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Allele

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Biology

9th

19 Terms

1

Allele

One of a pair of genes that determine a specific trait

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2

Chromosome

A structure located in the nucleus of a cell, made of DNA, that contains the genetic information needed to carry out cell functions and make a new cell

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3

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; the material found in a cell's nucleus, that determines the genetic traits of the organism

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4

Dominant trait

In a pair of alleles, the one that, if present, determines the trait

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5

Gene

Segment of DNA, found on a chromosome, that determines the inheritance of a particular trait

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6

Generations

That which is generated or brought forth; offspring

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7

Genetics

The study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring

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8

Genotype

The set of genes carried by an organism

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9

Gregor Mendel

Father of genetics who conducted pea plant experiments to determine how traits were passed from one generation to the next.

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10

heredity

The passage of genetic instruction from one generation to the next generation

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11

Hybrid or heterozygous

Refers to an organism that carries two different alleles for the same trait

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12

offspring

New organism produced by a living thing.

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13

Phenotype

The physical appearance of an organism

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14

Pure breed or homozygous

Refers to an organism that carries two dominant or two recessive alleles for a given trait

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15

Recessive trait

In a pair of alleles, the one that is masked in a dominant allele is present

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16

Selective breeding

The intentional breeding of organisms with desirable traits in an attempt to produce offspring with similar desirable characteristics or with improved traits.

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17

Punnett Square

A diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment.

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18

codominance

a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype in which both of the parental traits appear together

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19

Incomplete dominance

a cross between organisms with two different phenotypes produces offspring with a third phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits

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