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Animalia Foglia

  • Animal Characteristics

    • Heterotrophs

      • Must ingest others for nutrients

    • Multicellular

      • Complex bodies

    • No cell walls

      • Allows active movement

    • Sexual reproduction

      • No alteration of generation

      • No haploid gametophyte

  • Body Cavity

    • Space for organ system development

      • Increase digestive and reproductive systems

      • Increase gamete production

    • Coelem

      • Mesoderm and endoderm

      • Allows complex structures to develop in digestive system

  • Invertebrate: Porifera

    • Sponges

      • No distinct tissues or organs

        • Do have specialized cells

      • No symmetry

      • Sessile

        • No adults

  • Invertebrate: Cnidaria

    • Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral

      • Tissues, but no organs

      • Two cell layers

      • Radial symmetry

      • Predators

        • Tentacles surround gut opening

        • Extracellular digestion

          • Release enzymes into gut cavity

          • Absorption by cell lining gut

  • Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes

    • Flatworms

      • Tapeworm, planaria

      • Mostly parasitic

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

        • Have right and left, then have head end and posterior end

          • Cephalization

Development of brain

  • Concentration of sense organs in head

    • Increase specialization in body plan

  • Invertebrate: Nematode

    • Roundworms

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

      • Body cavity

        • Pseudocoelom

          • Simple body cavity

        • Digestive system

          • Tube running through length of body

      • Many are parasitic

        • Hookworm

  • Invertebrate: Mollusca

    • Mollusks

      • Slugs, snails, clams, squid

      • Bilaterally symmetrical with exceptions

      • Soft bodies, mostly protected by hard shells

      • True coelem

        • Increases complexity and specialization of internal organs

  • Invertebrate: Annelida

    • Segmented worms

      • Earthworms, leeches

      • Segments

        • Increase mobility

        • Redundancy in body section

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

      • True coelem

  • Invertebrate: Arthropoda

    • Spiders, insects, crustaceans

      • Most successful animal phylum

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

      • Segmented

        • Specialized segments

        • Allows jointed appendages

      • Exoskeleton

        • Chitin and protein

  • Arthropod Groups

    • Arachnids

      • 8 legs, 2 body parts

        • Spiders, ticks, scorpions

    • Crustaceans

      • Gills, 2 pairs antennae

        • Crab, lobster, barnacles, shrimp

    • Insects

      • 6 legs, 3 body parts

        • Butterfly, bees, ladybug

  • Invertebrate: Echinodermata

    • Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber

      • Radially symmetrical as adults

      • Spiny exoskeleton

      • Deuterostome

  • Chordata

    • Vertebrates

      • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

      • Internal bony skeleton

        • Backbone encasing spinal column

        • Skull-encased brain

      • Deuterostome

  • Vertebrates: Fish

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Bony and cartilaginous skeleton

        • Jaws and paired appendages

        • Scales

      • Body function

        • Gills for gas exchange

        • Two chambered heart

          • Single loop blood circulation

        • Ectotherms

      • Reproduction

        • External fertilization

        • External development in aquatic egg

  • Vertebrates: Amphibian

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Legs

        • Moist skin

          • Gas exchange

      • Body function

        • Lungs and diffusion through skin for gas exchange

        • Three chambered heart

          • Veins in lung back to heart

        • Ectotherms

      • Reproductions

        • External fertilization

        • External development in aquatic egg

        • Metamorphosis

  • Vertebrates: Reptiles

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Dry skin, scales, armor

      • Body function

        • Lungs for gas exchange

        • Thoracic breathing; negative pressure

        • Three chambered heart

        • Ectotherms

      • Reproduction

        • Internal fertilization

        • External development in amniotic egg

  • Vertebrates: Birds (Aves)

