Depressive disorders

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What pneumonic is used for clinical presentation for depressive disorders?

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What pneumonic is used for clinical presentation for depressive disorders?

SIGECAPS

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What does SIGECAPS mean?

Sleep disorders Intrest loss Guilt Energy deficit Concentration Appetite Psychomotor fluctuations (impaired movement, agitation) Suicidal Idealation

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what is the diagnostic criteria for depressive disorders?

5 or more SIGECAPS symptoms, having been present in the same 2 week period including depressed mood or anhedonia

With impairment in multiple settings - not caused by drugs or physiological abnormalities

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What is anhedonia?

Absence of pleasure

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What drugs can cause drug-induced depression?

antihypertensives- Beta blockers, clonidine, methyldopa CNS depressants - Alcohol, barbiturates, anti-epileptics hormonal agents- steroids, contraceptives, tamoxifen Interferon - Hep C med Isotretinonin - accutane Efavirenz - HIV protease inhibitor

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what are the 5 types of depression?

  1. Dysthymic disorder

  2. Major depression with psychotic features

  3. Seasonal affective disorder

  4. Melancholic depression

  5. Atypical depression

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What is dysthymic disorder?

depressed mood on most days for 2 years never been w/out symptoms less severe than MDD - not meet criteria for MDD at least 2 symptoms of SIGECAPS

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What is major depression disorder with psychotic features?

Most severe form of depression

  • hallucinations & delusions at least 5 symptoms of SIGECAPS

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What is seasonal affective disorder?

relationship to seasons Winter depression with less sun less happy :(

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what is melancholic depression?

Lack of pleasure in all or most activity OR lack of reactivity to usually pleasurable stimuli seen with grief, worse in AM, significant anorexia, early morning awakenings, excessive guilt, slow movements

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what is atypical depression?

Mood brightens with + events significant weight gain, hyper-insomnia, leaden paralysis, interpersonal rejection sensitivity

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What are acute risk factors for a suicide risk assessment?

seizures insomnia anxiety life stressors psychosis anxiety

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What are the chronic risk factors for a suicide risk assessment?

Disability FH of suicide previous suicide attempts isolation w/out social support

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What is defined as a response to medication?

~50% decrease in symptoms

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What is defined as remission from depression?

no depressive symptoms

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What is defined as a relapse in depression?

depressive symptoms after a period of remission ~50% of people relapse 5 years after their 1st episode ~70% of people relapse after 2 episodes

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What are some rating scales for depression?

PHQ-9 Hamilton-depression rating scale 8-15 mid, 16-27 mod, >27 severe Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale 7-19 mild, 20-34 moderate, >34 severe

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What are examples of monoamine NTs?

Serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, histamine

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What NTs are catecholamine?

Dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine

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What NT is indoleamine?

Serotonin

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What is the rate limiting step in the production of dopamine?

tyrosine hydroxylase

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Describe how dopamine is synthesized and released?

packaged into vesicles by VMAT2 by exocytosis - Ca dependent

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What 2 receptors does dopamine act on?

  1. D1 receptor

  2. D2 receptor

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How is dopamine reuptake done?

By VMAT2 or the D/NE transporter

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What enzymes Metabolize dopamine?

COMT & MAO

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Where are D1 receptors located in the synapse?

presynaptic

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Where are D2 receptors located in the synapse?

postsynaptic

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What is the effect of dopamine in the Mesolimbic tract?

Feeling of reward, learned behavior

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what is the effect of dopamine in the Mesocortical Tract?

Higher order and cognitive processess *imp for psychosis and ADHD

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What is the effect of dopamine in the Nigrostriatal Tract?

Movement and locomotion

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What is the effect of Tuberinfindubular Tract?

Prolactin Secretion

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How is NE taken back into the cell( what enzymes or ways)?

NET (norepinephrine transporter), autoreceptor, VMAT

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Where are NE receptors highly concentrated?

Prefrontal cortex (important for emotions) Limbic areas of brain

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What is the affect of NE on awakeness?

Increase arousal, vigilance, learning, cognition

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What are the effects of NE deficiency on the limbic system?

Reduced conc, affects working memory, psychomotor retardation, apathy, symptoms of depression

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Where is the serotonin synthesized?

from tryptophan - serotonin located in vesicles released by Ca exocytosis

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What are kind of receptors are serotonin receptors?

