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Earth Science and Biology

Review of Earth Science

  • Geological Classification

  • Minerals

  • Rocks

  • Plate Tectonics

  • Lithosphere

  • Hydrosphere

  • Atmosphere

  • Astronomy

Geological Classification

Atom → Mineral → Rock → Mountain → Planet → Star System → Universe

Minerals

  • It is a naturally occurring inorganic solid material with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition.

  • Properties of minerals: crystal shape, luster, color, streak, tenacity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, density

  • Most common element composition of minerals: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium

  • Silicates - the most common group of minerals, contain -SO2 groups that have a tetrahedral crystal shape.

  • Carbonates - minerals that contain carbonate ions that exhibit effervescence

  • Ore - naturally occurring concentration of mineral deposits that can be mined.

Value

Mineral

Shortcut

1

Talc

True

2

Gypsum

Geologists

3

Calcite

Climb

4

Fluorite

Faults

5

Apatite

And

6

Orthoclase

Observe

7

Quartz

Quarries

8

Topaz

To

9

Corundum

Contemplate

10

Diamond

Deformation

Rocks

consolidated mixtures of minerals

Types of Rocks

  1. Igneous

  • formed from cooled magma that solidified through crystallization

  • classified by texture and mineral composition

  • size of solidified crystals dependent on the rate of cooling of magma

  • Types of Igneous Rocks:

    a. Intrusive - large crystals formed from slow cooling of magma below Earth’s surface

    b. Extrusive - tiny crystals formed from the quick cooling of lava at the Earth’s Surface

  1. Sedimentary

  • Formed from the lithification of sediment

    a. Detrital sediment - originate as solid particles derived from weathering and are transported

    b. Chemical deposition - creates from soluble materials produced by chemical weathering

  1. Metamorphic

  • formed from previous rocks that were subjected to extreme pressure and heat

    Metamorphism

  • rocks are subjected to extreme heat and pressure

    Effects of Metamorphism:

  • Increased density

  • Recrystallization

  • Reorientation of mineral grains

  • Formation of new minerals

Plate Tectonics

  1. Continental Drift - hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener of the breaking apart of a supercontinent into smaller continents, then drifting into their current positions; no scientific explanation for the drifting mechanism was proposed.

  2. Plate Tectonics - provides the mechanism for the continental drift hypothesis and proposes that the Earth is divided into a solid and liquid layers.

    Lithosphere - an outer solid layer of the Earth, divided into segments called plates; plates move uniformly and are deformed across their boundaries

    Asthenosphere - a weaker inner liquid layer of the Earth

  3. Earthquake - rapid vibration of Earth due to the release of energy from rocks that were subjected to extreme pressure; happens in faults, which are associated with plate boundaries.

Three Types of Plate Boundaries:

Convergent Boundary

  • Plates move towards each other.

  • Results in the subduction of oceanic lithosphere

  • Associated with the formation of volcanic arcs and the formation of mountain ranges

  • Example: Himalayas

Types of Convergent Boundaries:

  1. Oceanic-Oceanic: one of the oceanic plates will go under the other, producing magma chambers that make volcanic island chains, trenches

  2. Continental-Continental: produces compressed rocks, which form mountain ranges

  3. Oceanic-Continental: the oceanic plate will go under the continental scale, producing magma chambers that have volcanoes, and mountain ranges such as the Andes

Divergent Boundary

  • Plates move apart from each other.

  • Results in upwelling of magma

  • Associate with seafloor spreading

  • Example: Mid-Atlantic RidgePlates

1

.

1

.

Transform Boundary

  • Plates grind against each other.

  • No lithosphere is created nor destroyed.

  • Can be sites for earthquakes

Evidence of Plate Tectonics:

a. Jigsaw fit of the coastlines of South America and Africa

b. Similar fossils were found on continents separated by water

c. Similar fragments of mountain belts were found on continents separated by water

d. Similar glacial deposits are located in the Antarctic, Africa, South America, India, and Australia

, e. Sediments closer to plate boundaries have ages that are different from those of farther sediments

f. Island hotspots - moving lithosphere creates several islands even if there is only one magma source

, g. Paleomagnetism - evidence of the changing location of the magnetic north pole; different paths of the change of the magnetic north pole imply that the plates move

Volcanism

Composition of a volcanic eruption:

a. Lava Flow

b. Gases

c. Pyroclastic Material

Types of Pyroclastic Material by Size:

Ash/Dust → Lapilli/Cinder → Block → Bomb

Types of Volcanoes:

Composite Volcano

symmetrical cones with structures of interbedded lava and pyroclastic material

Cinder Cone Volcano

have steep slopes made up of pyroclastic material

Shield Volcano

broad, domed volcanoes composed of basaltic lava

Lithosphere

External Processes:

  • Weathering - disintegration, and decomposition of rock near the surface

  • Mass-wasting - transfer of rock material down a slope due to gravity

  • Erosion - incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent such as water or wind

Internal Processes:

Movement of tectonic plates

  • Can result in earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes, mountains, rift valleys, trenches, mid-oceanic ridges, and islands.

