AP Psychology Chapter 15 Vocabulary

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Psychopathology

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42 Terms

1

Psychopathology

patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are maladaptive, disruptive, or uncomfortable for those who are affected or for those with whom they come in contact

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2

Biopsychosocial Approach

A view of mental disorders as caused by a combination of interacting biological, psychological, and sociocultural factor

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3

Medical Model

A view in which psychological disorders are seen as reflecting disturbances in the anatomy and chemistry of the brain and in other biological processes

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4

Psychological Model

A view in which mental disorder is seen as arising from psychological processes

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5

Sociocultural Perspective

A way of looking at mental disorders in relation to gender, age, ethnicity, and other social and cultural factors

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6

Sociocultural Factors

Characteristics or conditions that can influence the appearance and form of maladaptive behavior

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7

Diathesis-Stress Model

The notion that psychological disorders arise when a predisposition for a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms

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8

Anxiety Disorder

A condition in which intense feelings of apprehension are long-standing and disruptive

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9

Phobia

An anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fear of an object or situation that does not objectively justify such a reaction

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10

Specific Phobia

An anxiety disorder involving fear and avoidance of heights, animals, or other specific stimuli and situations

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11

Social Phobia

An anxiety disorder involving strong, irrational fears relating to social situations

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12

Agoraphobia

An anxiety disorder involving strong fear of being alone or away from security of home

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13

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

A condition that involves relatively mild but long-lasting anxiety that is not focused on any particular object or situation

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14

Panic Disorder

An anxiety disorder involving sudden panic attacks

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15

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

An anxiety disorder involving repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain rituals

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16

Obsessions

Obsessions are repetitive thoughts that cause anxiety and disruptions in day to day life.

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17

Compulsions

Repetitive behaviors that interfere with daily functioning but are performed in an effort to prevent dangers or events associated with obsessions

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18

Somatoform Disorder

Psychological problems in which symptoms of a physical disorder are present without a physical cause

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19

Conversion Disorder

A somatoform disorder in which a person displays blindness, deafness, or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause

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20

Hypochondriasis

A somatoform disorder involving strong, unjustified fear of having physical illness

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21

Somatization Disorder

A somatoform disorder in which there are numerous physical complaints without verifiable physical illness

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22

Somatoform Pain Disorder

A somatoform disorder marked by complaints of severe pain with no physical cause

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23

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

A somatoform disorder characterized by intense distress over imagined abnormalities of the skin, hair, face, or other areas of the body

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24

Dissociative Disorder

Rare conditions that involve sudden and usually temporary disruptions in a person's memory, consciousness, or identity

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25

Fugue Reaction

A dissociative disorder involving sudden loss of memory and possible assumption of a new identity in a new location

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26

Dissociative Amnesia

A dissociative disorder marked by a sudden loss of memory

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27

Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.)

A dissociative disorder in which a person reports having more than one identity

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28

Affective Disorder (Mood Disorder)

A condition in which a person experiences extreme moods, such as depression or mania.

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29

Major Depression

An affective disorder in which a person feels sad and hopeless for weeks or months

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30

Delusions

False beliefs, such as those experienced by people suffering from schizophrenia or extreme depression

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31

Dysthymic Disorder

An affective disorder involving a pattern of comparatively mild depression that lasts for at least two years

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32

Bipolar Disorder

Affective disorders in which a person alternates between the emotional extremes of depression and mania

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33

Mania

An elated, very active emotional state.

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34

Cyclothymic Personality

An affective disorder characterized by an alternating pattern of mood swings that is less extreme than that of bipolar disorders.

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35

Schizophrenia

A severe and disabling pattern of disturbed thinking, emotion, perception, and behavior.

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36

Hallucinations

A symptom of disorder in which people perceive voices or other stimuli when there are no stimuli present

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37

Positive Symptoms

Schizophrenic symptoms such as disorganized thoughts, hallucinations, and delusions

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38

Negative Symptoms

Schizophrenic symptoms such as the absence of pleasure, lack of speech, and flat affect

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39

Personality Disorders

Long-standing, inflexible ways of behaving that create a variety of problems

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40

Antisocial Personality Disorder (A.P.D.)

A personality disorder involving impulsive, selfish, unscrupulous, and even criminal behavior.

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41

Addiction

Development of a physical need for a psychoactive drug.

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42

Substance-Related Disorders

Problems involving the use of psychoactive drugs for months or years in ways that harm the user or others

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