glucoregulation

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Biology

48 Terms

1

glucose

substrate for respiration to create energy in the form of ATP

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2

glycolysis

the process in which glucose is broken down to produce energy

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3

insulin

a hormone which lowers blood glucose levels

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4

glucagon

a hormone which raises blood glucose levels

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5

alpha cells

found in the pancreas’s islets of Langerhans, produce glucagon

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6

beta cells

found in the pancreas’s islets of Langerhans, produce insulin

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7

glycogen

the stored form of glucose that's made up of many connected glucose molecules

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8

glycogen synthesis

glucose is combined into glycogen

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9

polyphagia

eating an excessive amount of food

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10

glycosuria

excess sugar in the urine

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11

polyuria

excess urine

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12

polydipsia

excessive thirst

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13

sulfonylureas

a class of drugs that increase the amount of insulin in the circulation by making the pancreas secrete more

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14

metformin

a class of drugs that improves insulin resistance

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15

glycogen synthase

catalyses the formation of glycogen polymers

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16

glycogen phosphorylase

catalyses the breakdown of glycogen polymers back into glucose

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17

homeostasis

ability of organisms to maintain constant internal conditions while external environment changes

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18

negative feedback mechanism

control mechanism that dampens or reduces the stimulus, leading back to normal state/conditions

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19

positive feedback mechanism

control mechanism that intensifies the variable

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20

glucoregulation

Ability of body to regulate blood glucose level to be maintained at a conc of 5mM

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21

glucose synthesis

In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis)

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22

lipolysis

fat is broken down into “free” fatty acids

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23

cerebral edema

swelling of the brain

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24

adipose tissue

fat

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25

beta cell hyperplasia

increased number of beta cells

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26

beta cell hypertrophy

beta cells grow in size

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27

beta cell hypotrophy

beta cells get smaller

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28

beta cell hypoplasia

beta cells die off

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29

hyperglycemia

blood glucose level higher than 8mM

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30

hypoglycemia

blood glucose level lower than 3mM

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31

hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

increased plasma osmolarity from dehydration and increased concentration

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32

atherosclerosis

thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery

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33

diabetic retinopathy

an eye condition that can cause vision loss and blindness in people who have diabetes

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34

lipocytes

fat cells

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35

gluconeogenesis

making of glucose from amino acids

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36

glycation of proteins

excess glucose binds to structural proteins

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37

transduction

the effect allowing the hormone on the outside of the cell to regulate functions inside the cell, even though the hormone has not entered the cell

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38

Incretin

a group of metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels

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39

allosterically

relating to or denoting the alteration of the activity of an enzyme by means of a conformational change induced by a different molecule.

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40

SGLT2

a special glucose transporter in the kidney that reabsorbs glucose against a concentration gradient by co- transporting sodium

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41

glycerol

FIGURE OUT WHAT THIS IS????

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42

invaginates

be turned inside out or folded back on itself to form a cavity or pouch.

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43

glycogenolysis

glycogen is broken down into glucose

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44

amylin

inhibits food intake, delays gastric emptying, and decreases blood glucose levels, leading to the reduction of body weight.

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45

amyloid deposits

The build-up of amyloid proteins (deposits) can make it difficult for the organs and tissues to work properly.

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46

lipolysis

Lipids are broken down

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47

noradrenaline

both a neurotransmitter and a hormone. It plays an important role in your body's “fight-or-flight” response.

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48

Glycogenolysis

glycogen is broken down into glucose

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