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when it is present.</p>
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20

Recesive allele

Allele that is often hidden or overshadowed by dominant allele

<p>Allele that is often hidden or overshadowed by dominant allele</p>
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21

Gregor Mendel

Known as the father of modern genetics, he discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance

<p>Known as the father of modern genetics, he discovered the fundamental laws of inheritance</p>
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22

Interphase

The first main stage of the cell cycle

<p>The first main stage of the cell cycle</p>
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23

Interphase events

The period before cell division that cells grow, copy their DNA and prepare to divide into two cells

<p>The period before cell division that cells grow, copy their DNA and prepare to divide into two cells</p>
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24

Mitosis

The second main stage of the cell cycle

<p>The second main stage of the cell cycle</p>
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25

Prophase

Stage of mitosis that condensates nuclear genetic material

<p>Stage of mitosis that condensates nuclear genetic material</p>
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26

Anaphase

Stage of mitosis that chromosomes break up and sister chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell

<p>Stage of mitosis that chromosomes break up and sister chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell</p>
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27

Metaphase

Stage of mitosis that the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate

<p>Stage of mitosis that the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate</p>
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28

Telophase

Stage of mitosis that the chromosomes are at the ends of the cells and new nuclei are forming

<p>Stage of mitosis that  the chromosomes are at the ends of the cells and new nuclei are forming</p>
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