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World History

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26 Terms


the area between two or more phenomena or things.


dentifies where specific phenomena are located either on a grid system or relative to another __________ .


refers to the specific human and physical characteristics of a location. A group of places in the same area that share a characteristic form a region.


have boundaries, unifying characteristics, cover space, and are created by people.


can be described as the characteristics at the immediate location—for example, the soil type, climate, labor force, and human structures.


refers to the location of a place relative to its surroundings and its connectivity to other places.

Sense of Place

Humans tend to perceive the characteristics of places in different ways based on their personal beliefs.


Place names (Provide insights into the physical geography, the history, or the culture of the location. )

Time-space Compression

The shrinking "time-distance," or relative distance, between locations because of improved methods of transportation and communication.

Spatial Interaction

refers to the contact, movement, and flow of things between locations. Connections might be physical, such as through roads. Or they can be through information, such as through radios or Internet service.


refers to the patterns and movement of ideas, people, products, and other phenomena.

Friction of Distance

indicates that when things are farther apart, they tend to be less connected

Distance Decay

The inverse relationship between distance and connection is a concept called Friction of Distance

Human-Environment Interaction

The connection and exchange between the dual relationship between humans and the natural world is at the heart of human geography.

Built Environment

The physical artifacts that humans have created and that form part of the landscape, in their understanding of land use. (Ex. Buildings, roads, signs, farms, and fences)

Cultural Landscape

Anything built by humans is part of the __________________ and is in the realm of land use.

Environmental Determinism

The belief that landforms and climate are the most powerful forces shaping human behavior and societal development while ignoring the influence


view that acknowledges limits on the effects of the natural environment and focuses more on the role that human culture plays.

Global Scale

The entire world (ex. Global Earth at night image • world population density map )

World Regional Scale

Multiple countries of the world (ex. North America • South Asia )

National Scale

One country (ex. the United States • Thailand )

National Region Scale

A portion of a country or a region(s) within a country (ex. the Midwest • eastern China )

Local Scale

A province, state, city, county, or neighborhood (ex. Tennessee • Moscow )

Formal (Uniform) Regions

and are united by one or more traits(Ex. • political, such as Brazil in South America • physical, such as the Sahara, a vast desert in northern Africa e cultural, such as southwestern Nigeria, an area where most people speak Yoruba • economic, such as the Gold Coast of Africa (Ghana), which exports gold)

Functional (Nodal) Regions

These regions are organized around a focal point and are defined by an activity, usually political, social, or economic, that occurs across the region.

Perceptual (Vernacular) Regions

they are defined by the informal sense of place that people ascribe to them.