G coupled protein receptors except 5-HT3 receptor bc its ionic

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What enzyme is responsible for serotonin reuptake?

SERT ** where SSRIs effect

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How is serotonin metabolized?

by MOA - resevered MAOi therapy bc lots of D-D interactions

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What serotonin receptors are excitatory?

2,3,4,6, and 7

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What 2 NTs dysfunctions are responsible for reduced + affects?

DA & NE

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What 2 NT dysfunctions are responsible for increased negative affect?

5-HT and NE ** many men have this presentation (increased hostility, irritability, and loneliness)

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What part of the synapse does MAOis work at?

MAO

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Overall describe the effects depressants can have on NTs?

block reuptake, metabolism, receptor binding increase levels of NT in presynatic neurons

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Where do SSRIs work in the synapse?

5-HT reuptake via SERT increases levels of serotonin

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Where does mirtazipine work?

antagonism of alpha-2 receptors in the pre-synaptic cell leads to release of more NT

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What affect do TCAs have on NE and 5-HT?

Increased 5-HT reuptake so increased 5-HT levels increased NE reuptake --> increased levels of NE

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What are 3 non-pharm therapies for treatment resistant/refractory depression?

Vagus Nerve Stimulation Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Electroconvulsive therapy --> very effective

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What should every patient with depression recieve?

Fucking therapy any kind (family, marital, interpersonal, CBT)

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What is the Black Box warning on antidepressants for MDD?

increased suicide risk younger people are more likely <25 weeks 2-3 especially children and adolescents

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Name some TCA drugs?

Amitriptyline - Elavil Imipramine - Tofranil Desipramine - Norpramin Nortriptyline - pamelor

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Name some MAOis?

Selegiline - EMSAM Phenelzine - Nardil Isocarboxazid - Marplan

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Name some Serotonin/NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)?

Duloxetine - Cymbalta Venlafaxine - Effexor Desvenlafaxine - Pristiq Levomilnacipran - Fetzima

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Name some 5-HT2 antagonists?

Trazodone - Desyrel Nefazodone - Serzone

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Name some 2nd generation antipsychotics?

Aripiprazole - Abilify Quetiapine - Seroquel Brexpiprazole - Rexulti Olanzapine/Fluoxetine - Symbyax

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Name the alpha2 antagonist drug?

Mirtazapine - Remeron

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Name some Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) medications?

Citalopram - Celexa Escitalopram - Lexapro Fluoxetine - Prozac Paroxetine - Paxil Sertraline - Zoloft Vilazodone - Viibryd Vortioxetine - Trintellix Fluvoxamine - Luvox

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What drug is an aminoketone?

Buprorion - Wellbutrin

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What was the 1st antidepressant on the market?

Fluoxetine - Prozac

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What are the mechanisms of action for SSRIs?

  1. Block reuptake of serotonin

  2. increase somatodentric serotonin

  3. desensitized autoreceptors - no negative fedfback for storage

  4. Neuronal impulses are turned on

  5. Increase in serotonin from axon terminals (pre-synatic)

  6. Desensitization of postsynaptic neurons

  7. Downstream increases Neurotropic factors

  8. Neurogenesis

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Why are SSRI's usually preferred over TCAs?

SSRI are selective TCAs effect both 5-HT & NE --> SE

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What are the most common ADE of SSRI that can be tolerated*?

N/V (5-HT rec in gut/vomiting center) * Sexual Dysfunction Insomina (fluoxetine activating) (paroxetine sedating) Headache (5-HT affects vasodilation/spasms)* Anxiety/Activation*

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What is a warning with ALL SSRIs about seizures?

Lower the seizure threshold to a small degree

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What are the key functional groups of SSRI class drugs?

two phenyl groups basic nitrogen

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What is the concern w/ a SSRI w/ a short T1/2? a. less potency b. withdrawal reactions c. increased risk of D-D interactions d. needs to be titrated

B

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What SE can cause intolerance to therapy w/ SSRI?

Discontinuation Syndrome Hyponatremia (risk old/female) Bleeding risks (platelets brain/gut increase bleeding risks esp if on DOAKs or anticoagulation therapy) Extra-pyramidal symptoms (EPS) Weight gain - worst with paroxetine (few kg) SIADH - syndrone of inappropriate secretion of ADH - decreases Na/H2O

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What is discontinuation syndrome?

withdrawal syndrome from discontinuing antidepressants

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What does discontinuation syndrome present like?

