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Unit 3 Revolutions

The European Enlightenment

100’s of years = religion was central authority in Europe as well as most of worlds civilizations 

18th century: Some Euro thinkers questioned roles and authorities of God and the kings/nobles that ruled them: particularly the idea that one’s birth determined their class and fate


Besides their desire to bypass the divine right of kings and noble authority New ideas influenced their thoughts and actions

1 of the driving fources was scientific revolution emphasis on epistemology as thinkers increasingly applied Reason and rationality to human institution rather than just physical sciences

English enlightenment thought

By 1600s: Englishman John Locke had historically seen many corrupt king and lords abuse their power

Came up with 2 major englithnments concepts argued or by gentry

Natural rights: Idea that all humans are born with the rights of life liberty and property —- Which should be protected by the state

Consent of Governed: Idea that if the state ever takes or fails to defend natural rights people should reform the atete

Many english supported Constitituinoalism the limited of state power by a set of documents written and agreed upon by citizens


The separation of powers

Frenchman Baron de Montesquieu argued that in order to prevent the state from oppressing these rights state powers should be seperated into independ branches

Separtation of power doctrine: Designed to prevent any one ruler of group from exercising absoulte tyanny

Laid out this doctrine the Spirit of laws, Asserting that there were 3 primary powers exercised by the state: making enforcing and Interpreting laws


Rather than giving all 3 of these roles to one person institution he argued thay be divided into the legislative branch (Law maker) executive branch (Law enforcers) and judicial branch (Law interpreter like assessing validity of laws and individual guilt)

Enlightenment Philosophes


Other enlightenment thinkers known as philosophes also questioned role of religion and the state most notably in catholic France


Voltaire: one of the most famous philosophers of the enlightenment known for his stance against state religion arguing relgion should be a protected Priviate practice


Voltaire: state religion = cause of intolerance conflict and oppression in the form of many Euro relgious wars conflict with islam the oppressive of Jew Etc when enforced by the state


Philosphers like Rousseau also advocated social contract ideals through the general Will

Th rousseau the collective will of the People should work as the ultimate entity and authority of the state



Impacts of enlightenment

While these Ideals were initially oppressed by Europeans states They spread quickly throughout Europe and the Americas in the 18th and 19th centuries

The questioning of religions and Govt basing life and society on Reason and popular involvement inspired many revoultutionary movements

Examples(expanded on in a later)

American Revoultuions 1776-1783 Conflict in which Colonists challenged the authority of the brithish

National Revolutionary movements

Seven Years’ war

Seven year war: Worlds first global conflict covering multiple contintents as europeans fought one another on serveral fronts

Fighting started in Europe with austria Russia and frace allying against Prussia (Large german state)

Prussia received aid from Great britain Mostly due to the British desire to capture French Colonies

British used their naval advantage to secure most French Colonies in the world (India and Canada) and helped Prussia win

Despite the victory the British colonist in America were upset by British attempts to tax them for Seven year’ War debts despite their service

Colonist especially upset shen King george III reneged on his promise to reward colonial soldiers with I and grants when he passed the Proclamiation of 1763

The american Revolutionary War

Combination of enlightenment Ideals And resentment from British taxation the proclamation of 1763 Colonist took issue

Colonies Function independently until 1760 when British monarchy attempted to reassert control by collecting taxes quartering British soldiers in colonial homes and regeulating commerce

More importance was the fact that the colonist had no representation in parliament where they c ould debate such policies colonist viewed these issues as violations of their natural rights and after attempted peace decided to formally separate from great Britian 

Help from france the victorious colonial forces started a republic complete with a consitution separation of power and republic complete with constitution separation of power and natural rights-rights articulated in the American declaration of independence and bills of rights to the united states constitution


The French Revoultion

French Revolution 1789 started as a promising Enlightenment uprising

Influnced by the Englisghtenment Ideals this was a revolution of middle and lower class-not one of colonist against their imperial overlords

Fr monarchy clergy and nobility had oppressed and violated the natural rights of citizens for centuries by controlling religion offering little political ivovement and denying basic rights like the freedom of speech

1789 Fr violently overthrew their government and established a constitutional republic much like the one formed in the US

Foundational document Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizine and the french Constitution of 1791 had similar enlightenment ideals

Unlike the US fr on 1792 had to withstand hostile foreign pro-monarchy forces pressures of famine and war Reign of terror

Causes: Financial Crisis


End of the 18th century FR was spending more than it brought in through taxes

By 1788 50% of the budget went to pay for the interest on the national debt: 25% for military ;6% for king and court life styles

Taxes were raised;but tax burden on peasants not clergy or nobility



Meeting of the estates general

1789: to solve financial crisis and raise taxes King louis XVI called for the Estate General to meet

3 Estates (Social classes)

  • First estate– Clergy

  • Second estate – Nobility

  • Third Estate — Commoners


 1.Estate:Catholic Church (Paid no taxes and free land)

2. Estate:Nobles/Monarch (Paid no taxes Free land)

  1. Estate: all others

  1. Bourgeoisis (Rich educated but powerless)



Meeting of the state General 

EG Vote as separate Groups instead of Indidual votes

3rd Estate refused to conduct business until they could meet as a single representative Body

Never happened



Meeting of the Estate General

3rd Estate broke away and adopted the Title National Assembly

Claimed they were the True representative body of FR

July 20 1789 the National Assembly was excluded from Versailles because of REpairs so they met in an indoor tennis court.

They swore a Tennis Court Oath

Will not disband untill new Constitution is written

Declaration of the Rights of man and of the Citizen

Written by National Assembly contains their revolutionary Ideas such as

Men are born free and equal in rights

Slavery abolished in France 

 Not colonies

Rights include liberty property security and resistance to oppression

It guaranteed freedom of speech and freedom of religion and equal justance

What document does theis remind us of?


