Kines 227 exam 3

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<p>Pelvic Girdle</p>

Pelvic Girdle

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109 Terms

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<p>Pelvic Girdle</p>

Pelvic Girdle

Sacrum

Coccyx

Ilium

Ischium

Pubis

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<p>Ilium: Iliac Crest</p>

Ilium: Iliac Crest

Site of muscle attachment: Gluteus maximus, tensor fascia latae, internal & external oblique, transversus abdominis, latissimus dorsi

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<p>Ilium: Iliac fossa</p>

Ilium: Iliac fossa

shallow depression

Attachment for iliacus

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<p>Ilium: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)</p>

Ilium: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

Origin: sartorius

attachment for Iliacus, tensor fascia latae

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<p>Ilium: Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)</p>

Ilium: Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)

Origin: rectus femoris

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<p>Ilium: Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) &amp; Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS)</p>

Ilium: Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) & Posterior inferior iliac spine (PIIS)

Site of articulation with the sacrum

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<p>Ilium: Greater sciatic notch</p>

Ilium: Greater sciatic notch

Creates a space for piriformis, superior and inferior gluteal nerves and arteries, and the sciatic nerve to travel

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<p>Ischium: Ischial tuberosity</p>

Ischium: Ischial tuberosity

Origin: hamstrings and adductor magnus

Attachment for biceps femoris (long head), Semitendinosus, semimembranosus

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<p>Ischium: Lesser sciatic notch</p>

Ischium: Lesser sciatic notch

Passageway for nerves and vessels of the pelvis

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<p>Ischium: Obturator foramen</p>

Ischium: Obturator foramen

Passageway for obturator artery, vein, and nerve

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<p>Pubis: pubic tubercle</p>

Pubis: pubic tubercle

Bony prominence attachment of inguinal ring

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<p>Pubis: Superior and inferior pubic rami</p>

Pubis: Superior and inferior pubic rami

Origin for adductors

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<p>Sacroiliac Joint</p>

Sacroiliac Joint

Articulation between sacrum & Ilium

Plane joint: gliding

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<p>Pubic Symphysis</p>

Pubic Symphysis

Joint between left and right pubic bones

Cartilaginous Joint : gliding, fibrocartilage

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<p>Hip (femoroacetabular) Joint</p>

Hip (femoroacetabular) Joint

Joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis

Ball-and-socket joint: Flexion/extension, Abduction/Adduction, Medial/lateral rotation, Circumduction

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<p>Hip (femoroacetabular) Joint Ligaments</p>

Hip (femoroacetabular) Joint Ligaments

Iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral

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Greater Trochanter

Gluteus Medius

Gluteus Minimus

Lateral rotators

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Gluteal tuberosity

Gluteus maximus

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Linea aspera

Vastus Lateralis

Vastus Medialis

Biceps femoris (long head)

Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus

Pectineus

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Lesser trochanter

Psoas major

Iliacus

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Femoral shaft

Vastus intermedius

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Posterior femoral condyles

Gastrocnemius

Popliteus (Lateral condyle)

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supracondylar ridge

Plantaris

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Posterior muscles that move the hip

Gluteus Maximus, Gluteus medius, Gluteus minimus, Lateral rotators (piriformis), Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus, Adductor magnus

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Anterior muscles that move the hip

Rectus femoris, Sartorius, Iliacus, Psoas major

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Lateral muscles that move the hip

Gluteus medius,

Gluteus minimus, Tensor fascia latae

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Hip extension

Gluteus maximus

Biceps femoris

semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

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Hip flexion

Psoas major

Iliacus

Sartorius

Rectus femoris

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Hip lateral rotation

Gluteus maximus

Lateral rotators (piriformis)

Sartorius

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Hip Abduction

Gluteus maximus

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Sartorius

Tensor fascia latae

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Hip Adduction

Gracilis

Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus

Pectineus

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Hip medial rotation

Gluteus medius

Gluteus minimus

Gracilis

Adductor longus

Adductor brevis

Adductor magnus

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<p>Gluteus Maximus</p>

Gluteus Maximus

Action: Hip extension, lateral rotation, and abduction

Origin: Iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx

Insertion: Iliotibial tract (IT band), gluteal tuberosity of femur

Innervation: Inferior gluteal nerve

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<p>Gluteus Medius</p>

Gluteus Medius

Action: Hip abduction and medial rotation

Origin: Posterior iliac crest

Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur

Innervation: Superior gluteal nerve

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<p>Gluteus Minimus</p>

Gluteus Minimus

Action: Hip abduction and medial rotation

Origin: Lateral ilium

Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur

Innervation: Superior gluteal nerve

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<p>Piriformis</p>

Piriformis

Action: Hip lateral rotation

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<p>Biceps Femoris</p>

Biceps Femoris

Action: Long head- Hip extension; Long and Short head: Knee flexion and lateral rotation

