Chapter 3

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federalism

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29 Terms

1

federalism

A system that divides power between the national and state government.

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2

unitary system

A system where the central government has all of the power over subnational governments.

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3

confederal system

A system where the subnational governments have most of the power.

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4

commerce clause

Grants Congress the authority to regulate interstate business and commercial activity.

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5

necessary and proper clause

Grants the federal government the authority to pass laws required to carry out its enumerated powers. Also called the elastic clause.

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6

supremacy clause

Establishes the Constitution and the laws of the federal government passed under its authority as the highest laws of the land.

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7

Tenth Amendment

Reserves powers not delegated to the national government to the states and the people; the basis of federalism.

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8

reserved powers

Powers not given to the national government, which are retained by the states and the people.

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9

concurrent powers

Powers granted to both states and the federal government in the Constitution.

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10

full faith and credit clause

Constitutional clause requiring states to recognize the public acts, records, and civil court proceedings from another state.

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11

extradition

The requirement that officials in one state return a defendant to another state where a crime was committed.

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12

privileges and immunities clause

Constitutional clause that prevents states from discriminating against people from out of state.

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13

Thirteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment that outlaws slavery.

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14

Fourteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment that provides that persons born in the United States are citizens and prohibits states from denying persons due process or equal protection under the law.

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15

Fifteenth Amendment

Constitutional amendment that gave African American males the right to vote.

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16

dual federalism

A form of American federalism in which the states and the nation operate independently in their own areas of public policy.

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17

selective incorporation

The process through which the Supreme Court applies fundamental rights in the Bill of Rights to the states on a case-by-case basis.

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18

cooperative federalism

A form of American federalism in which the states and the national government work together to shape public policy.

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19

grants-in-aid

Federal money provided to states to implement public policy objectives.

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20

fiscal federalism

The federal government's use of grants-in-aid to influence policies in the states.

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21

categorical grants

Grants-in-aid provided to states with specific provisions on their use.

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22

unfunded mandate

Federal requirements that states must follow without being provided with funding.

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23

block grant

A type of grant-in-aid that gives state officials more authority in the disbursement of federal funds.

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24

revenue sharing

When the federal government apportions tax money to the states with no strings attached.

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25

devolution

Returning more authority to state or local governments.

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26

federal system

A system where power is divided between the national and state governments.

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27

enumerated or expressed powers

Powers explicitly granted to the national government through the Constitution.

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28

exclusive powers

Powers only the national government may exercise.

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29

implied powers

Powers not granted specifically to the national government but considered necessary to carry out the enumerated powers.

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