AP Human Geography Ultimate Guide

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rectilinear township

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464 Terms

1

rectilinear township

A(n) ________ and range survey system based upon lines of latitude and longitude.

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2

City location

________ and the level of urban economic exchange could be analyzed using central places within hexagonal market areas, which overlapped at different scales.

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3

Long lot patterns

________ have a narrow frontage along a road or waterway with a very long lot shape behind.

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4

Three types of regions

formal, functional, and vernacular

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5

place

A specific point on earth with human and physical characteristics that distinguish it from other places

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6

sequent occupancy

the succession of groups and cultural influences throughout a place’s history

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7

relative scale/scale of analysis

the level of aggregation, or in other words, the level at which you group things together for examination

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8

formal regions

areas of space that possess some homogeneous characteristic or uniformity

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9

functional/nodal regions

areas that have a central place, or node, that is a focus or point of origin

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10

vernacular regions

An area that people believe exist as part of their cultural identity

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11

absolute location

a point or place on the map using coordinates such as latitude and longitude

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12

relative location

the location of a place compared to a known place or geographic feature

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13

site

the physical characteristics of a place

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14

situation

the place’s interrelatedness with other places

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15

distance decay

the farther away different places are from a place of origin, the less likely interaction will be with the original place

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16

friction of distance

movement incurs some form of cost, in the form of physical effort, energy, time; costs are proportional to the distance traveled

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17

Space-Time Compression

refers to the set of processes (new tech, communication) that cause the relative distances between places to grow smaller.

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18

core and periphery relationships

dominant capitalist countries that exploit smaller countries for labor and raw materials; smaller countries are dependent on dominant country for capital and have underdeveloped industry.

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19

cluster

things are grouped together on the Earth’s surface

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20

scattered pattern

objects that are normally ordered but appear dispersed

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21

linear pattern

straight line

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22

sinous pattern

wavy line

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23

mental map

the cognitive image of landscape in the human mind

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24

large-scale map

Zoomed in map; more detail

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25

small-scale map

Zoomed out map; less detail

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26

Thematic Maps

Show data; thematic map displays spatial patterns and relationships between them (choropleth maps)

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27

Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

system that incorporates one or more data layers in a computer program capable of spatial analysis and mapping

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28

Global Positioning System (GPS)

system that utilizes a worldwide network of satellites, which emit a measurable radio signal; shows exactly where you are

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29

political regions

boundaries are finite and well-defined (country)

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30

spatial analysis

the mathematical analysis of one or more quantitative geographic patterns

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31

choropleth map

a thematic map that expresses the geographic variability of a particular theme using color variations

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32

isoline map

calculates data values between points across a variable surface (color blending)

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33

dot density map

uses dots to express the volume and density of a particular geographic feature

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34

flow-line map

uses lines of varying thickness to show the direction and volume of a particular geographic movement pattern

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35

cartograms

distorts size based on value of variable

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36

map projection

creates different levels of accuracy in terms of size and shape distortion for different parts of the Earth

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37

Robinson projection

Most used map projection with curved edges, distorts all parts of globe, not useful for navigation.

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38

aerial photographs

images of the Earth from an aircraft, printed on film, but digital camera usage is on the increase

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39

remote-sensing satellites

use a computerized scanner from satellitesGloba to record data from the Earth’s surface (remote areas)

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40

Goode’s homolosine projection

map projection that cuts out pieces of world, keeps accurate size, not useful for navigation.

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41

Mercator Projection

map projection that distorts poles of the globe, map of Europe looks more powerful

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42

Relative Distance

Direction that can be described as a position (left)

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43

Absolute Distance

Direction that can be measured with standard units of length

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44

Reference Map

Map that shows geographical data, oceans, cities, borders, roads, ect

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45

Spatial Patterns

The placement of objects on Earth’s surface and the space between the objects

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46

Globalization

how trade and technology have made the world into a more connected and interdependent place.

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47

Interdependence

dependent on one another in some way

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48

Culture Ecology

The study of interactions between societies and their local environments

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49

Environmental Determinism

theory that environment causes social development or the idea that natural environment influences people

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50

Environmental Possibilism

theory that people can adjust or overcome an environment.