Origin: Long Head: Ischial tuberosity; Short Head: Linea aspera

Insertion: Head of fibula

Innervation: Long head: Tibial division of sciatic nerve; Short Head: Common fibular (peroneal) division of sciatic nerve

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<p>Semimembranosus</p>

Semimembranosus

Action: Hip extension, Knee flexion, and medial rotation

Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia

Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic nerve

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<p>Semitendinosus</p>

Semitendinosus

Action: Hip extension, Knee flexion, and medial rotation

Origin: Ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Pes anserine insertion

Innervation: Tibial division of sciatic nerve

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<p>Psoas Major</p>

Psoas Major

Action: Hip flexion

Origin: Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

Insertion: Lesser trochanter, merging with iliacus to form the iliopsoas

Innervation: L1-L3

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<p>Iliacus</p>

Iliacus

Action: Hip flexion

Origin: Iliac fossa

Insertion: Lesser trochanter, merging with psoas major to form iliopsoas

Innervation: Femoral nerve

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<p>Sartorius</p>

Sartorius

Action: Hip- flexion, abduction and lateral rotation; Knee - flexion and medial rotation

Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

Insertion: Pes anserine insertion

Innervation: Femoral Nerve

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<p>Rectus Femoris</p>

Rectus Femoris

Action: Hip- flexion; Knee- extension

Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)

Insertion: Quadriceps tendon to patella and then patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Innervation: Femoral Nerve

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<p>Vastus Intermedius</p>

Vastus Intermedius

Action: Knee extension

Origin: Anterolateral femur

Insertion: Quadriceps tendon to patella and then patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Innervation: Femoral nerve

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<p>Vastus Lateralis</p>

Vastus Lateralis

Action: Knee extension

Origin: Greater trochanter, gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera

Insertion: Quadriceps tendon to patella and then patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Innervation: Femoral Nerve

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<p>Vastus Medialis</p>

Vastus Medialis

Action: Knee extension

Origin: Linea aspera

Insertion: Quadriceps tendon to patella and then patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Innervation: Femoral nerve

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<p>Gracilis</p>

Gracilis

Action: Hip- adduction and medial rotation; Knee- flexion and medial rotation

Origin: inferior ramus of pubis

Insertion: Pes anserine insertion

Innervation: obturator nerve

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<p>Adductor Longus</p>

Adductor Longus

Action: Hip adduction, medial rotation, and flexion

Origin: Pubic tubercle

Insertion: Linea aspera of femur

Innervation: Obturator nerve

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<p>Pectineus</p>

Pectineus

Action: Hip adduction, medial rotation, and flexion

Origin: Pectineal line of pubis

Insertion: Pectineal line of femur

Innervation: Femoral nerve and obturator nerve

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<p>Adductor Magnus</p>

Adductor Magnus

Action: Adductor part- Hip adduction, medial rotation, and flexion; Hamstring part- Hip extension and lateral rotation

Origin: Inferior ramus of pubis and ischial tuberosity

Insertion: Adductor part: Linea aspera; Hamstring part: Adductor tubercle

Innervation: Adductor part- Obturator nerve; Hamstring part: tibial division of sciatic nerve

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<p>Tensor Fasciae Latae</p>

Tensor Fasciae Latae

Action: Hip flexion, abduction, and medial rotation

Origin: Iliac crest posterior to anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)

Insertion: Iliobial tract (IT Band)

Innervation: Superior gluteal nerve

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<p>Bony anatomy of the knee</p>

Bony anatomy of the knee

Femur

Patella

Tibia

Fibula

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Tibiofemoral Femoral Joint

Tibia and Femur

Hinge joint

Flexion and extension

Medial and lateral rotation

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Patellofemoral Joint

Patella and Femur

Plane Joint (gliding)

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<p>Ligaments of the Knee</p>

Ligaments of the Knee

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)

  • Anterior tibia to posterior femur

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)

  • Posterior tibia to anterior femur

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)

  • Femur and Tibia

Lateral Collateral Ligament

  • Femur and Fibula

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<p>Menisci</p>

Menisci

Medial meniscus

  • “C” shaped

Lateral meniscus

  • “O” shaped

Poor blood supply

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Anterior muscles that move the knee