The great fear

July 1789 25% of people were unemployed bread prices high many people without food

Rumor spread that the kings troops were coming to sack Paris so angry crowds seized arms to defend the city

July 14 1789 hundreds stormed the Bastille to find gunpowder

Storming of the Bastille

Officer refused o give up the gunpowder and fired on the crowd killing 98 people

Revolutionary crowds took The Bastile Symbolizing the beginning of the French Revolution

March on Versailles

Unemployment and hunger increased

October 5 1789 7k woman marched to palace of versailles to demand bread 

Woman invaded palace and killed guards Bread was Given and Louis never returned to the palace

France becomes a constitutional Monarchy

National assembly est Constitutional Monarchy which king accepted in July 1791

National Assembly had power to make laws but king remained head of the state and could veto any law

King vetoed many laws; National Assembly had very little real power


War w/ other nations (War of First coalition)

Louis tried to flee to Austria w/ his family but is captured(1791)

Absolute rulers (Austria and prussia) wanted to invade France to help restore Louis XVI’s power after his capture

Feared revolutions in their own nations 

Brunswick manifesto (July 1792)

Proclamations issued by charles William Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick commander of the Allied Austrain and prussian Army to the population of paris

Threatened if the French Royal Family is harmed then French Civilians would be harmed

French Declared War on Austria in order to unite the people 

French victory


November 1792

Incriminating documents were found that proved the king was negotiating secretly to restore his authority

Also dismissed the constitution

National convention overwhelmingly covicted Louis XVI of treason

Setenced him Death by one vote in 1793

Queen Marie antonette(The cake lover) also executed

Stuff about them Both

Lous didnt even want to be a king and he liked most of the 

Reign of terror

National convention led vy Maximilien Robespierre 

Called for drastic measured to save France from other enemies of the state

He tried citizens for treason against the revolution 

Within two years 40k people were killed (About like 53 people per day)

July 1794 robespierre was exucuted by the Gillotine ending the Reign of terror

The Directory in power 1795-1799

After Robespierre France run by a 5 man board called the directory was disastrous 

Rev shifted from absoulte monarch to selfish Bourgeoisie leaders who were corrupt and weak

Corrpution disorganization and poverty caused many problems

The french were tired of the violence and chaos

Wanted stability and looking for a strong leader

Estate generals *Meeting of 3 estate to fix France”

National assembly “Limited Monarchy but king vetoed all laws

Death of the King

National convention

Napoleon and napoleonic wars

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon sized power from directory; ruled France as emperor and dictator

Napelon as a military leader during the French Revoulution

Successful general in war V austria and Prussia

Charaismatic organized and a brilliant leader

Self made from the lower middle class background

Took great care of them a brough success in battle

The directory feared Napoleon

Kept him busy conquering other parts of Europe and out of FR

Napoleon as a dictator and emperor

1799 Napoleon returned to Paris and staged a coup with full support of French Army

Memebers of the directory could not stop him weak

Napoleon said it was his patriotic duty to rule france

Coup considered to be illegal and went againts the Enlightenment Ideals

But people were tired of mass instability because of the Revoultion

Napoleon=Dictator

Made all decisions but wanted people to believe that france was still a democracy

Napoleon declared himself Emperor for Life in 1804 claiming it was best for all the French

Napoleon domestic strategy

Used his dictatorial power to maintain order w/ Napoleon Codes of law

Maintained some ideas of Revolutions such as equality before Law protecton of property

Allowed former members of 1st and 2nd Estates to work in New Govt

Wanted to form em to be loyal

Made peace w/ Catholic Church 

Allowed Catholic worship (Outlawed durring FR)

Made an education for all kids for all classes
Lycees

Used Ministry of Police To enforce his ideas

Secret police force

Led by Bourgeoisie revolutionary Joseph fouche 

What happend to dissenters



Class system Emigres could return if swore loyalty to new french Gov’t

Peasants kept land they bought from Nobles and church

New nobility established through a meritocracy

Economy Controlled prices 

Encouraged Growth of industry

Str’nd the nations infrastructure

Education Controlled public schools nation wide

Gorvernment Str’nd the national government

Run an efficient bureaucracy





Napolonic wars

By 1802 Napoleon had ⅔ of Europe

Still unsatisfied wanted more power

Napoleon acquisitions upset balance of power in europe

France was too strong

Arc De triomphe in Paris which was erected in 1806 to honor the soldiers of Napoleon Its natonolistic style set the stone for public monuments untill WW1

Napoleon’s Foreign strategy

At first tried to increase presence in the Americas 

Ultimately gave up French Protectorates to focus on conquering Europe 

Hati revolt to independence

Lousiana Purchase sold to US 

Simon Bolivar led spanish colonies to inddepedence

Napoleonic campaign in Egypt

Battle of the Nile August 1-3 1798

Britians Horation Nelson defeated French naval forces Napoleon and his troops became stranded in Egyp august 1799 napoleon snuck past the British blocade in the Mediterranean and returned to paris to take over France

Napolen’s attempt to seize Egypt and undermine Britans Access to india

Napoleon took control of Egypt on Land brought along scientists Studied the pyramids Discovered rosseta stone British took control of Egypt and all discoveries followed the defeat of the French forces in Egypt

Fragile peace

The war of the second coalition ended with Austria at the Treaty of Luneville in Feb 1801

The british continued the war Forceing the French to surrender and remaining in egypt in the summer of 1801

The treaty of Amiens

Signed in March 1802 

Created a fragile or weak peace between France and britain


Napoleons Empire

1804-1812 Military Sucesses due to his leadership large armies and supirse tactics

Ennexed parts of germany and Italy Belgium and Netherlands

Replaced Holy roman empire w/ French-Controlled Federation of the Rhine (1806)

 Cut off ½ of Prussia to frm Grand Duchy of warsaw

Historical Poland

Placed puppet rulers on conquered thrones

Ex his brother Joeseph bonaparte as king of Spain

Formed Alliance 

Also divorcing Josephine de beauharnais to marry Marie louise of Austria

Nationalism grew with napoleon successes

Both in france and areas conquered

War of the Thrid Coalation 1805-06


Both sides were not content with current peace

In 1803 great Britain renewed its war againts france

In 1805 Austria and russia joined the coalition

Prussia remained neutral at the outset 

France tired to invade GB

Admiral Horatio nelson defeated him in the Battle of Trafalgar

Nelson was killed in this naval battle

Napoleon moved East 

Defeated the Austrains at the battle of Austerlitz on december 2, 1805

In july 1806 regonanized West german region into the confederation of the Rhine (Provided buffer)

Dissolves the Third coalition

British opposition to Napoleon

Napoleon struck back with Continental system 

Britih ships banned from European ports

No trade between the Euro continent and GB

GB response :Orders in the council

Gb issued blockades 

British attacks on American ships still trading with France helped spark the War of 1812 in the U.S

Continental system ultimately failed because Euro countries wanted and needed trade

Blockade Hurt british trade and caused soaring unemployment and rioting in 1811

France suffered from a lack of imported raw materials

French satellites suffered as well causing widespread discontent even though smuggling was rampant

