Physical Science - Chapter 1

# Chapter 1: Modeling Our Orderly World # 1A Order In Our World * What is Physical Science? * Science – the systematic study of the universe to produce observations, interferences, and models * Physical science – the study of nonliving matter and energy * Physics – the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them * Chemistry – the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter as well as changes in matter * What evidence do we have that the universe is orderly * Ability to classify elements * Weather patterns * Molecular Patterns * Design Patterns * Predictable events * Why is it important that the universe is orderly? * Uniformity in nature and the law of cause and effect allow us to make predictions in science What is the source of order in our universe? # 1B Modeling Our World * Why do we do science? * Creation Mandate – the command given in Genesis 1, instructing man to fill the earth and have dominion over it * How do we decide whether or not a particular use of science is right or wrong? * Science itself is not right or wrong/good or bad * Ethics – a system of moral values or a theory of proper conduct * Biblical Principles: What Does God’s Word Say * Genesis 1:26-28 * 1 Timothy 3:15-16 * God's Image Bearers * Creation Mandate * God’s Whole Truth * Biblical Outcomes: What Results are Right? * Human Prospering * A Thriving Creation * Glorifying God * Biblical Motivations: How can I grow through this decision? * Faith in God * Hope in God’s Promises * Love for God and others * Modeling Our World * How do scientists explain and describe the world around them? * Model – a workable explanation or description of a phenomena * A model may be physical, conceptual, or mathematical * Theory - a model that explains a related set of phenomena * Law – a model that describes phenomena under certain conditions \* It does not attempt to explain the phenomena * What is the key to a good model? * Workability – the basis upon which a model is assessed, taking into account how well it explains or describes a set of observations and how well the model makes predictions * How do scientists do science? * Scientific inquiry – an ongoing, orderly, cyclical approach used to investigate the world * Observation * Posing Questions * Research * Forming Hypotheses * Hypothesis: an initial, testable explanation of a phenomenon that stimulates and guides the scientific investigation * Investigation * Analysis * Conclusion # 1C: Using Mathematics for Scientific Inquiry * How do I report data? * Qualitative data is based on words and is obtained by observation * Quantitative data is based on numbers and is obtained by measuring measurement * Data that is based on numbers or quantities * Includes a number and a unit * Also known as quantitative data * How do I get a perfect measurement? * You can’t. * Every measurement has a degree of uncertainty to it. * Accuracy is the comparison of a measurement to an accepted or expected value * Precision is the degree of exactness of a measurement * When measuring with a metric instrument, estimate the measurement to 1/10 of the smallest decimal subdivision on the instrument scale * Significant Digits * Using the concept of Significant Digits (SD), scientists have a way to indicate the precision of their measurements * Identifying Significant Digits * Rule 1: SDs apply only to measured data * Rule 2: All nonzero digits in measured data are significant * Rule 3: All nonzero digits are significant * Rule 4: Decimal points define significant zeros * Rule 5: A decimal point must follow an estimate zero in the one’s place * Scientific Notation * A convenient way of expressing very large and very small numbers * Consists of a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10, which is multiplied by 10 raised to some power * Change to Scientific Notation * Move the decimal point so that the number is between 1 and 10 * Count the spaces the decimal point was moved * Make the number the exponent for the power of 10 * Scientific Notation and Sig Digs * If 50,000m is estimates to the nearest 10,000m, we write it as 150,000m * If 150,00m is estimates to the nearest 1m, we write it as 150,000m Unit Conversion We need a standard system of measurement and a way to convert alternate systems of measurement * SI (Systéme International d’Unités) * A standardized system of measurement units used for science * Stands for “International System of Units” SI Fundamental Units * Length: meter (m) * Mass: kilogram (kg) * Time: second (s) * Electric current: ampere (A) * Temperature: kelvin (K) * Amount of substance: mole (mol) * Intensity of light: candela (Cd) Metric Prefixes * giga- (G): 10^9 (1 000 000 000) * mega- (M): Factor: 10^6 ( 1 000 000) * kilo- (k): Factor: 10^3 (1 000) * larger than fundamental * the number will be smaller * deci- (d): Factor: 10^-1 (0.1) (1/10) * centi- (c): Factor: 10^-2 (0.01) (1/100) * milli- (m): Factor: (10^-3) (0.001) (1/1000) * smaller than the base number * micro- (μ): Factor: 10^-6 (0.000 001) (1/100 000) * nano- (n): Factor: 10^-9 (0.000 000 001) (1/100 000 000) * How do I convert between units? * You can convert between any two units of measures as long as you know the conversion factor * Unit Analysis 1\. write the value that you already know 2\. write the conversion factor which should be a factor NOTE: the old unit does in the denominator 3\. cancel your units 4\. calculate the answer by multiplying and dividing * How it works * Balances and scales * both balances and scales basically weigh things, but use slightly different dimensions * a balance measures mass, while a scale measures height * a balance works like a seesaw, balancing an unknown mass with a known mass * a scale measures force due to gravity (weight) * a scale uses a spring system to determine the amount of force