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Feathers and wings

        • Thin, hollow bone flight skeleton

      • Body function

        • Very efficient lungs and air sacs

        • Four chambered heart

        • Endotherms

      • Reproduction

        • Internal fertilization

        • External development in amniotic egg

  • Vertebrates: Mammals

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Hair

        • Specialized teeth

      • Body functions

        • Lungs, diaphragm

        • Four chambered heart

        • Endotherms

      • Reproductions

        • Internal fertilization

        • Internal development in uterus

          • Nourishment through placenta

        • Birth live young

        • Mammary glands make milk

    • Subgroups

      • Monotremes

        • Egg-layaing mammals

        • Lack of placenta and true nipples

        • Duck-billed platypus, echidna

      • Marsupials

        • Pouched mammals

          • Offspring feed from nipples in pouch

        • Short-lived placenta

        • Koala, kangaroo, opossum

      • Placental

        • True placenta

          • Nutrient and waste filter

        • Shrews, bats, whales, humans

NE

Animalia Foglia

  • Animal Characteristics

    • Heterotrophs

      • Must ingest others for nutrients

    • Multicellular

      • Complex bodies

    • No cell walls

      • Allows active movement

    • Sexual reproduction

      • No alteration of generation

      • No haploid gametophyte

  • Body Cavity

    • Space for organ system development

      • Increase digestive and reproductive systems

      • Increase gamete production

    • Coelem

      • Mesoderm and endoderm

      • Allows complex structures to develop in digestive system

  • Invertebrate: Porifera

    • Sponges

      • No distinct tissues or organs

        • Do have specialized cells

      • No symmetry

      • Sessile

        • No adults

  • Invertebrate: Cnidaria

    • Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral

      • Tissues, but no organs

      • Two cell layers

      • Radial symmetry

      • Predators

        • Tentacles surround gut opening

        • Extracellular digestion

          • Release enzymes into gut cavity

          • Absorption by cell lining gut

  • Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes

    • Flatworms

      • Tapeworm, planaria

      • Mostly parasitic

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

        • Have right and left, then have head end and posterior end

          • Cephalization

Development of brain

  • Concentration of sense organs in head

    • Increase specialization in body plan

  • Invertebrate: Nematode

    • Roundworms

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

      • Body cavity

        • Pseudocoelom

          • Simple body cavity

        • Digestive system

          • Tube running through length of body

      • Many are parasitic

        • Hookworm

  • Invertebrate: Mollusca

    • Mollusks

      • Slugs, snails, clams, squid

      • Bilaterally symmetrical with exceptions

      • Soft bodies, mostly protected by hard shells

      • True coelem

        • Increases complexity and specialization of internal organs

  • Invertebrate: Annelida

    • Segmented worms

      • Earthworms, leeches

      • Segments

        • Increase mobility

        • Redundancy in body section

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

      • True coelem

  • Invertebrate: Arthropoda

    • Spiders, insects, crustaceans

      • Most successful animal phylum

      • Bilaterally symmetrical

      • Segmented

        • Specialized segments

        • Allows jointed appendages

      • Exoskeleton

        • Chitin and protein

  • Arthropod Groups

    • Arachnids

      • 8 legs, 2 body parts

        • Spiders, ticks, scorpions

    • Crustaceans

      • Gills, 2 pairs antennae

        • Crab, lobster, barnacles, shrimp

    • Insects

      • 6 legs, 3 body parts

        • Butterfly, bees, ladybug

  • Invertebrate: Echinodermata

    • Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber

      • Radially symmetrical as adults

      • Spiny exoskeleton

      • Deuterostome

  • Chordata

    • Vertebrates

      • Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals

      • Internal bony skeleton

        • Backbone encasing spinal column

        • Skull-encased brain

      • Deuterostome

  • Vertebrates: Fish

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Bony and cartilaginous skeleton

        • Jaws and paired appendages

        • Scales

      • Body function

        • Gills for gas exchange

        • Two chambered heart

          • Single loop blood circulation

        • Ectotherms

      • Reproduction

        • External fertilization

        • External development in aquatic egg

  • Vertebrates: Amphibian

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Legs

        • Moist skin

          • Gas exchange

      • Body function

        • Lungs and diffusion through skin for gas exchange

        • Three chambered heart

          • Veins in lung back to heart

        • Ectotherms

      • Reproductions

        • External fertilization

        • External development in aquatic egg

        • Metamorphosis

  • Vertebrates: Reptiles

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Dry skin, scales, armor

      • Body function

        • Lungs for gas exchange

        • Thoracic breathing; negative pressure

        • Three chambered heart

        • Ectotherms

      • Reproduction

        • Internal fertilization

        • External development in amniotic egg

  • Vertebrates: Birds (Aves)

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Feathers and wings

        • Thin, hollow bone flight skeleton

      • Body function

        • Very efficient lungs and air sacs

        • Four chambered heart

        • Endotherms

      • Reproduction

        • Internal fertilization

        • External development in amniotic egg

  • Vertebrates: Mammals

    • Characteristics

      • Body structure

        • Hair

        • Specialized teeth

      • Body functions

        • Lungs, diaphragm

        • Four chambered heart

        • Endotherms

      • Reproductions

        • Internal fertilization

        • Internal development in uterus

          • Nourishment through placenta

        • Birth live young

        • Mammary glands make milk

    • Subgroups

      • Monotremes

        • Egg-layaing mammals

        • Lack of placenta and true nipples

        • Duck-billed platypus, echidna

      • Marsupials

        • Pouched mammals

          • Offspring feed from nipples in pouch

        • Short-lived placenta

        • Koala, kangaroo, opossum

      • Placental

        • True placenta

          • Nutrient and waste filter

        • Shrews, bats, whales, humans