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51

Local Scale

city, town county, neighborhood

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52

Sub-national Regional

Smaller parts of a nation (states, provinces)

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53

National

Comparing Countries

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54

Regional

Comparing Regions (North America ect)

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55

Global

Comparing whole globe, usually no borders

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56

Males

________ are always on the left of the pyramid and females are on the right.

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57

death rates

Birth and ________ converge to result in limited population growth and population decline.

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58

Negative RNI

________ means the population has shrunk.

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59

phase of development

The ________ is directly followed by a stabilization of population growth as the procreation rates decline.

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60

Population growth involves two main concepts

rate of natural increase (RNI) and the demographic equation

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61

high birth rates

rural agricultural Third-World countries

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62

low birth rates

urbanized industrial and service-based economies

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63

ex

total number of infants born living is counted for one calendar year and then calculated

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64

CBR

Number of Live Births/Total Population x 1,000

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65

high death rates

a country that is experiencing war, disease, or famine, such as poor Third-World countries experiencing poverty, poor nutrition, epidemic disease, and a lack of medical care

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66

Green Revolution

(increased food and nutrition) and access to sanitation, education, and health care

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67

CDR

Number of Deaths/Total Population x 1,000

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68

reduced fecundity

when the majority of women are heavily engaged in business, they are far less likely to have children

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69

Ex

a country with a high rate of natural increase can have an unexpectedly low long-term population prediction if there is a large amount of emigration

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70

Doubling Time

how long it would take for a country to double in size

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71

formula

70Rate of Natural Increase

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72

To estimate the RNI for each year in the future by examining a countrys position

(Pop

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73

Net Migration Rate (NMR)

the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants for every thousand members of the population; can be negative

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74

Population Growth Percentage Rate = (Birth Rate

Death Rate) + Net Migration Rate/10%

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75

formula

Number of Children Born/Women Aged 15 to 45

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76

ex

we can estimate a population projection that the planets population has reached only about two-thirds of its potential

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77

ex

an animal population that receives a vast amount of food or removes predators from their habitat will result rapid population growth followed by a plateau or decline due to a population reaching or exceeding the areas carrying capacity

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78

result

little population growth until the later part of stage one when death rates begin to decline; RNI is generally low or negative

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79

ex

in the United States, services are 80 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) and manufacturing is only 20 percent

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80

Zero population growth (ZPG) (RNI of 0.0 percent)

birth rates reach the same level as death rates

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81

interregional, or internal, migrants

those who move from one region of the country to another

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82

transnational migration

occurs when migrants move from one country to another

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83

forced migration

people may be taken or coerced from their homes for forced labor through human trafficking or enslavement

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84

undocumented immigrants

people who come seeking refuge or employment opportunities but do not have government authorization

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85

amnesty programs

allow undocumented immigrants the opportunity to apply for official status or citizenship without facing arrest or deportation

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86

step migration

occurs when people move up in a hierarchy of locations, with each move to a more advantageous or economically prosperous place

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87

chain migration

occurs when a pioneering individual or group settles in a new place, establishing a new migrant foothold

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88

life-course changes

when people move because of major changes in the course of their lives**

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89

birth rate; natality

the crude birth rate (CBR) and an annual statistic

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90

crude birth rate (CBR)

Number of Live Births/Total Population x 1,000

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91

death rate; mortality

the crude death rate (CDR) and an annual statistic calculated in the same way as the birth rate

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92

green revolution

increased food and nutrition and access to sanitation, education, and health care

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93

crude death rate (CDR)

Number of Deaths/Total Population x 1,000

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94

rate of natural increase (RNI); natural increase rate (NIR)

the annual percentage of population growth of that country for that one-year period

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95

Birth Rate - Death Rate/10%

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96

negative RNI

population shrinkage

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97

reduced fecundity

when the majority of women are heavily engaged in business, they are far less likely to have children

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98

doubling time

how long it would take for a country to double in size

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99

Net Migration Rate (NMR)

the number of immigrants minus the number of emigrants for every thousand members of the population; can be negative

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100

Total fertility rate (TFR)

the estimated average number of children born to each female of birthing age (15 to 45)

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