French victories on LAND

Napoleon dissolved the Holy Roman empire (Francis II became Francis I of Austria)

War of fouth Coalition begins 

Prussia entered the war on Oct 14 1806

Napoleon defeated them at the battle of Jena and Auerstadt 

Napoleon took the capital of Berlin in late Oct

Napoleon moved into east Prussia in spring 1807 defeating the Russian at friedlaand on June 13th

The treatiest of tilsit

Napoleon meets with tsar alexander I and Frederick william III of Prussia 

Treaties end War of Fourth Coalition

Prussia losses half of its territory to saxony

Grand Duchy of Warsaw is Established by FR

Russia given a free hand to deal with ottoman empire

In return for supporting against Britain

Napoleon spreads revolution


Napoleon spreads revolutions with his Grande Armee

Supported liberal reforms in conquered lands

Abolished nobility and feudalism 

Set up Meritocracies:Poli system which econ goods and or poli powers are vested in individual people on basis of talent effort and achievement rather than wealth or social class

Ended Church privileges

Napoleonic code spread even to areas beyond the french empire

Such as the Spanish and portuguese colonies in latin America

Decline of Napoleons empire

Revoultionary ideals of self government spurred nationalism in conquered states

Peninsular War in Spain and portugal

Pledged loyalty to Church and king 

Aided by the british

Local rules formed juntas to maintain power

Did not actually want to give up all of their powers to a returning spanish or portuguese king

Anted to keep many elements of republicanism

Spanish rose in revolt against French rule of Joseph bonaparte 

Guerrilla warfare that was brutually suppressed by the French 

War with Austria

1808 Battle of wagram French won defeat of the Austrians

But the Austrian opposition illustrated the commitment to end French Domination  in europe

Napoleon takes Pope Pius VII prisoners

Annex of the papal States

Napoleon costly mistake

Invasion of Russia 

By 1812 he was trying to weaken GB w/ a trade blockade and suppress a rebellion in spain but he still chose to invade Russia

Tsar Alexander I refuse to support continental System

Led 600,00 troops woards moscay 

Only ⅓ were French soldiers others were drafted from conquered Lands

Planned to spend winter ½  way there but instead pushed on

Retreating Russian Army order a scorched Earth policy and burned everything that Napoleon could use like based on what city the got into they couldnt use the resources since they were getting burnt 

Reaching Moscow

Burned and evacuated 

But ordered retreat in Nov 1812 lack of food

One of the worst military mistakes in history 

Many of Napoleon’s troops either froze or starved to death only 100,00 survived

Napoleon abandonded his troops and returned to France tried to raise a new army btut could only get 10k fairly inexperienced soldiers to fight for him

The hundred days

March 20 1815 

Napoleon marched triumphantly into Paris

June 18 1815 Batter of Waterloo

Napoleon was defeated

Then exiled to St Helena in the South atlantic

Napoleon’s Legacy

Died in 1821 on St Helena

Contrversial Figure

Pros

Established meritocracy

Spread of revolutionary ideas

Cons

Absolute ruler

Ruled an empire with puppet kings

Took away many rights of women

International legacy

 

Destruction of the holy roman empire leading to the creation of Germany

1803 Sold the louisiana Territory to the United states

Created Nationalistic fever throughout the world



French Revolt AGAIN 1848

1848 liberals and radicals revolted against Louis Philippe

Corruption 

wanted expanded wage suffrage

Recessioon happening

Condictions perfect for revolutions


The february Revolution

Working class and liberals unhappy with King louis Philippe esp with his minister Francois Guizot

Reformed banquets (Political meetings used to protest againts the king) 

Paris Banquest banned

Troops open fire on protestors

Barricades erected looting

National guard defects to the radicals


King louis Phillippe loses control of Paris and Abdicates on February 24


Feburary days

Resulted in a conservative majority in the national assembly

They began debating the fate of social programs

The conservative majority wanted the removal of radicals from government

In early jjune the national workshops were shut down 


June days

By june upper/Middle classes Intrests controlled

Protest by the poor met with violence from Liberals

1500 Killed

Created hostility between classes

Worker groups in paris rose up in the insurrection

They also said that the government had betrayed the revolution

Workers wanted a redistribution of wealth 

Barricades in the streets

Victor hugo’s Les miserables was based on this event

A new liberal conservative coalition formed to oppose this lower class radicalism 


PResident Louis napoleon

General louis cavaignact assumed dictatorial power and crushed the revolt 

10k dead

A victory for conservatives

1848 national assembly issued new constitution for second republic president

One house legislature

All men one vote

Overwhelming vote for Louis Napoleon, Napoleons nephew


1851 Coup d’Etat

President Louis

Napoleon declared a hereditary 2nd French Empire

A national Plebiscite

Direct vote

Confirmed this

Emperor Napoleon III

Haitian Revoultion

Enlightenment ideals and the revoultuions in the US (1776) and FR (1789) also reached other colonies such as Haiti

Started as a revolt Toussaint Louverture led Haiti in the Fight for independence from FR from roughly 1792 to 1804

With Guerilla tactics resistance to local disease and aid from the US and great Britain the Haitian were able to maintain freedom

Est. Constitution and accomplished the First and only effective slave rebellion debunking theories of black African Inferiority

However the revultions internation reputation was hurt following the 1804 Massacres the murder of all remaining French white including those who aided the rebellion or remained neutral during the conflict


Over 100k Enslavied people rose up in rebellion 4k owners killed (13%)

SURVIVNG WHITES STRUCK BACK KILLING 15K BLACK HAITIANS

10 DAYS =ENSLAVED PEOPLE CONTROLLED THE ENTIRE NORTHERN PROVINCE

900 COFFEE AND 180 SUGAR PLANTATIONS WERE DESTROYED

1792 ENSLAVED PEOPLE HAVE ⅓ OF THE ENTIRE ISLAND

LEGISTLATIVE ASSEMBLY IN FRANCE PASSED LAW UARANTEENING THE RIGHTS OF ALL FREED BLACKS

DISPATCHED 6K NEW FR SOILDERS TO THE ISLAND TO RESTORE ORDER


THE FOLLOWING INCURSION FROM SPAIN AND BRITAIN FRANCE FREED ALL OF THE ENSLAVED PEOPLE ON THE ISLAND ON AUGUST 29 1792

SLAVERY OF THE BLACKS IS ABOLISHED IN ALL THE COLONIES CONSEQUENTLY IT DECREESS THAT ALL MEN LIVING IN THE COLONIES WITHOUT DISTINCTION OF COLOR ARE FRENCH CITIZEN AND ENJOY ALL THE RIGHT GUARANTEED BY THE CONSTITUTION