Rectus femoris

Vastus intermedius

Vastus lateralis

Vastus medialis

Sartorius

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Posterior muscles that move the knee

Biceps femoris

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

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Knee extension

Rectus femoris

Vastus intermedius

Vastus lateralis

Vastus medialis

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Knee flexion

Sartorius

Biceps femoris

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

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Knee medial rotation

Sartorius

Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus

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Knee lateral rotation

Biceps femoris

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<p>Bone anatomy of the leg</p>

Bone anatomy of the leg

Tibia

Fibula

Talus

Proximal Tibiofibular Joint

  • Tibia and fibula

  • Plane joint (gliding)

Interosseous membrane

  • Fibrous syndesmosis between tibia and fibula

Distal Tibiofibular Joint

  • Tibia and Fibula

  • Plane joint (Gliding)

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<p>Ligaments of the ankle</p>

Ligaments of the ankle

Anterior Tibiofibular ligament (distal)

  • Distal tibia and fibula

Posterior Tibiofibular ligament (distal)

  • Distal tibia and fibula

Anterior Talofibular Ligament

  • Talus and fibula

Calcaneofibular ligament

  • Calcaneus and fibula

Posterior talofibular ligament

  • Talus and fibula

Deltoid ligament

  • Talus, navicular, and tibia

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Lower leg compartments

Anterior (Deep fibular nerve)

Lateral (Superficial fibular nerve)

Superficial Posterior (Tibial nerve)

Deep posterior (Tibial nerve)

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Anterior leg compartment

Extensor digitorum longus

Extensor hallucis longus

Fibularis (peronus) tertius

Tibialis anterior

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Lateral leg compartment

Fibularis (peroneus) longus

Fibularis (peroneus) brevis

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Superficial posterior leg compartment

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Plantaris

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Deep posterior leg compartment

Flexor digitorum longus

Flexor hallucis longus

Tibialis posterior

Popliteus

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<p>Tarsal Tunnel</p>

Tarsal Tunnel

Tibialis posterior

Flexor digitorum longus

Posterior tibial artery

Tibial nerve

Flexor hallucis longus

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<p>Extensor Digitorum Longus</p>

Extensor Digitorum Longus

Action: Toes 2-5 MTP, PIP, & DIP extension, ankle dorsiflexion, and eversion

Origin: Lateral condyle of tibia, anterior fibula, interosseous membrane

Insertion: Distal phalanges of toes 2-5

Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

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<p>Extensor Hallucis Longus</p>

Extensor Hallucis Longus

Action: Toe 1 MTP & IP extension, ankle dorsiflexion and inversion

Origin: Anterior fibula

Insertion: Distal phalanx of toe 1

Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

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<p>Fibularis Tertius</p>

Fibularis Tertius

Action: Ankle dorsiflexion and eversion

Origin: Anterior distal fibula

Insertion: Base of 5th metatarsal

Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

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<p>Tibialis Anterior</p>

Tibialis Anterior

Action: Ankle dorsiflexion and inversion

Origin: Lateral condyle and proximal tibia

Insertion: 1st metatarsal and 1st (medial) cuneiform

Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

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<p>Gastrocnemius</p>

Gastrocnemius

Action: Knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion

Origin: Posterior surfaces of femoral epicondyles

Insertion: Calcaneus (via Achilles tendon)

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Soleus</p>

Soleus

Action: Ankle plantar flexion

Origin: Head and proximal shaft of fibula, medial border of tibia

Insertion: Calcaneus (via Achilles tendon)

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Plantaris</p>

Plantaris

Action: Knee flexion, ankle plantar flexion

Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur

Insertion: Posterior calcaneus

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Flexor Digiorum Longus</p>

Flexor Digiorum Longus

Action: Ankle plantar flexion and inversion, Digits 2-5 MTP, PIP, & DIP flexion

Origin: Posteromedial tibia

Insertion: Distal phalanges of toes 2-5

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Flexor Hallucis Longus</p>

Flexor Hallucis Longus

Action: Ankle plantar flexion and inversion, Digit 1 MTP & IP flexion

Origin: Posterior inferior fibula

Insertion: Distal phalanx of toe 1

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Tibialis Posterior</p>

Tibialis Posterior

Action: Ankle plantar flexion and inversion

Origin: Fibula and tibia

Insertion: Metatarsals 2-5, distal tarsals

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Popliteus</p>

Popliteus

Action: Tibial medial rotation, knee flexion

Origin: Lateral condyle of femur

Insertion: Posterior proximal tibia

Innervation: Tibial nerve

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<p>Fibularis Longus</p>

Fibularis Longus

Action: Ankle eversion and plantar flexion

Origin: Head and superior portion of fibula, lateral tibial condyle

Insertion: Base of 1st metatarsal, 1st (medial) cuneiform

Innervation: Superficial fibular nerve

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<p>Fibularis Brevis</p>

Fibularis Brevis

Action: Ankle eversion and plantar flexion

Origin: Mid-lateral fibula

Insertion: Base of 5th metatarsal

Innervation: Superficial fibular nerve

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Muscles that Dorsiflex the ankle

