Chapter 11: Efferent Division

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smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, adipose tissue

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1

smooth and cardiac muscle, glands, adipose tissue

what are the autonomic efferent targets?

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2

sympathetic, parasympathetic, enteric

divisions of efferent autonomic motor control

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3

skeletal muscle

what are the somatic efferent targets?

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4

efferent division

response going out of the nervous system

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5

homeostasis

ANS, Endocrine, and Behavioral State Systems maintain _____________

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6

hypothalamus, pons, medulla

control centers of autonomic reflexes and homeostasis

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7

on postganglionic neurons

where do preganglionic neurons synapse?

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8

target tissues

where do postganglionic neurons synapse?

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9

preganglionic neurons

cell bodies located in cns and extend out

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10

postganglionic neurons

cell bodies originate in ganglion and extend toward target tissue

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11

sympathetic preganglionic neurons

originate in thoracic and lumbar spinal regions; short axons

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12

parasympathetic preganglionic neurons

originate in brainstem, sacral spinal regions; long axons

-Vagus (Cranial Nerve X) nerve is major pathway

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13

parasympathetic postganglionic neurons

located at tissue level; short axons

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14

sympathetic postganglionic neurons

form 2 chain ganglia, along aorta; long axons

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15

acetylcholine

neurotransmitter used for communication in preganglionic neurons

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16

muscularic acetycholine

what does ACh bind to in postganglionic neurons of the autonomic nervous system?

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17

Norepinephrine , adenergic receptors

what neurotransmitter is used for communication in sympathetic postganglionic neurons and what is its target receptor?

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18

ACh, mAChRs

what neurotransmitter is used for communication in parasympathetic postganglionic neurons and what is its target receptor?

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19

adrenal medulla

exception to typical communication rules

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20

neural crest

what is the adrenal medulla derive dform?

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21

chromaffin cells

found in adrenal medulla, lack axons but secrete Epinephrine > Norepinephrine into systemic circulation

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22

varicosities

enlarged regions on axon that contain mechanism for the release of neurotransmitters

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23

action potential arrives, opens voltage-gated channels, NE exocytosis, NE diffuses and binds to target cell receptors, removed by diffusion

steps for signaling in autonomic pathways using norepinephrine as example

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24

adrenergic receptors

-GPCRs expressed in target tissues,
-activated by sympathetic signaling

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25

autonomic muscarinic receptors

-GPCRs expressed in target tissues
-activated by parasympathetic signaling,
-most tissues express M2 or M3 subtypes

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26

somatic

is the somatic or autonomic motor system simpler?

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27

always

the somatic motor system is ________ excitatory

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28

single, single

the somatic motor system contains ________ neuron and __________ target cell

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29

neuromuscular junction

how is a connection made between somatic motor neuron and its target

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30

motor nerve terminal

Presynaptic cell in NMJ

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31

cleft

space between NMJ contains fibrous ECM with the enzyme Acetylcholinesterase

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32

postsynaptic cell

motor end plate of the skeletal muscle fiber in NMJ

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33

cations, depolarization

what ions can flow through in synaptic transmission at the NMJ, what does this cause

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34

wave of depolarization

what releases neurotransmitters at neuroeffector junctions?

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