HOSA - Behavioral Health

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Central Nervous system (CNS)

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230 Terms

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Central Nervous system (CNS)

includes the brain and spinal cord

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brainstem

contains midbrain, medulla, and pons

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medulla

controls vital body functions ex: heart rate, breathing

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pons

control the management of sleep, arousal, facial expression

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cerebellum

maintaining balance and motor coordination

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6

cerebellum

contains more neurons than the rest of the brain

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7

midbrain

controls sensory reflexes, movement, pain

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8

reticular formation

controls mood, arousal, sleep; major source of serotonin and norepinephrine

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9

thalamus

controls sensation, memory, states of consciousness; receives sensory input from most systems

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10

basal ganglia

voluntary movement; degeneration in Parkinson's, also involved in OCD and ADHD

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11

hypothalamus

involved w/ motivation and homeostasis; regulates temperature, hunger thirst; directs ANS and endocrine system

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12

hippocampus

formation of long term memories

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13

cingulate cortex

directs ANS; plays role in decision making, emotion, anticipation of reward, empathy

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14

amygdala

fear and aggression

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15

nucleus accumbens

reward and pleasure

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16

corpus callosum

connects hemispheres

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17

cerebral cortex

thin layer of gray matter covering cerebral hemispheres

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18

frontal lobe

primary motor cortex and areas responsible for most complex cognitive processes

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19

Broca's area

speech production in left hemisphere

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20

prefrontal cortex

planning behavior, attention, and judgement

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21

orbitofrontal cortex

emotion, impulse control

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22

occipital lobe

primary visual cortex

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23

temporal lobe

primary auditory cortex

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24

parietal lobe

primary somatosensory cortex (involved in neglect syndrome)

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25

lateralization

localization of function in one of the hemispheres (Ex: language lateralized in the left hemisphere)

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26

Peripheral Nervous System

nerves and ganglia outside the CNS; contains somatic and autonomic nervous systems

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27

somatic nervous system

transmits commands for voluntary movement

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28

autonomic nervous system

controls glands and organs; contains sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

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29

sympathetic nervous system

fight or flight; expenditure of energy

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30

parasympathetic nervous system

rest and digest; storage of energy

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31

enteric nervous system

nerve cells embedded in lining of gastrointestinal system; communicates with endocrine system; source of 95% of boys serotonin

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32

endocrine system

responsible for release of hormones into bloodstream; responses to input from hypothalamus

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33

pineal gland

releases melatonin; maintenance of sleep-wake cycles

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34

pituitary gland

master gland; stimulates activity of other glands

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35

main parts of the neuron

soma (cell body), axons (transmit info), dendrites (receive info)

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36

glial cells

provide structural matrix, clean up debris, form blood-brain barrier

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37

myelin

insulating material covering axons; increase conduction

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38

glial cells

cells that form scar tissue in the brain and spinal cord

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39

young adulthood

The prefrontal cortex in myelinated in

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40

action potential

electrical signal arising in a neurons axon

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41

resting potential

electrical charge across membrane when neuron is not firing

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42

action

The _________ potential is initiated when the membrane is depolarized to threshold

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43

synapse

point of communication between neurons

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44

neurotransmitter

chemical messenger that communicates across a synapse

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45

receptor

where neurotransmitter binds

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46

reuptake

NT reabsorbed by neuron that released it

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47

acetylcholine

NT involved in movement, memory, ANS function

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48

epinephrine

NT involved in arousal

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49

norepinephrine

NT involved in arousal and vigilance; released by SNS; disruptions in PTSD and bipolar disorder

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50

dopamine

NT involved in movement, planning, and reward; receptors die in Parkinson's, overactive in Schizophrenia

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51

serotonin

NT involved in mood, appetite, sleep; associated with depression

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endorphins

pain; opioid drugs mimic endorphins

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53

glutamate

excitation of brain activity

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54

GABA

inhibition of brain activity

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55

anxiety

__________ disorders are the most common mental disorders

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56

serious mental illness

Occurs at any time during the last year having a diagnosable, mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder that causes functional impairment that interferes with at least one major life event