The latin american Revoultions

Driving forces of revolutions that followed the 19th century was nationalism

Tendency of people to identify based on race culture and language rather than by relgion monarch or historical prinipalities

Latin American the venezuelan simon de bolivar spent extensive time studying enlightenment ideals in Europse in the late 18th and ear;y 19th centuries

Wrote about these ideals extensively in the Jamican Letter Utilizing these ideals with nationalist creole spirit to organze a revolution against spain

1821 he and his forces defeated the main Spanish forced and effectively created the state of Gran colombia near the equator

In coordination with Jose de san Martin the creole leader woh liberated Argentian from spain latin american forces liberated the remianing south American colonies

  1. Bolivar 1807 return from Euro by way of the Us allowed him to study the American system of Govt


  1. 1810 Bolivar went to london to seek support from the revolution in latin america at the same time he studied British institution of Govt


Bolivars route to victory venezuela declares independence in 1811 and He wins by 1821 

San martin leads south liberation forces

Argentina is independent in 1816; San martin helped free Chile

 

Bolivar and san martin’s armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824



Mexico ends Spanish rule

Cry for freedom padre miguel hidalgo– Priest who launches Mexican Revolt (1810)

80k Native Americans and Mestizo followers march on Mexico City

Jose Maria morelos — leads revolts after hidalgo’s defeat but loses

Both Hidalgo are morelos were executed

Mexico ends Spanish rule

Mexican creoles react; Iturbide(a Mexican general) Declares mexico independent (1821)

Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823

In 1823 Central America breaks away from Mexico


Brazil’s royal liberator

A bloodliess revolution 

Napoleon invades portugal royal family moves to Brazil (1807)

Portuguese court returns to Portugal after naploen’s deafeat (1815)


Brazil’s royal Liberator

Portuguese prince Dom pedro stays behind in Brazil

Dom pedro accepts Brazlilian;s request to rule their own country

He officially declared brazil’s independence (September 1822)

By 1830 Nearly all of latin american regions win independence

19th century Nationalist movement

The sepoy mutiny 

1857-Sepoy soldiers rebelled againts the British when they heard rumors that the bullets they were using ere coated with animal fat(Cows)

The sepoy Mutiny was crushed by the British army

This revealed the hostility between Indians and british

Ottoman nationalism

With similar revolutionary movements in the 1800s the Ottoman Empire attempted to deal with Growing ethnic discontent and nationalism in the Balkans

Implemented an ideal called Ottomanism an attempt at forming a national identity for the multitude of ethnic group within the empire

Sultan issued the tanzimat Reforms abolishing dhimmis status and granting more civil liberties and equalities to non Muslims

These reforms did little to stop national movements and upset the Muslim Population–0 Including Arabs Turks and others

Movement failed by 1912 the Euro balkan Politics and new nations such as Greece Bulgaria and serbia took most remaining Ottoman Territory in Europe during the First balkan war

Unifcation in Germany and italy

Along with revolutionary movements to form national state some feudal states formed nations by unifying with ethnically similar population

Im 1860 and 1870 many of the smaller feudal German and Italian states of the former Holy Roman empire unified into modern day Germany and italy

Led by count cavour from piedmont in Northern Italy and Garibaldi Giuseppe in southern italy Italian states unified by 1871 forming the Kingdom of Italy

German lands Otto Van Bismark of Purssia led a german coalition state against france

And due to their resounding success and a general nationalistic spirit Prussia led the unification of German state (except Austria) Into a single Germany Empire

Filipino nationalism

Fillipino nationalism emerged in the say way latin american nationalism the formation of a creole identity and desire for independence

With aid from the Us spain was defeated during the Philippine revolution

Indepedence was not won as occupying American forces remained

From 1998-1901 and again 1912 fillpinos fought unsuccessfully to remove American forces durring the Philppine American war

Phillppines would not gain indepndence until 1946 after Japanese occupation during WW2 and agreement for independence following liberation by the U.S

  1. European Enlightenment:

    • Shift from the central authority of religion to questioning the roles of God, kings, and nobles.

    • Influence of the scientific revolution on emphasizing reason and rationality in human institutions.

    • English Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke, who introduced concepts of natural rights and the consent of the governed.

  2. French Enlightenment Philosophes:

    • Voltaire's opposition to state religion and advocacy for private religious practice.

    • Rousseau's idea of the general will and the collective will of the people as the ultimate authority.

  3. Impacts of Enlightenment:

    • Spread of revolutionary ideals questioning religion and government.

    • Inspiration for revolutionary movements, including the American Revolution (1776-1783) and national revolutionary movements.

  4. French Revolution:

    • Causes such as financial crisis, social inequality, and Enlightenment ideals.

    • The meeting of the Estates General, the Tennis Court Oath, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

    • The Great Fear, Storming of the Bastille, and the March on Versailles.

    • Reign of Terror, the rise of the Directory, and the eventual rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  5. Napoleonic Wars:

    • Napoleon's rise to power, his domestic policies, and the Napoleonic Code.

    • Expansion of Napoleon's empire, the Continental System, and opposition from Britain.

    • Invasion of Russia, the Hundred Days, and the Battle of Waterloo.

    • Napoleon's legacy and the impact on Europe, including the destruction of the Holy Roman Empire.

  6. Latin American Revolutions:

    • Influence of Enlightenment ideals on leaders like Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.

    • Independence movements in Venezuela, Argentina, and Mexico.

    • Brazil's bloodless revolution and the establishment of its independence.

  7. Other Nationalist Movements:

    • Ottoman nationalism and the Tanzimat Reforms.

    • German and Italian unification in the 19th century.

    • Filipino nationalism and struggles for independence.

  8. Sepoy Mutiny (1857) and Ottoman Nationalism:

    • The Sepoy Mutiny in India and its suppression by the British.

    • Ottoman attempts at nationalism through the Tanzimat Reforms.

  9. Unification in Germany and Italy:

    • Count Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi leading the unification of Italy.

    • Otto von Bismarck's role in the unification of Germany.

  10. Filipino Nationalism:

    • The emergence of Filipino nationalism during the Philippine Revolution.

    • The Philippine-American War and the fight for independence.

