Cell Test 2 (copy)

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Photosynthesis Chemical Equation

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Photosynthesis Chemical Equation

CO2 + H2O → C6H12O6 + O2

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Cellular Respiration Chemical Equation

C6H12O6 + O2 → CO2 + H2O

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Carbohydrate

Starches and Sugars that provide short term energy to the body.

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Lipid

Fats that provide long term energy for the body. Lipids are important molecules that often make up membranes in the cell.

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Protein

Proteins have many unique functions. Proteins repair and build body tissues, allow metabolic reactions to take place (enzymes), coordinate body functions such as waste removal, protect the body from pathogens (immune system).

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Nucleic Acid

Nucleic Acids carry the genetic blueprint for the cell and carry instructions for the function of the cell. (DNA & RNA).

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Inputs of Photosynthesis (Reactants)

Carbon Dioxide, Water, Light Energy

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Outputs of Photosynthesis (Products)

Oxygen, Glucose

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Inputs of Cellular Respiration (Reactants)

Glucose, Oxygen

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Outputs of Cellular Respiration (Products)

Carbon Dioxide, Water, ATP

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Mitochondria

The powerhouse of the cell. The mitochondria takes Oxygen and Glucose and turns it into ATP, or usable energy for the cell. (Plant and Animal).

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Chloroplast

The organelle responsible for converting Carbon Dioxide, Water and Light energy into Glucose and Oxygen for the cell. (Plants only).

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Cell Membrane

Primarily composed of Phospholipids. The cell membrane is a semi-permeable bilayer.

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Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane.

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Facilitaed Diffusion

Diffusion that requires a helper protein. Allows large or charged molecules to cross the cell membrane (water, glucose).

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Hypertonic Solution

Low solute concentration/ high water concentration.

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Hypotonic Solution

High solute concentration/low water concentration..

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Isotonic Solution

Equal solute/water concentration in solution and in cell.

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Cholesterol

Prevents the cell membrane from becoming too solid or too liquid.

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Lipid Chemical Structure

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

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Carbohydrate Chemical Structure

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

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Protein Chemical Structure

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen

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Nucleic Acid Chemical Structure

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorous

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Biomolecules

Lipid, Carbohydrate, Protein, Nucleic Acid

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Monomer of Protein

Amino Acid

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Polymer of Protein

Polypeptide

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Monomer of Carbohydrate

Monosaccharide

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Polymer of Carbohydrate

Polysaccharide

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Monomer of Nucleic Acid

Nucleotide

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Diffusion

Random movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration (oxygen, carbon dioxide).

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Passive Transport

Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion, Osmosis. Requires no energy from the cell to complete.

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Transport Proteins

Required during Facilitated Diffusion. Proteins span the cell membrane and allow large or charged molecules across the cell membrane. (Aquaporin, Ion Channel, Glycoproteins, Carrier Proteins).

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Homeostasis

Cells must maintain stable internal conditions. All living cells have mechanisms that allow them to control the internal environment.

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