history ch 9, ch 10, 12-3 vocab/important ppl or factions

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Imperialism

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Imperialism

the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region

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protectorate

local rulers were left in palce but were expected to follow the advice of European advisors on issues such as trade or missionary activity.

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sphere of influence

an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.

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Sir Hiram Maxim

Invented the Maxim machine gun which was used by European powers to persuade countries to accept Western control.

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Usman dan Fodio

A scholar and preacher that denounced the corruption of the local Hausa rulers. Called for social and religious reforms based on teh sharia, or Islamic law.

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Asante ppl/kingdom

Traded with Europeans and Muslims. Their tributary states were willing to turn on them

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Zulus

A major force in southern Africa under the rule of Shaka.

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Shaka

Ruler of the Zulus. He waged relentless war and conquered nearby peoples. He encouraged rival groups to forget their differences, and cemented a growing pride

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Boers

Descendants of the Dutch farmers that migrated north from the Cape Colony. Escaped British rule and didn't agree with the British laws

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Sierra Leone and Liberia

Colonies made by Britain and the United States where freed slaves could resettle

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Mungo Park and Richard Burton

Set out to map the course and sources of African rivers.

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paternalistic

"saw them as children in need of guidance" < from book, making decisions for other people rather than letting them take responsibility for their own lives

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Dr. David Livingstone

Explorer and missionary. For 30 years he crisscrossed Africa. He wrote about the people he met and was against the slave trade.

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Henry Stanley

Trekked into Central AFrica to find Livingstone. Eventually he found Livingstone in Tanzania

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King Leopold II

The king of Belgium who hired Stanley to explore the Congo river basin to arrange trade treaties with African leaders

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Boer War

Involved bitter guerilla fighting. British won but at great cost

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Samori Touré

fought French forces in West Africa, where he was building an empire

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Yaa Asantewaa

Asante queen who led the fight against the British in the last Asante war.

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Nehanda

Woman military leader of the Shona in Zimbabwe; Was executed, but inspired later generations

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Yao and Herero

Were in wars with Germany. Lost thousands of people to starvation after Germans burned farmland

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Menelik II

Modernized ethiopia. At Battle of Adowa he crushed the Italian invaders

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elite

upper class(Western-educated African elite during Imperialism)

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Muhammad Ahmad

Announced that he was the Mahdi in Sudan

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Mahdi

The long awaited savior of the faith

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Wahhabi movement

An Islamic reform movement in Arabia. Rejected schools of theology and law that emerged in the Ottoman empire

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pashas

provincial rulers that increased powers during the Ottoman decay

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sultans

rulers of the Ottoman Turkish empire

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Young Turks

A movement that insisted that reform was the only way to save the Ottoman empire. Overthrew the sultan

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Genocide

A deliberate attempt to destroy a racial, political, or cultural group

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Christian Armenians

Were accused of supporting Russian plans against the Ottoman empire. 600k - 1.5 mill Armenians killed or died

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Muhammad Ali

An ambitious solder appointed ruler of Egypt by the Ottomans. "father of modern egypt"

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Ferdinand de Lesseps

French entrepreneur that organized a company to build the Suez canal.

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Qajar shahs

rulers of Persia that exercised absolute power. Gov took some steps to introduce reforms

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concessions

special rights given to foreign powers (given by Persia to European nations for the oil in their country)

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Sati

A Hindu custom that called for a widow to join her husband in death by throwing herself on his funeral fire (banned by British)

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sepoys

Indian soldiers in the East India Company's service

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viceroy

A british leader in India that governed in the name of the queen and Brits held top positions in the civil service and army

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deforestation

cutting of trees(done by the British in India)

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Ram Mohum roy

A great scholar who knew Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, English, etc. Founder of Hindu College in Calcutta (english style education)

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purdah

The isolation of women in separate quarters

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balance of trade

The difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports

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trade surplus

exporting more than importing

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trade deficit

buying more(importing more) than exporting

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Opium War

British wanted free trade and wanted to continue selling Opium to the Chinese, despite the gov. banning it

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indemnity

payment for losses in the war

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extraterritoriality

the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts

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Taiping Rebellion

Called for an end to the hated Qing dynasty. Won large parts of China and held out for 14 years.

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Hong Xiuquan

Was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion

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Ci Xi

The empress who gained power post-Taiping Rebellion

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Sino-Japanese War

Japanese pressure on China led to this and Japan crushed China which gave them control of Taiwan

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Open Door Policy

A policy to keep Chinese trade open to everyone on an equal basis (made by Europeans)

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Guang Xu

launched the 100 days of reform and wanted to modernize various things about China

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Boxer Uprising

Goalw as to drive out foreign people and attacked them across the country

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Sun Yixian

Organized the Revolutionary Alliance to rebuild China on "Three principles of the people"

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Matthew Perry

Commodore who sailed into lower Tokyo Bay and carried a message from Millard Fillmore demanding Japan to open its ports to diplo and commercial exchange

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Tokyo

The other name for Edo, the new location of the shogun's palace under Mutsuhito/Meiji

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Meiji Restoration

Meiji reformers determined to strengthen Japan. Studied Western ways and adapted them to Japanese needs.

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Diet

a legislature made up of one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor

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zaibatsu

powerful banking and industrial families (ex. Kawasaki family)

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homogeneous society

its people shared a common culture and language

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tributary state

a state that is independent but acknowledges the supremacy of a stronger state.

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First Sino-Japanese War (the same as the other Sino-Japanese War card)

Japan benefitted from modernization and won easily against China. Gained Taiwan

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Russo-Japanese WAr

Power struggle for Korea and Manchuria. Japan defeated russia and first instance of an Asian country humbling a European power

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March First Movement

A rallying symbol for Korean nationalists and was an uprising that resulted in the massacre of Koreans by the Japanese

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French Indochina

The area containing Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. French control

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Mongkut

King of Siam. Negotiated with Western powers and satisfied their goals in Siam thru unequal treaties. Escaped becoming a European colonyCh

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Chulalongkorn

Mongkut's son who worked with himt o reform gov, modernize army, etc.

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Jose Rizal

Inspired Filipinos to work to gain better treatment from Spain

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Spanish-American WAr

Broke out between Spain and US over Cuba's attempts at independence from Spain

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Emilio Aguinaldo

Filipino nationalist leader angered by the US purchase of the Philipines

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Liliuokalani

Hawaiian queen that had her land annexed by teh US because American sugar growers pressed for power

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William Lyon Mackenzie

Led the revolt in Upper Canada

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Louis Joseph Papineau

head of the French Canadian Reform party, revolt in Lower Canada

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confederation

the unification of Britain's North American colonies.

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John Macdonald and George Etienne Cartier

urged confederation

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dominion

a self governing nation (own parliament, some control over foreign policy, close ties with Britain)

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Louis Riel

led a revolt of the metis to resist westward expansion

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Captain James Cook

claimed Australia for Britain

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indigenous

original people called the Aborigines.

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penal colony

a place where convicted criminals are sent to be punished

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métis

people of mixed Native American and French Canadian descent

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Maori

the indigenous people of New Zealand that were being converted to Christianity

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Amritsar massacre

A turning point for many Indians. Convinced them that India needed to govern itself

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General Reginald Dyer

banned public meetings in India following Indian riots and attacks

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