being applied \

# Chapter 1: Modeling Our Orderly World # 1A Order In Our World * What is Physical Science? * Science – the systematic study of the universe to produce observations, interferences, and models * Physical science – the study of nonliving matter and energy * Physics – the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them * Chemistry – the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter as well as changes in matter * What evidence do we have that the universe is orderly * Ability to classify elements * Weather patterns * Molecular Patterns * Design Patterns * Predictable events * Why is it important that the universe is orderly? * Uniformity in nature and the law of cause and effect allow us to make predictions in science What is the source of order in our universe? # 1B Modeling Our World * Why do we do science? * Creation Mandate – the command given in Genesis 1, instructing man to fill the earth and have dominion over it * How do we decide whether or not a particular use of science is right or wrong? * Science itself is not right or wrong/good or bad * Ethics – a system of moral values or a theory of proper conduct * Biblical Principles: What Does God’s Word Say * Genesis 1:26-28 * 1 Timothy 3:15-16 * God's Image Bearers * Creation Mandate * God’s Whole Truth * Biblical Outcomes: What Results are Right? * Human Prospering * A Thriving Creation * Glorifying God * Biblical Motivations: How can I grow through this decision? * Faith in God * Hope in God’s Promises * Love for God and others * Modeling Our World * How do scientists explain and describe the world around them? * Model – a workable explanation or description of a phenomena * A model may be physical, conceptual, or mathematical * Theory - a model that explains a related set of phenomena * Law – a model that describes phenomena under certain conditions \* It does not attempt to explain the phenomena * What is the key to a good model? * Workability – the basis upon which a model is assessed, taking into account how well it explains or describes a set of observations and how well the model makes predictions * How do scientists do science? * Scientific inquiry – an ongoing, orderly, cyclical approach used to investigate the world * Observation * Posing Questions * Research * Forming Hypotheses * Hypothesis: an initial, testable explanation of a phenomenon that stimulates and guides the scientific investigation * Investigation * Analysis * Conclusion # 1C: Using Mathematics for Scientific Inquiry * How do I report data? * Qualitative data is based on words and is obtained by observation * Quantitative data is based on numbers and is obtained by measuring measurement * Data that is based on numbers or quantities * Includes a number and a unit * Also known as quantitative data * How do I get a perfect measurement? * You can’t. * Every measurement has a degree of uncertainty to it. * Accuracy is the comparison of a measurement to an accepted or expected value * Precision is the degree of exactness of a measurement * When measuring with a metric instrument, estimate the measurement to 1/10 of the smallest decimal subdivision on the instrument scale * Significant Digits * Using the concept of Significant Digits (SD), scientists have a way to indicate the precision of their measurements * Identifying Significant Digits * Rule 1: SDs apply only to measured data * Rule 2: All nonzero digits in measured data are significant * Rule 3: All nonzero digits are significant * Rule 4: Decimal points define significant zeros * Rule 5: A decimal point must follow an estimate zero in the one’s place * Scientific Notation * A convenient way of expressing very large and very small numbers * Consists of a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10, which is multiplied by 10 raised to some power * Change to Scientific Notation * Move the decimal point so that the number is between 1 and 10 * Count the spaces the decimal point was moved * Make the number the exponent for the power of 10 * Scientific Notation and Sig Digs * If 50,000m is estimates to the nearest 10,000m, we write it as 150,000m * If 150,00m is estimates to the nearest 1m, we write it as 150,000m Unit Conversion We need a standard system of measurement and a way to convert alternate systems of measurement * SI (Systéme International d’Unités) * A standardized system of measurement units used for science * Stands for “International System of Units” SI Fundamental Units * Length: meter (m) * Mass: kilogram (kg) * Time: second (s) * Electric current: ampere (A) * Temperature: kelvin (K) * Amount of substance: mole (mol) * Intensity of light: candela (Cd) Metric Prefixes * giga- (G): 10^9 (1 000 000 000) * mega- (M): Factor: 10^6 ( 1 000 000) * kilo- (k): Factor: 10^3 (1 000) * larger than fundamental * the number will be smaller * deci- (d): Factor: 10^-1 (0.1) (1/10) * centi- (c): Factor: 10^-2 (0.01) (1/100) * milli- (m): Factor: (10^-3) (0.001) (1/1000) * smaller than the base number * micro- (μ): Factor: 10^-6 (0.000 001) (1/100 000) * nano- (n): Factor: 10^-9 (0.000 000 001) (1/100 000 000) * How do I convert between units? * You can convert between any two units of measures as long as you know the conversion factor * Unit Analysis 1\. write the value that you already know 2\. write the conversion factor which should be a factor NOTE: the old unit does in the denominator 3\. cancel your units 4\. calculate the answer by multiplying and dividing * How it works * Balances and scales * both balances and scales basically weigh things, but use slightly different dimensions * a balance measures mass, while a scale measures height * a balance works like a seesaw, balancing an unknown mass with a known mass * a scale measures force due to gravity (weight) * a scale uses a spring system to determine the amount of force being applied \