Hydrosphere

  • Continental Shelf: underwater landmass that extends from the coastline to the shelf break, then towards the deep-ocean basin.

  • Continental Slope: steep sloping from the continental shelf into the deep ocean floor

  • Continental Rise: found where trenches do not exist, smoother, and has a gradual incline.

  • Deep-ocean Basin: found in between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge system

  • Deep-ocean Trenches: crustal plates descending into the mantle

  • Abyssal Plains: level area, contains thick accumulations of sediment

  • Seamounts and Guyots: isolated volcanic peaks

  • Oceanic Plateaus: accumulations of basaltic lava flows atolls reef-building of corals and other organisms on the side of sinking volcano islands

  • Oceanic Ridge: found in the middle of ocean basins, site of divergent plate boundaries where seafloor spreading occurs

  • Upwelling: cold water moving up from deeper layers

  • Shore: an area extending between the lowest tide level and the highest elevation on land which is affected by storm waves

  • Beach: accumulation of sediment found along the landward margin of the shore

  • Tides: daily rise and fall in the elevation of the ocean surface at a specific location; caused by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun

  • Hydrologic Cycle: water being exchanged continuously between the oceans, the atmosphere, and the continents

  • Drainage Basin: a land area that feeds water to a stream

  • Groundwater: water that occupies spaces in the bedrock, the largest reservoir of fresh water available to humans

  • Spring: the intersection of a water table to the surface

  • Geyser: heated groundwater that expands and changes to steam, causing a water eruption

Atmosphere

  • Thermosphere: where space shuttles orbit; gasses here are not distributed uniformly; temperature increases as altitude increases

  • Mesosphere: where most meteors burn up; temperature decreases as altitude increases

  • Stratosphere: site of absorption of ultraviolet radiation due to the high concentration of ozone; temperature increases as altitude increases

  • Troposphere: site of most weather phenomena; temperature decreases as altitude increases

  • Weather: status of the atmosphere during a specific period

  • Climate: generalization of weather conditions of a place over a long period

  • El Niño: periodic warming of the central and eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean

  • La Niña: periodic cooling of the central and eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean

  • Wind: the flow of air from areas of high to low pressure

  • Air mass: large air body with the same temperature and moisture content

  • Front: separates air masses of different densities

  • Humidity: a measure of moisture in the air

  • Clouds: condensed visible aggregates of water droplets or ice crystals

  • Fog: cloud-based near the ground

  • Precipitation: joining of several tiny cloud droplets, may be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, glaze, hail, or rime.

  • Air pressure: the downward force exerted by air particles

  • Anticyclone: center of high-pressure regions; fair and transparent weather is expected

  • Cyclone: air mass rotating around a low-pressure center; cloudy conditions and precipitation are expected

  • Hurricanes: tropical cyclones with wind speeds exceeding 119 kph

  • Thunderstorms: caused by the upwards movement of warm, moist air, associated with cumulonimbus clouds

  • Tornadoes: violent windstorms taking the form of a rotating column of air that extends down a cumulonimbus cloud

Elements of Weather:

  • Air temperature

  • Relative humidity

  • Cloudiness

  • Precipitation

  • Air pressure

  • Wind speed

Types of Clouds:

  • Cirrus - high, white, and thin

  • Cumulus - consists of individual globular masses

  • Stratus - low-lying, sheet-like

Astronomy

Models of the Solar System

  • Geocentric theory - Earth is the center of the solar system/universe.

  • Heliocentric Theory - the solar system revolves around the sun

Motions of the Earth

  • Rotation

    • Earth spinning on its axis

  • Revolution

    • Earth is moving along its solar orbit.