SM

Unit 3 Revolutions

The European Enlightenment

100’s of years = religion was central authority in Europe as well as most of worlds civilizations 

18th century: Some Euro thinkers questioned roles and authorities of God and the kings/nobles that ruled them: particularly the idea that one’s birth determined their class and fate


Besides their desire to bypass the divine right of kings and noble authority New ideas influenced their thoughts and actions

1 of the driving fources was scientific revolution emphasis on epistemology as thinkers increasingly applied Reason and rationality to human institution rather than just physical sciences

English enlightenment thought

By 1600s: Englishman John Locke had historically seen many corrupt king and lords abuse their power

Came up with 2 major englithnments concepts argued or by gentry

Natural rights: Idea that all humans are born with the rights of life liberty and property —- Which should be protected by the state

Consent of Governed: Idea that if the state ever takes or fails to defend natural rights people should reform the atete

Many english supported Constitituinoalism the limited of state power by a set of documents written and agreed upon by citizens


The separation of powers

Frenchman Baron de Montesquieu argued that in order to prevent the state from oppressing these rights state powers should be seperated into independ branches

Separtation of power doctrine: Designed to prevent any one ruler of group from exercising absoulte tyanny

Laid out this doctrine the Spirit of laws, Asserting that there were 3 primary powers exercised by the state: making enforcing and Interpreting laws


Rather than giving all 3 of these roles to one person institution he argued thay be divided into the legislative branch (Law maker) executive branch (Law enforcers) and judicial branch (Law interpreter like assessing validity of laws and individual guilt)

Enlightenment Philosophes


Other enlightenment thinkers known as philosophes also questioned role of religion and the state most notably in catholic France


Voltaire: one of the most famous philosophers of the enlightenment known for his stance against state religion arguing relgion should be a protected Priviate practice


Voltaire: state religion = cause of intolerance conflict and oppression in the form of many Euro relgious wars conflict with islam the oppressive of Jew Etc when enforced by the state


Philosphers like Rousseau also advocated social contract ideals through the general Will

Th rousseau the collective will of the People should work as the ultimate entity and authority of the state



Impacts of enlightenment

While these Ideals were initially oppressed by Europeans states They spread quickly throughout Europe and the Americas in the 18th and 19th centuries

The questioning of religions and Govt basing life and society on Reason and popular involvement inspired many revoultutionary movements

Examples(expanded on in a later)

American Revoultuions 1776-1783 Conflict in which Colonists challenged the authority of the brithish

National Revolutionary movements

Seven Years’ war

Seven year war: Worlds first global conflict covering multiple contintents as europeans fought one another on serveral fronts

Fighting started in Europe with austria Russia and frace allying against Prussia (Large german state)

Prussia received aid from Great britain Mostly due to the British desire to capture French Colonies

British used their naval advantage to secure most French Colonies in the world (India and Canada) and helped Prussia win

Despite the victory the British colonist in America were upset by British attempts to tax them for Seven year’ War debts despite their service

Colonist especially upset shen King george III reneged on his promise to reward colonial soldiers with I and grants when he passed the Proclamiation of 1763

The american Revolutionary War

Combination of enlightenment Ideals And resentment from British taxation the proclamation of 1763 Colonist took issue

Colonies Function independently until 1760 when British monarchy attempted to reassert control by collecting taxes quartering British soldiers in colonial homes and regeulating commerce

More importance was the fact that the colonist had no representation in parliament where they c ould debate such policies colonist viewed these issues as violations of their natural rights and after attempted peace decided to formally separate from great Britian 

Help from france the victorious colonial forces started a republic complete with a consitution separation of power and republic complete with constitution separation of power and natural rights-rights articulated in the American declaration of independence and bills of rights to the united states constitution


The French Revoultion

French Revolution 1789 started as a promising Enlightenment uprising

Influnced by the Englisghtenment Ideals this was a revolution of middle and lower class-not one of colonist against their imperial overlords

Fr monarchy clergy and nobility had oppressed and violated the natural rights of citizens for centuries by controlling religion offering little political ivovement and denying basic rights like the freedom of speech

1789 Fr violently overthrew their government and established a constitutional republic much like the one formed in the US

Foundational document Declaration of the Rights of Man and citizine and the french Constitution of 1791 had similar enlightenment ideals

Unlike the US fr on 1792 had to withstand hostile foreign pro-monarchy forces pressures of famine and war Reign of terror

Causes: Financial Crisis


End of the 18th century FR was spending more than it brought in through taxes

By 1788 50% of the budget went to pay for the interest on the national debt: 25% for military ;6% for king and court life styles

Taxes were raised;but tax burden on peasants not clergy or nobility



Meeting of the estates general

1789: to solve financial crisis and raise taxes King louis XVI called for the Estate General to meet

3 Estates (Social classes)

  • First estate– Clergy

  • Second estate – Nobility

  • Third Estate — Commoners


 1.Estate:Catholic Church (Paid no taxes and free land)

2. Estate:Nobles/Monarch (Paid no taxes Free land)

  1. Estate: all others

  1. Bourgeoisis (Rich educated but powerless)



Meeting of the state General 

EG Vote as separate Groups instead of Indidual votes

3rd Estate refused to conduct business until they could meet as a single representative Body

Never happened



Meeting of the Estate General

3rd Estate broke away and adopted the Title National Assembly

Claimed they were the True representative body of FR

July 20 1789 the National Assembly was excluded from Versailles because of REpairs so they met in an indoor tennis court.

They swore a Tennis Court Oath

Will not disband untill new Constitution is written

Declaration of the Rights of man and of the Citizen

Written by National Assembly contains their revolutionary Ideas such as

Men are born free and equal in rights

Slavery abolished in France 

 Not colonies

Rights include liberty property security and resistance to oppression

It guaranteed freedom of speech and freedom of religion and equal justance

What document does theis remind us of?


