Lecture 10: upper extremity

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141 Terms

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humerus

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shaft

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head

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neck

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greater tubercle

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lesser tubercle

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trochlea (medial)

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capitulum (lateral)

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medial epicondyle

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lateral epicondyle

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coranoid fossa (anterior)

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olecranon fossa (posterior)

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deltoid tuberosity

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<p>D</p>

D

humerus

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<p>C</p>

C

elbow

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<p>B</p>

B

radius

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<p>F</p>

F

ulna

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<p>A</p>

A

thumb

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<p>E</p>

E

wrist

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upper arm nerve

musculocutaneous nerve

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muscles of anterior compartment

Biceps brachii

(O = supraglenoid tubercle, coracoid)

(I = radial tuberosity, forearm fascia )

F = forearm flexion at elbow, supination (supinator magnus), assists shoulder flexion

brachialis

(O = anterior surface of humerus)

(I = coranoid of ulna)

F = flexion of forearm at elbow

Coracobrachialis

F = assists flexion of arm at shoulder

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biceps brachii

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brachialis

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coracobrachialis

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movements of the forearm

pronation

supination

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pronation

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supination

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Posterior compartment muscles

Triceps brachii

(O = infraglenoid tubercle, upper lateral & lower medial halves of the posterior shaft of humerus )

(I = olecranon of ulna )

F = extension of forearm at elbow

Anconeus

(O = lat epicondyle)

(I = olecranon of ulna)

F = assists triceps brachii

  • not upper arm muscle - helps with elbow extension

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triceps brachii

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anconeus

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arteries

Brachial artery

  • Anteromedial in upper arm

  • Moves laterally and anteriorly at elbow to form ulnar and radial art.

  • profunda brachii artery

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brachial artery

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profunda brachii

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radial artery

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ulnar artery

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nerves

musculocutaneous

median

ulnar

radial

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musculocutaneous nerve

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median nerve

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ulnar nerve

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radial nerve

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<p>A (green)</p>

A (green)

ulnar nerve

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<p>B (orange)</p>

B (orange)

median nerve

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<p>C</p>

C

radial nerve

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radius

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radius head

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interosseus membrane

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ulna

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trochlear notch

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olecranon process (posterior)

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coronoid process (anterior)

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radial notch

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coronoid fossa

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joint type elbow

synovial

hinge

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humeroradial joint

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proximal radioulnar joint

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humeroulnar joint

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capsular ligaments

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medial (ulnar) collateral ligaments

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lateral (radial) collateral ligament

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annular ligament

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movements elbow

Flexion

extension

Note: pronation & supination occur at radioulnar joint

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Cubital fossa

Anteriorly; inverted triangle

Contains median and radial nerve, brachial artery and its derivatives, and tendon of biceps brachii

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cubital fossa

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Radioulnar Joints

Joint type

  • synovial

  • pivot

Articulations

  • Proximal

    • Radial head and radial notch of ulna

    • Annular ligament

  • Distal

    • Ulnar styloid & ulnar notch of radius

    • Fibrocartilage disc, capsule, capsular ligaments

  • Notes: interosseus membrane

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radial head

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ulnar styloid

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ulnar notch

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fibrocartilage disc

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muscles supination

biceps brachii

supinator

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supinator

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pronation muscles

pronator teres (proximal)

pronator quadratus (distal)

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pronator quadratus

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pronator teres (proximal)

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pronated or supinated to mid-range

brachioradialis

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brachioradialis

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styloid process

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anterior compartment

superficial

  • pronator teres

  • flexor carpi radialis

  • palmaris longus

  • flexor carpi ulnaris

intermediate

  • flexor digitorum superficialis

deep

  • flexor digitorum profundus

  • flexor pollicis longus

  • pronator quadratus

innervated by median nerve

  • pronator teres

  • flexor carpi radialis

  • palmaris longus

  • flexor digitorum superficialis

  • flexor digitorum profundus

  • flexor pollicis longus

  • pronator quadratus

innervated by ulnar nerve

  • flexor carpi ulnaris

  • flexor digitorum profundus

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posterior compartment muscles

innervated by radial nerve

superficial

  • Brachioradialis

  • Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)

  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)

  • Extensor digitorum (ED)

  • Extensor digiti minimi (EDM)

  • Extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)

deep

  • Anconeus

  • Supinator

  • abductor pollicis longus (APL)

  • extensor pollicis brevis (EPB)

  • extensor pollicis longus (EPL)

  • Extensor indicis (EI)

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flexion of hand at wrist

FCR

FCU

FDS

FDP

FPL

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extension of hand at wrist

ECRL

ECRB

ECU

ED

EDM

EI

APL

EPB

EPL

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adduction ulnar deviation of hand at wrist

FCU

ECU

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abduction radial deviation of hand at wrist

FCR

ECRL

ECRB

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circumduction of the hand

requires

flexion

extension

adduction

abduction

pronation

supination

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proximal carpal bones

scaphoid

lunate

triquetral

pisiform

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distal carpal bones

trapezium

trapezoid

capitate

hamate

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scaphoid

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lunate

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triquetral

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pisiform

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trapezium

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trapezoid

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capitate

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hamate

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palmar radiocarpal ligament

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ulnar collateral ligament

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radial collateral ligament

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dorsal intercarpal ligaments

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palmar intercarpal ligaments

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retinacula

Extensor

Flexor (N.B., roof of carpal tunnel)

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extensor retinaculum

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