  • Precession

    • Slow-motion of Earth’s axis tracing out a cone

Eclipse

  • Solar Eclipse: Occurs when the Moon blocks the Earth from receiving sunlight; only appears in the new moon phase

  • Lunar Eclipse: occurs when the earth blocks the moon from receiving sunlight

Moon

  • the lone natural satellite of the Earth

  • rotation and revolution are simultaneous. Thus, only one side is visible on Earth

  • lower gravitational force than Earth; objects weigh lighter

  • originated from a large body crashing into the proto-Earth, ejecting molten material which cooled into the Moon

Sun

  • Photosphere: the surface of the Sun; source of solar radiation

  • Chromosphere: a thin layer of incandescent gases above the photosphere

  • Corona: outermost portion of the Sun’s atmosphere, crown-shaped

  • Sunspots: dark blemishes on the surface of the Sun

  • Prominences: cloudlike structures that jut out of the chromosphere

  • Solar Flares: a brief outburst of a sunspot cluster; causes Aurora Borealis near the Earth’s north and south poles

  • Core: central region of the sun where hydrogen is transformed into helium; the energy of the reaction is released as light

  • Spicule: a jet of gas ejected from the chromosphere

Stars and the Universe

  • Big Bang Theory: most accurate explanation of the beginning of the universe, with a cataclysmic explosion that followed with the expansion and cooling of the universe

  • Hertzprung-Russell Diagrams: plots stars according to their absolute magnitude and diagram spectral type; divides stars into three general categories.

  • Nebula: interstellar cloud consisting primarily of hydrogen and helium birthplace of stars

  • Protostar: gravitational attraction of particles in the nebula; start of hydrogen fusion

  • Main sequence: a star with minimal change in size or energy output

  • Star: continuous hydrogen fusion until all hydrogen is depleted

  • Red Giant: a star in which hydrogen is nearly depleted, resulting in a helium-rich core; start of core contraction

  • White Dwarf: a slow star consumption of depleted hydrogen fuel

  • Planetary Nebula: a spherical cloud of particles made up of heavy elements

  • Supernova: the bright explosion of a red supergiant

  • Neutron Star: a small, extremely dense star resulting from a supernova implosion

  • Black Hole: resulting from a supernova explosion of supermassive stars produces a gravitational field that also attracts light

  • Constellation: a group of stars seen from the Earth, forming patterns in the sky and changing position over time due to Earth’s revolution

  • Galaxy: a collection of interstellar matter, stars, and stellar remnants that are bound by gravity

Life Cycle of a Star

For an average star:

Nebula → Protostar → Main Sequence Star → Red Giant → Planetary Nebula → White Dwarf

For a massive star:

Nebula → Protostar → Massive Star → Red Supergiant → Supernova → Neutron Star or Black Hole

Types of Galaxies

  • Spiral Galaxy

  • Elliptical Galaxy

  • Irregular Galaxy

Solar System

Plants in the Solar System

Terrestrial Planets:

  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

  • Smaller, more dense, mostly rocky composition

Jovian Planets:

  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

  • Larger, gaseous planets

Small Solar System Bodies

  • Asteroid: rocky/metallic material more than 100m in diameter

  • Meteoroid: small chunk of rocky/metallic material traveling in space

  • Comet: a loose collection of rocky material, frozen gases, dust, and ice

  • Dwarf Planets: spherical celestial bodies orbiting the Sun that are too small to remove smaller objects in their orbit

More Information on Earth Science

  1. What type of energy can be used to power a geothermal power plant?

    The heat energy is passed through lava to the surface of the earth.

    During a volcano eruption, the heat energy is transferred through lava to the surface of Earth. In a short time, the lava begins to cool. As the heat escapes, the lava hardens to dark black rock. This heat can be used to power a geothermal power plant.

  2. The Sun is believed to have a lifespan of 10 billion years before it enters the red giant stage.

    A white dwarf is the last stage in the life cycle of a star like the Sun.

  3. As the world moves, the visible stars are changing, just like the seasons. Different constellations will depend on the time and place in which the observer is located. Based on this information, we can say that other constellations are not found in other parts of the world with different seasons.

    Since the world rotates, we experience different seasons, and like the seasons, the stars we see also change.

  4. During which phase of the moon does a solar eclipse occur?

    New moon

    An eclipse of the Sun can only occur at New Moon when the Moon passes between Earth and Sun. A lunar eclipse occurs at a Full Moon when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon.

Review of Biology

  • Biomolecules

  • Cells

  • Cellular Reproduction

  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

  • Organ System

  • Genetics

  • Evolution and Taxonomy

  • Ecology

Biomolecules

  1. Carbohydrates - sugars and polymers of sugars, composed of a carbonyl and hydroxide group

    a. Monosaccharide 0 single carbon skeleton

    b. Disaccharides - two monosaccharides linked by a glycosidic bond

    c. Polysaccharides - several linked monosaccharides

  2. Lipids - hydrophobic nonpolar hydrocarbon molecules

    a. Fats - consist of glycerol connected to a fatty acid through an ester linkage

    • Unsaturated Fat - contains a cis-double bond in the fatty acid; liquid at room temperature