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57

serious mental disturbance (SED)

Occurs in children who have been diagnosed with a mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder

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58

autism spectrum disorder

Is characterized by deficits in social relatedness and communication skills that are often accompanied by repetitive, ritualistic behavior

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autism spectrum disorder

(1 out of 50 children) have this disorder

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60

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

characterized by either unusual inattentiveness, hyperactivity with impulsivity, or both

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11

_____ % is the Percentage of children diagnosed with ADHD

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62

ADHD

the causes of _______ are genetic (heritability 70%), and environmental factors

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63

1

schizophrenia affects what percentage of the population?

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64

schizophrenia

characterized by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought and speech, disorders of movement, restricted affect, and avolition or asociality

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65

positive symptoms

behaviors found in patients with schizophrenia but not in normal people (ex: hallucinations, delusions)

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negative symptoms

behaviors found in normal people but not in schizophrenics (ex: avolition, flat affect)

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sources of causality

strong genetic vulnerability (50% concordance rate in twins); environmental factors (birth month, stress)

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68

Dopamine

abnormalities in what neurotransmitter, are associated with schizophrenia?

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69

enlarged ventricles

abnormalities in what brain area is associated with schizophrenia?

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70

bipolar disorder

mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of mania and depression

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2.6

_____ % of the adult population is affected by bipolar disorder

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female

what gender that is most affected by bipolar disorder?

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70

concordance rates for bipolar disorder in twins is as high as ____%

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74

major depressive disorder (MDD)

characterized by lengthy periods of depressed mood, loss of pleasure in normal activities, disturbances in sleep and appetite, difficulty concentrating, feelings of hopelessness, and possible thoughts of suicide

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major depressive disorder (MDD)

In order to be diagnosed with ____________ at least 5 symptoms and one must be depressed mood or anhedonia (lack of interest in activities that previously provided pleasure)

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anhedonia

lack of interest in activities that previously provided pleasure

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7

____ % of the population is affected by MDD

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78

females

_________ are the most affected gender affected by MDD

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79

cognitive

___________ explanation for depression: result of a combination of negative thoughts about the self, the world, and the future

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80

learning

___________ explanation for depression: reduction in positive enforcement or increase in negative outcomes

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81

social

___________ explanation for depression: feelings of sadness and loneliness

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82

biological

___________ explanation for depression: heritability is 40%; certain genes affecting serotonin levels

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83

diathesis-stress model

suggests that biological vulnerabilities for a disorder interact with a person's experience of stress

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84

anxiety

_________ is a disorder that is not proportional to a person's circumstances

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85

30

_____ % of americans experience disorders

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86

specific phobias

fears of specific objects or circumstances

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87

social anxiety disorder

unrealistic fear of being scrutinized and criticized by others

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88

panic disorder

repeated panic attacks and fear of future attacks

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89

2.7

% of the population affected by panic disorder

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90

agoraphobia

fear of open spaces, being outside the home, being in a crowd

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91

generalized anxiety disorder

excessive anxiety for 6 months that is not correlated with a specific object

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92

obsessive compulsive disorder

associated with intrusive obsessions and compulsions

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93

2-3

% of the population is affected by OCD

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94

63-87

%-% is the concordance rate for OCD

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95

body dysmorphic disorder

unrealistic perception of physical flaws

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96

PTSD

caused by the experience of trauma, which leads to flashbacks, dreams, hyper vigilance, and avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event

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97

personality disorder

impairments in identity, personality traits, and in establishment of empathy or intimacy

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98

alcohol use disorder

diagnostic criteria: problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems, developed tolerance, risky behavior caused by drinking; 17 million alcohol users have alcohol use disorder

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99

88,000

there are ___________ deaths in a year caused by excessive alcohol

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100

marijuana

most used drug

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