The great fear

July 1789 25% of people were unemployed bread prices high many people without food

Rumor spread that the kings troops were coming to sack Paris so angry crowds seized arms to defend the city

July 14 1789 hundreds stormed the Bastille to find gunpowder

Storming of the Bastille

Officer refused o give up the gunpowder and fired on the crowd killing 98 people

Revolutionary crowds took The Bastile Symbolizing the beginning of the French Revolution

March on Versailles

Unemployment and hunger increased

October 5 1789 7k woman marched to palace of versailles to demand bread 

Woman invaded palace and killed guards Bread was Given and Louis never returned to the palace

France becomes a constitutional Monarchy

National assembly est Constitutional Monarchy which king accepted in July 1791

National Assembly had power to make laws but king remained head of the state and could veto any law

King vetoed many laws; National Assembly had very little real power


War w/ other nations (War of First coalition)

Louis tried to flee to Austria w/ his family but is captured(1791)

Absolute rulers (Austria and prussia) wanted to invade France to help restore Louis XVI’s power after his capture

Feared revolutions in their own nations 

Brunswick manifesto (July 1792)

Proclamations issued by charles William Ferdinand Duke of Brunswick commander of the Allied Austrain and prussian Army to the population of paris

Threatened if the French Royal Family is harmed then French Civilians would be harmed

French Declared War on Austria in order to unite the people 

French victory


November 1792

Incriminating documents were found that proved the king was negotiating secretly to restore his authority

Also dismissed the constitution

National convention overwhelmingly covicted Louis XVI of treason

Setenced him Death by one vote in 1793

Queen Marie antonette(The cake lover) also executed

Stuff about them Both

Lous didnt even want to be a king and he liked most of the 

Reign of terror

National convention led vy Maximilien Robespierre 

Called for drastic measured to save France from other enemies of the state

He tried citizens for treason against the revolution 

Within two years 40k people were killed (About like 53 people per day)

July 1794 robespierre was exucuted by the Gillotine ending the Reign of terror

The Directory in power 1795-1799

After Robespierre France run by a 5 man board called the directory was disastrous 

Rev shifted from absoulte monarch to selfish Bourgeoisie leaders who were corrupt and weak

Corrpution disorganization and poverty caused many problems

The french were tired of the violence and chaos

Wanted stability and looking for a strong leader

Estate generals *Meeting of 3 estate to fix France”

National assembly “Limited Monarchy but king vetoed all laws

Death of the King

National convention

Napoleon and napoleonic wars

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon sized power from directory; ruled France as emperor and dictator

Napelon as a military leader during the French Revoulution

Successful general in war V austria and Prussia

Charaismatic organized and a brilliant leader

Self made from the lower middle class background

Took great care of them a brough success in battle

The directory feared Napoleon

Kept him busy conquering other parts of Europe and out of FR

Napoleon as a dictator and emperor

1799 Napoleon returned to Paris and staged a coup with full support of French Army

Memebers of the directory could not stop him weak

Napoleon said it was his patriotic duty to rule france

Coup considered to be illegal and went againts the Enlightenment Ideals

But people were tired of mass instability because of the Revoultion

Napoleon=Dictator

Made all decisions but wanted people to believe that france was still a democracy

Napoleon declared himself Emperor for Life in 1804 claiming it was best for all the French

Napoleon domestic strategy

Used his dictatorial power to maintain order w/ Napoleon Codes of law

Maintained some ideas of Revolutions such as equality before Law protecton of property

Allowed former members of 1st and 2nd Estates to work in New Govt

Wanted to form em to be loyal

Made peace w/ Catholic Church 

Allowed Catholic worship (Outlawed durring FR)

Made an education for all kids for all classes
Lycees

Used Ministry of Police To enforce his ideas

Secret police force

Led by Bourgeoisie revolutionary Joseph fouche 

What happend to dissenters



Class system Emigres could return if swore loyalty to new french Gov’t

Peasants kept land they bought from Nobles and church

New nobility established through a meritocracy

Economy Controlled prices 

Encouraged Growth of industry

Str’nd the nations infrastructure

Education Controlled public schools nation wide

Gorvernment Str’nd the national government

Run an efficient bureaucracy





Napolonic wars

By 1802 Napoleon had ⅔ of Europe

Still unsatisfied wanted more power

Napoleon acquisitions upset balance of power in europe

France was too strong

Arc De triomphe in Paris which was erected in 1806 to honor the soldiers of Napoleon Its natonolistic style set the stone for public monuments untill WW1

Napoleon’s Foreign strategy

At first tried to increase presence in the Americas 

Ultimately gave up French Protectorates to focus on conquering Europe 

Hati revolt to independence

Lousiana Purchase sold to US 

Simon Bolivar led spanish colonies to inddepedence

Napoleonic campaign in Egypt

Battle of the Nile August 1-3 1798

Britians Horation Nelson defeated French naval forces Napoleon and his troops became stranded in Egyp august 1799 napoleon snuck past the British blocade in the Mediterranean and returned to paris to take over France

Napolen’s attempt to seize Egypt and undermine Britans Access to india

Napoleon took control of Egypt on Land brought along scientists Studied the pyramids Discovered rosseta stone British took control of Egypt and all discoveries followed the defeat of the French forces in Egypt

Fragile peace

The war of the second coalition ended with Austria at the Treaty of Luneville in Feb 1801

The british continued the war Forceing the French to surrender and remaining in egypt in the summer of 1801

The treaty of Amiens

Signed in March 1802 

Created a fragile or weak peace between France and britain


Napoleons Empire

1804-1812 Military Sucesses due to his leadership large armies and supirse tactics

Ennexed parts of germany and Italy Belgium and Netherlands

Replaced Holy roman empire w/ French-Controlled Federation of the Rhine (1806)

 Cut off ½ of Prussia to frm Grand Duchy of warsaw

Historical Poland

Placed puppet rulers on conquered thrones

Ex his brother Joeseph bonaparte as king of Spain

Formed Alliance 

Also divorcing Josephine de beauharnais to marry Marie louise of Austria

Nationalism grew with napoleon successes

Both in france and areas conquered

War of the Thrid Coalation 1805-06


Both sides were not content with current peace

In 1803 great Britain renewed its war againts france

In 1805 Austria and russia joined the coalition

Prussia remained neutral at the outset 

France tired to invade GB

Admiral Horatio nelson defeated him in the Battle of Trafalgar

Nelson was killed in this naval battle

Napoleon moved East 

Defeated the Austrains at the battle of Austerlitz on december 2, 1805

In july 1806 regonanized West german region into the confederation of the Rhine (Provided buffer)

Dissolves the Third coalition

British opposition to Napoleon

Napoleon struck back with Continental system 

Britih ships banned from European ports

No trade between the Euro continent and GB

GB response :Orders in the council

Gb issued blockades 

British attacks on American ships still trading with France helped spark the War of 1812 in the U.S

Continental system ultimately failed because Euro countries wanted and needed trade

Blockade Hurt british trade and caused soaring unemployment and rioting in 1811

France suffered from a lack of imported raw materials

French satellites suffered as well causing widespread discontent even though smuggling was rampant