Dizziness Nausea Tingling of hands/feet Anxiety Insomnia Flu-like symptoms

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What about SSRIs in pregnancy?

Most are class C What is Class D in pregnancy -Paroxetine

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What genetic polymorphism affects the concentrations of SSRIs?

CYP 2D6

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Main metabolism CYP enzymes for Fluoxetine?

2D6 and 2C9

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Main metabolism CYP enzymes for Sertraline?

2D6 and 2C9

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Main metabolism CYP enzymes of Paroxetine?

2D6

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Main metabolism of CYP enzymes of Citalopram?

2C19 and 3A4

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Main metabolism of CYP enzymes of Escitalopram?

2C19 and 3A4

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What is the longest T1/2 to shortest of the SSRIs?

Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Escitalopram, Sertraline, Paroxetine

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What habit affects some metabolism of drugs via CYP 1A2?

smoking

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Which CYP is the most used for SSRIs and which?

2D6 Fluoxetine, Paroxetine, Sertraline - w/ strong inhibiton

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What are some PD interactions with serotonin?

Triptans Linezolid MAOis Dextromethorphan Tramadol Synthetic analgesics (fentanyl, oxycodone, methadone) Drugs of abuse (cocaine, amphetamines, LSD)

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What is Serotonin syndrome?

A severe adverse effect of multiple seratongeric therapies Can be deadly and life threatening toxicity

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What is the progression of symptoms for serotonin syndrome?

mild GI symptoms, Akathisia, Tremor, Altered mental state, Clonus (inducible), Clonus (sustained), Life threatening toxicity

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What are bad symptoms of serotonin syndrome?

Tremor Hyperreflexia Clonus Autonomic instability - fluctuation in BP wide pupils agitation change in mental status increased bowel sounds

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How do you treat Serotonin syndrome?

Remove offending agent supportive care - BDZ for anxiety/agitation - watch for hypotension and tachycardia Cyproheptadine 8mg Q6h

Prevention is helpful

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What is the starting dose of citalopram and titration frequency?

20 mg/d 10 mg every 2 weeks

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What is the inital target dose and Max daily dose for citalopram?

20-40 mg MDD: 40mg

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What is the starting dose and titration frequency of escitalopram?

10 mg/d 10 mg every 2 weeks

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What is the initial target and max daily dose of escitalopram?

10-20 mg MDD: 20 mg

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What is the starting dose and titration frequency of fluoxetine?

20 mg 10-20 mg every 2 weeks

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What is the initial target and max daily dose of fluoxetine?

20-40 mg MDD: 80 mg

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What is the starting dose and titration frequency of Paroxetine?

20 mg/d 10-20 mg every 2 weeks

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What is the initial target and max daily dose of paroxetine?

20-40 mg MDD: 60 mg

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What is the starting dose and titration frequency of Sertraline?

50 mg/d 50-100 mg every 2 weeks

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What is the initial target and max daily dose for sertraline?

50-150 mg MDD: 200 mg

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Why are Vilazoone (Viibryd) and Vortioxetine (Trintellix) different from other SSRI/SNRIs?

they are SPARIs (serotonin partial agonist reuptake inhibitor)

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What reuptake enzymes does Viibryd and Trintellix affect and what happens?

NET and DAT (NE and dopamine) and SERT (5-HT)

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What are the adverse effects of Viibryd?

Higher rates of N/V (take w/ food Increase bioavaliability Sim to SSRIs (GI SE) Possibly lower rates of sexual dysfunction

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What is the T 1/2 of Viibryd and titration target?

T 1/2 ~25 hrs 20-40 mg/day

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What are adverse effects of Trintellix?

Similar to SSRIs less cognitive adverse effects improvement in sexual dysfunction GI affects biggest complaint

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What is the T1/2, metabolism and therapeutic dose of Trintellix?

T 1/2 ~66 hrs CYP 2D6 substrate 10-20 mg/ day - very expensive tho $420/month

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Serotonin and Norepi reuptake inhibiters consists of what two classes of medication? (old/new)

TCA = older gen (non selective, tolerability difficulties)nmore effective at NE SNRI = new gen (serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors)

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