med term chap 6

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106 Terms

1

kidneys

2 bean shaped organs located on each side of the vertebral column. functions to remove waste products from blood and to aid in maintaining water and electrolyte balances

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2

nephron

urine-producing microscopic structure

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3

glomerulus

cluster of capillaries at the entrance of the nephron

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4

renal pelvis

funnel-shaped reservoir in the kidney that collects the urine and passes it to the ureter

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5

ureters

2 slender tubes, approx 10-13 in. long that receive urine from the kidney and carry it to the posterior portion of the bladder

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6

urinary bladder

muscular, hollow organ that temporarily holds the urine

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7

urethra

urine passes through urinary to outside of the bladder

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8

urinary meatus

opening through the urine passes of the outside

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9

cyst/o, vesic/o

bladder, sac

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10

glomerul/o

glomerulus

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11

meat/o

meatus

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12

nephr/o, ren/o

kidney

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13

pyel/o

renal pelvis

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14

ureter/o

ureter

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15

urethr/o

urethra

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16

albumin/o

albumin

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17

blast/o

developing cell, germ cell

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18

glyc/o, glycos/o

sugar

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19

hydr/o

water

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20

lith/o

stone, calculus

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21

noct/i

night

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22

olig/o

scanty, few

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23

urin/o, ur/o

urine, urinary tract

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24

-iasis, -esis

condition

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25

-lysis

loosening, dissolution, separating

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26

-ptosis

drooping, sagging, prolapse

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27

-tripsy

surgical crushing (of the stones)

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28

-uria

urine, urination

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29

-cele

hernia, protrusion

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30

-pexy

surgical fixation

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31

azotemia

urea in the blood in which waste products are in the blood that are normally excreted by the kidney, also called uremia

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32

glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney

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33

cystitis

inflammation of the bladder

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34

cystocele

protrusion of the bladder

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35

cystolith

stones in the bladder

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36

hydronephrosis

abnormal condition of water in the kidney

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37

nephritis

inflammation of kidney

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38

nephroblastoma

kidney tumor containing developing germ cells - also called Wilms tumor

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39

nephrolithiasis

condition of stones in the kidney

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40

nephroma

tumor of the kidney

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41

nephromegaly

enlargement of kidney

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42

nephroptosis

drooping kidney, also called floating kidney

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43

pyelitis

inflammation of renal pelvis

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44

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney

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45

ureteritis

inflammation of ureter

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46

ureterocele

protrusion of the ureter

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47

ureterolithiasis

condition of stones in the ureter

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48

ureterostenosis

narrowing of the ureter

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49

urethrocystitis

inflammation of the urethra and bladder

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50

uremia

urine (urea nitrogen) in the blood

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51

epispadias

congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the upper surface of the penis

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52

hypospadias

congenital defect in which the urinary meatus is located on the underside of the penis

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53

polycystic kidney disease

condition in which the kidneys contain many cysts causing progressive interference with the ability to form urine

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54

renal calculus

stone in the kidney (also nephrolithiasis)

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55

renal failure

loss of kidney function resulting in its inability to remove waste products from the body and maintains electrolyte balance

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56

renal hypertension

elevated blood pressure resulting from kidney disease

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57

urinary retention

abnormal accumulation of urine in the bladder because of inability to urinate

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58

urinary suppression

sudden stoppage of urine formation

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59

urinary tract infection (UTI)

infection of one or more organs of the urinary tract

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60

acute renal failure (ARF)

a rapid severe reduction in renal function resulting in a collection of metabolic waste in the body. Prompt treatment can reverse the condition and recovery can occur

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61

Chronic kidney disease

unlike ARF, is a progressive, irreversible loss of renal function and the onset of uremia. Dialysis and kidney transplant are used in treating this disease

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62

end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

chronic kidney disease is called when kidney function is too poor to sustain life

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63

cystectomy

excision of bladder

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64

cystolithotomy

incision into the bladder to remove stones

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65

cystostomy

creation of artificial opening in the bladder

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66

lithotripsy

surgical crushing of stones using shock waves

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67

nephrolithotomy

incision into the kidney to remove stones

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68

nephrolithotripsy

surgical crushing of stones in the kidney using shock waves

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69

nephropexy

surgical fixation of the kidney

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70

pyeloplasty

surgical repair of the renal pelvis

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71

extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

noninvasive surgical procedure to crush stones in the kidney or ureter by administration of repeated shock waves. stone fragments are eliminated from the body in urine

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72

fulguration

destruction of living tissue with an electric spark

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73

renal transplant

surgical implantation of a donor kidney into a patient with inadequate renal function

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74

voiding cystourethrography (VCUG)

radiographic imaging of the bladder in the urethra. radiographic images are taken of the bladder before and during urination

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75

renogram

radiographic record of the kidney ( a nuclear medicine test, used to evaluate kidney function)

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76

KUB - kidney, ureter, bladder

simple radiographic image of the abdomen - to view the kidneys, ureters, and bladder

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77

BUN - blood urea nitrogen

blood test that measures the amount of urea. Increased BUN detects an abnormality in renal function

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78

SG - specific gravity

test performed on a urine specimen to measure the concentrating or diluting ability of the kidneys

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79

UA - urinalysis

multiple routine tests performed on a urine specimen. visual exam and chemical analysis provides screening for blood, glucose, protein, and other substances in the urine

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80

albuminuria

albumin in the urine

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81

Anuria

absence of urine

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82

Dysuria

difficult or painful urination

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83

glycosuria

sugar in the urine

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84

hematuria

blood in the urine

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85

nephrology

study of the kidney

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86

nocturia

night urination

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87

oliguria

scanty urine

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88

polyuria

too much urine

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89

pyuria

pus in the urine

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90

urology

study of the urinary tract

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91

diuretic

agent that promotes the formation and excretion of urine

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92

prolapse

displacement of an organ form its normal position

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93

transurethral

pertaining to through the urethra

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94

catheter (cath)

flexible, tube-like device, such as urinary catheter, for withdrawing and instilling fluids

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95

electrolytes

minerals in the body such as sodium and potassium that carry an electrolyte charge

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96

enuresis

involuntary urination

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97

nocturnal enuresis

bed wetting

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98

diurnal enuresis

day time urination

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99

hemodialysis

procedure for removing impurities from the blood because of the inability of the kidney to do so

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100

urinary incontinence

inability to control bladder and/or bowels causing leakage of urine

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