Anterior (deep fibular nerve)

  • Extensor digitorm longus

  • Extensor hallucis longus

  • Fibularis (peroneus) tertius

  • Tibialis anterior

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Muscles that plantar flex the ankle

Superficial Posterior Compartment (Tibial nerve)

  • Gastrocnemius

  • Soleus

  • Plantaris

Deep Posterior Compartment (Tibial nerve)

  • Flexor Digitorum Longus

  • Flexor Hallucis Longus

  • Tibialis Posterior

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Muscles that evert the ankle

Anterior (Deep fibular nerve)

  • Extensor Digitorum Longus

  • Fibularis (peroneus) Tertius

Lateral Compartment (Superficial fibular nerve)

  • Fibularis (peroneus) Longus

  • Fibularis (peroneus) Brevis

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Muscles that invert the ankle

Anterior (Deep fibular nerve)

  • Extensor Hallucis Longus

  • Tibialis Anterior

Deep Posterior Compartment (Tibial nerve)

  • Flexor Digitorum Longus

  • Flexor Hallucis Longus

  • Tibialis Posterior

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<p>Bony anatomy of the foot</p>

Bony anatomy of the foot

Phalanges

Metatarsals (1st-5th)

Cuneiforms (1-3)

Navicular

Cuboid

Calcaneus

Talus

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<p>Joints of the foot</p>

Joints of the foot

Interphalangeal (IP)

  • Hinge joint → flexion/extension

Metatarsophalangeal (MTP)

  • Condyloid/Ellipsoid joint → flexion/extension, ab/adduction

Midfoot

  • plane joints → gliding

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Motion of the toes

Flexion

Extension

Abduction (Splay)

Adduction

Circumduction

  • Combination of flexion/extension/abduction/adduction

  • ONLY at MTP joints

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<p>Motions of the foot</p>

Motions of the foot

Inversion

  • Turning foot INward (medially)

Eversion

  • Turning foot OUTward (laterally)

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Dorsal surface (Deep Fibular Nerve)

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

Extensor Hallucis Brevis

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Plantar Surface Medial (Medial Plantar Nerve)

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

Abductor Hallucis

Flexor Hallucis Brevis

Lumbricals (1 medial)

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Plantar Surface Lateral (Lateral Plantar Nerve)

Adductor Hallucis

Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis

Dorsal Interossei

Plantar Interossei

Abductor Digiti Minimi

Quadratus Plantae

Lumbricals (3 lateral)

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<p>Extensor Hallucis Brevis</p>

Extensor Hallucis Brevis

Action: Digit 1 MTP extension

Origin: Calcaneus

Insertion: Toe 1 proximal phalanx

Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

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<p>Extensor Digitorum Brevis</p>

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

Action: Digits 2-4 MTP & IP extension

Origin: Calcaneus

Insertion: Toes 2-4 middle phalanges

Innervation: Deep fibular nerve

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<p>Flexor Digitorum Brevis</p>

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

Action: Digits 2-5 MTP & PIP flexion

Origin: Calcaneus

Insertion: Digits 2-5 middle phalanges

Innervation: Medial plantar nerve

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<p>Abductor Hallucis</p>

Abductor Hallucis

Action: Digit 1 abduction (MTP)

Origin: Calcaneus

Insertion: Digit 1 proximal phalanx

Innervation: Medial plantar nerve

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<p>Abductor Digiti Minimi</p>

Abductor Digiti Minimi

Action: Digit 5 abduction (MTP)

Origin: Calcaneus

Insertion: Digit 5 proximal phalanx

Innervation: Lateral plantar nerve

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<p>Quadratus Plantae</p>

Quadratus Plantae

Action: Aligns flexor digitorum longus tendons to aid in digits 2-5 flexion

Origin: Calcaneus

Insertion: Flexor digitorum longus tendons

Innervation: Lateral plantar nerve

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