French victories on LAND

Napoleon dissolved the Holy Roman empire (Francis II became Francis I of Austria)

War of fouth Coalition begins 

Prussia entered the war on Oct 14 1806

Napoleon defeated them at the battle of Jena and Auerstadt 

Napoleon took the capital of Berlin in late Oct

Napoleon moved into east Prussia in spring 1807 defeating the Russian at friedlaand on June 13th

The treatiest of tilsit

Napoleon meets with tsar alexander I and Frederick william III of Prussia 

Treaties end War of Fourth Coalition

Prussia losses half of its territory to saxony

Grand Duchy of Warsaw is Established by FR

Russia given a free hand to deal with ottoman empire

In return for supporting against Britain

Napoleon spreads revolution


Napoleon spreads revolutions with his Grande Armee

Supported liberal reforms in conquered lands

Abolished nobility and feudalism 

Set up Meritocracies:Poli system which econ goods and or poli powers are vested in individual people on basis of talent effort and achievement rather than wealth or social class

Ended Church privileges

Napoleonic code spread even to areas beyond the french empire

Such as the Spanish and portuguese colonies in latin America

Decline of Napoleons empire

Revoultionary ideals of self government spurred nationalism in conquered states

Peninsular War in Spain and portugal

Pledged loyalty to Church and king 

Aided by the british

Local rules formed juntas to maintain power

Did not actually want to give up all of their powers to a returning spanish or portuguese king

Anted to keep many elements of republicanism

Spanish rose in revolt against French rule of Joseph bonaparte 

Guerrilla warfare that was brutually suppressed by the French 

War with Austria

1808 Battle of wagram French won defeat of the Austrians

But the Austrian opposition illustrated the commitment to end French Domination  in europe

Napoleon takes Pope Pius VII prisoners

Annex of the papal States

Napoleon costly mistake

Invasion of Russia 

By 1812 he was trying to weaken GB w/ a trade blockade and suppress a rebellion in spain but he still chose to invade Russia

Tsar Alexander I refuse to support continental System

Led 600,00 troops woards moscay 

Only ⅓ were French soldiers others were drafted from conquered Lands

Planned to spend winter ½  way there but instead pushed on

Retreating Russian Army order a scorched Earth policy and burned everything that Napoleon could use like based on what city the got into they couldnt use the resources since they were getting burnt 

Reaching Moscow

Burned and evacuated 

But ordered retreat in Nov 1812 lack of food

One of the worst military mistakes in history 

Many of Napoleon’s troops either froze or starved to death only 100,00 survived

Napoleon abandonded his troops and returned to France tried to raise a new army btut could only get 10k fairly inexperienced soldiers to fight for him

The hundred days

March 20 1815 

Napoleon marched triumphantly into Paris

June 18 1815 Batter of Waterloo

Napoleon was defeated

Then exiled to St Helena in the South atlantic

Napoleon’s Legacy

Died in 1821 on St Helena

Contrversial Figure

Pros

Established meritocracy

Spread of revolutionary ideas

Cons

Absolute ruler

Ruled an empire with puppet kings

Took away many rights of women

International legacy

 

Destruction of the holy roman empire leading to the creation of Germany

1803 Sold the louisiana Territory to the United states

Created Nationalistic fever throughout the world



French Revolt AGAIN 1848

1848 liberals and radicals revolted against Louis Philippe

Corruption 

wanted expanded wage suffrage

Recessioon happening

Condictions perfect for revolutions


The february Revolution

Working class and liberals unhappy with King louis Philippe esp with his minister Francois Guizot

Reformed banquets (Political meetings used to protest againts the king) 

Paris Banquest banned

Troops open fire on protestors

Barricades erected looting

National guard defects to the radicals


King louis Phillippe loses control of Paris and Abdicates on February 24


Feburary days

Resulted in a conservative majority in the national assembly

They began debating the fate of social programs

The conservative majority wanted the removal of radicals from government

In early jjune the national workshops were shut down 


June days

By june upper/Middle classes Intrests controlled

Protest by the poor met with violence from Liberals

1500 Killed

Created hostility between classes

Worker groups in paris rose up in the insurrection

They also said that the government had betrayed the revolution

Workers wanted a redistribution of wealth 

Barricades in the streets

Victor hugo’s Les miserables was based on this event

A new liberal conservative coalition formed to oppose this lower class radicalism 


PResident Louis napoleon

General louis cavaignact assumed dictatorial power and crushed the revolt 

10k dead

A victory for conservatives

1848 national assembly issued new constitution for second republic president

One house legislature

All men one vote

Overwhelming vote for Louis Napoleon, Napoleons nephew


1851 Coup d’Etat

President Louis

Napoleon declared a hereditary 2nd French Empire

A national Plebiscite

Direct vote

Confirmed this

Emperor Napoleon III

Haitian Revoultion

Enlightenment ideals and the revoultuions in the US (1776) and FR (1789) also reached other colonies such as Haiti

Started as a revolt Toussaint Louverture led Haiti in the Fight for independence from FR from roughly 1792 to 1804

With Guerilla tactics resistance to local disease and aid from the US and great Britain the Haitian were able to maintain freedom

Est. Constitution and accomplished the First and only effective slave rebellion debunking theories of black African Inferiority

However the revultions internation reputation was hurt following the 1804 Massacres the murder of all remaining French white including those who aided the rebellion or remained neutral during the conflict


Over 100k Enslavied people rose up in rebellion 4k owners killed (13%)

SURVIVNG WHITES STRUCK BACK KILLING 15K BLACK HAITIANS

10 DAYS =ENSLAVED PEOPLE CONTROLLED THE ENTIRE NORTHERN PROVINCE

900 COFFEE AND 180 SUGAR PLANTATIONS WERE DESTROYED

1792 ENSLAVED PEOPLE HAVE ⅓ OF THE ENTIRE ISLAND

LEGISTLATIVE ASSEMBLY IN FRANCE PASSED LAW UARANTEENING THE RIGHTS OF ALL FREED BLACKS

DISPATCHED 6K NEW FR SOILDERS TO THE ISLAND TO RESTORE ORDER


THE FOLLOWING INCURSION FROM SPAIN AND BRITAIN FRANCE FREED ALL OF THE ENSLAVED PEOPLE ON THE ISLAND ON AUGUST 29 1792

SLAVERY OF THE BLACKS IS ABOLISHED IN ALL THE COLONIES CONSEQUENTLY IT DECREESS THAT ALL MEN LIVING IN THE COLONIES WITHOUT DISTINCTION OF COLOR ARE FRENCH CITIZEN AND ENJOY ALL THE RIGHT GUARANTEED BY THE CONSTITUTION

The latin american Revoultions

Driving forces of revolutions that followed the 19th century was nationalism

Tendency of people to identify based on race culture and language rather than by relgion monarch or historical prinipalities

Latin American the venezuelan simon de bolivar spent extensive time studying enlightenment ideals in Europse in the late 18th and ear;y 19th centuries

Wrote about these ideals extensively in the Jamican Letter Utilizing these ideals with nationalist creole spirit to organze a revolution against spain

1821 he and his forces defeated the main Spanish forced and effectively created the state of Gran colombia near the equator

In coordination with Jose de san Martin the creole leader woh liberated Argentian from spain latin american forces liberated the remianing south American colonies

  1. Bolivar 1807 return from Euro by way of the Us allowed him to study the American system of Govt


  1. 1810 Bolivar went to london to seek support from the revolution in latin america at the same time he studied British institution of Govt


Bolivars route to victory venezuela declares independence in 1811 and He wins by 1821 

San martin leads south liberation forces

Argentina is independent in 1816; San martin helped free Chile

 

Bolivar and san martin’s armies drive Spanish out of Peru in 1824



Mexico ends Spanish rule

Cry for freedom padre miguel hidalgo– Priest who launches Mexican Revolt (1810)

80k Native Americans and Mestizo followers march on Mexico City

Jose Maria morelos — leads revolts after hidalgo’s defeat but loses

Both Hidalgo are morelos were executed

Mexico ends Spanish rule

Mexican creoles react; Iturbide(a Mexican general) Declares mexico independent (1821)

Iturbide reigns briefly as emperor until March 1823

In 1823 Central America breaks away from Mexico


Brazil’s royal liberator

A bloodliess revolution 

Napoleon invades portugal royal family moves to Brazil (1807)

Portuguese court returns to Portugal after naploen’s deafeat (1815)


Brazil’s royal Liberator

Portuguese prince Dom pedro stays behind in Brazil

Dom pedro accepts Brazlilian;s request to rule their own country

He officially declared brazil’s independence (September 1822)

By 1830 Nearly all of latin american regions win independence

19th century Nationalist movement

The sepoy mutiny 

1857-Sepoy soldiers rebelled againts the British when they heard rumors that the bullets they were using ere coated with animal fat(Cows)

The sepoy Mutiny was crushed by the British army

This revealed the hostility between Indians and british

Ottoman nationalism

With similar revolutionary movements in the 1800s the Ottoman Empire attempted to deal with Growing ethnic discontent and nationalism in the Balkans

Implemented an ideal called Ottomanism an attempt at forming a national identity for the multitude of ethnic group within the empire

Sultan issued the tanzimat Reforms abolishing dhimmis status and granting more civil liberties and equalities to non Muslims

These reforms did little to stop national movements and upset the Muslim Population–0 Including Arabs Turks and others

Movement failed by 1912 the Euro balkan Politics and new nations such as Greece Bulgaria and serbia took most remaining Ottoman Territory in Europe during the First balkan war

Unifcation in Germany and italy

Along with revolutionary movements to form national state some feudal states formed nations by unifying with ethnically similar population

Im 1860 and 1870 many of the smaller feudal German and Italian states of the former Holy Roman empire unified into modern day Germany and italy

Led by count cavour from piedmont in Northern Italy and Garibaldi Giuseppe in southern italy Italian states unified by 1871 forming the Kingdom of Italy

German lands Otto Van Bismark of Purssia led a german coalition state against france

And due to their resounding success and a general nationalistic spirit Prussia led the unification of German state (except Austria) Into a single Germany Empire

Filipino nationalism

Fillipino nationalism emerged in the say way latin american nationalism the formation of a creole identity and desire for independence

With aid from the Us spain was defeated during the Philippine revolution

Indepedence was not won as occupying American forces remained

From 1998-1901 and again 1912 fillpinos fought unsuccessfully to remove American forces durring the Philppine American war

Phillppines would not gain indepndence until 1946 after Japanese occupation during WW2 and agreement for independence following liberation by the U.S

  1. European Enlightenment:

    • Shift from the central authority of religion to questioning the roles of God, kings, and nobles.

    • Influence of the scientific revolution on emphasizing reason and rationality in human institutions.

    • English Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke, who introduced concepts of natural rights and the consent of the governed.

  2. French Enlightenment Philosophes:

    • Voltaire's opposition to state religion and advocacy for private religious practice.

    • Rousseau's idea of the general will and the collective will of the people as the ultimate authority.

  3. Impacts of Enlightenment:

    • Spread of revolutionary ideals questioning religion and government.

    • Inspiration for revolutionary movements, including the American Revolution (1776-1783) and national revolutionary movements.

  4. French Revolution:

    • Causes such as financial crisis, social inequality, and Enlightenment ideals.

    • The meeting of the Estates General, the Tennis Court Oath, and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen.

    • The Great Fear, Storming of the Bastille, and the March on Versailles.

    • Reign of Terror, the rise of the Directory, and the eventual rise of Napoleon Bonaparte.

  5. Napoleonic Wars:

    • Napoleon's rise to power, his domestic policies, and the Napoleonic Code.

    • Expansion of Napoleon's empire, the Continental System, and opposition from Britain.

    • Invasion of Russia, the Hundred Days, and the Battle of Waterloo.

    • Napoleon's legacy and the impact on Europe, including the destruction of the Holy Roman Empire.

  6. Latin American Revolutions:

    • Influence of Enlightenment ideals on leaders like Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.

    • Independence movements in Venezuela, Argentina, and Mexico.

    • Brazil's bloodless revolution and the establishment of its independence.

  7. Other Nationalist Movements:

    • Ottoman nationalism and the Tanzimat Reforms.

    • German and Italian unification in the 19th century.

    • Filipino nationalism and struggles for independence.

  8. Sepoy Mutiny (1857) and Ottoman Nationalism:

    • The Sepoy Mutiny in India and its suppression by the British.

    • Ottoman attempts at nationalism through the Tanzimat Reforms.

  9. Unification in Germany and Italy:

    • Count Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi leading the unification of Italy.

    • Otto von Bismarck's role in the unification of Germany.

  10. Filipino Nationalism:

    • The emergence of Filipino nationalism during the Philippine Revolution.

    • The Philippine-American War and the fight for independence.