    • Saturated Fat - no fatty acid double bonds; solid at room temperature

    • Trans Fat - contains a trans-double bond in the fatty acid

    b. Phospholipids - lipids with a phosphate group attached to the glycerol, has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end; compose the cell membrane

    c. Steroids - carbon skeleton is composed of four fused rings

  3. Proteins - consist of one or more chains of amino acids

    • Amino acid - consists of an amino group and carboxyl group there are 20 kinds of amino acids

  4. Nucleic Acids - polymers of nucleotides

    • Nucleotide - contains a nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group

      a. Pyrimidines - Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil

      b. Purines - Adenine, Guanine

Cells

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Genetic Information

DNA is round and flows freely in the cytoplasm

DNA is helix-shaped and straight, found in the nucleus

Organelles

DNA, plasma membrane, nucleoid, cytoplasm

DNA, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, Golgi body

Cell Wall

Present, composed of peptidoglycans

It can be found in plant and fungal cells but is not composed of peptidoglycans; it can’t be found in animal cells

Size

Small

Larger

Organisms

Bacteria and archaea

Animals, plants, fungi, and protists

Cell Structure

Unicellular

Can be unicellular or multicellular

Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell

Parts

Characteristics

Nucleus

control center; houses genetic material

Ribosome

free-floating or attached; site of protein synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

site of lipid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

synthesizer of membranes and proteins; has attached ribosomes

Golgi apparatus

modifier, sorter, and shipper of materials throughout the cell

Lysosome

digests cellular materials

Vacuoles

storage sac of water and nutrients

Mitochondrion

site of cellular respiration

Chloroplast

site of photosynthesis

Peroxisome

producer of hydrogen peroxide and other enzymes involved in metabolic reactions

Cytoplasm

a gel-like substance that fills the cell; the location of most biochemical reactions

Plasmodesmata

pores between cell walls that allow intercellular communication

Cell membrane

semi-permeable layer that surrounds the cytoplasm

Cell wall

covers and protects the cell membrane

Differences Between Animal and Plant Cell

Features

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Lysosome

absent

present

Centrosome with centriole

absent

present

Chloroplast

present

absent

Vacuole

present; central and relatively larger

present

Cell wall

present

present

Plasmodesmata

present

present

Modern Cell Theory

  1. All living things are composed or made up of cells, the most basic life unit.

  2. Cells are products of the reproduction of pre-existing cells.

  3. Cells pass genetic information to their offspring cells.

  4. Cells have similar chemical compositions compared to other cells.

  5. Cells are the sites of energy flow mechanisms such as respiration and metabolism.

Types of Cell Transport

  1. Passive transport - adenosine triphosphate is not required

    a. Diffusion - transfer of materials from a higher concentration to a lower concentration

    b. Osmosis - water transfer towards the membrane's side with a higher solute concentration. A solution, relative to the cell, can be:

    • hypotonic

    • hypertonic

    • isotonic

  2. Active transport - use of ATP to move nutrients against a concentration gradient

    a. Exocytosis - vesicles stick to the cell membrane and expel their contents

    b. Endocytosis - molecules enter the cell through phagocytosis or pinocytosis

Cellular Reproduction

  • Interphase - consists of the G1, S, and G2 phase

  • G1, G2 -phrase - cell growth and metabolism phase

  • S-phase - The DNA synthesis phase occurs between G1 and G2, and chromosomes are duplicated.

  • Mitotic Phase - consists of Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase

  • Meiosis - Haploid: N number of chromosomes; Diploid: 2N number of chromosomes

  • Meiosis I - similar mitosis, produces two diploid daughter cells.

  • Meiosis II - occurs right after meiosis I and produces two haploid daughter cells.

Telophase

  • start of cytokinesis and formation of cleavage furrow

  • nuclear envelopes and nucleolus form

  • chromosomes become less condensed

  • mitotic spindles disappear

Prophase

  • nucleolus disappears

  • mitotic spindle forms

  • duplicated chromosomes appear as sister chromatids

  • centrosomes move in opposite directions

Prometaphase

  • nuclear envelope disappears

  • chromosomes become condensed

  • sister chromatids captured by kinetochore microtubules

  • mitotic spindle attaches to kinetochore

Metaphase

  • centrosomes now at opposite sides of the cell

  • chromosomes align at the metaphase plate

Anaphase

  • sister chromatids break apart from each other

  • shortening of microtubules, pulling chromatids toward opposite ends

  • cell elongates

Centrosome

contains material that functions in organizing mitotic spindles

Centromere

attachment point of two sister chromatids

Kinetochore

site of attachment of mitotic spindle to chromosomes

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

  1. Meiosis has synapsis during Prophase I.

  2. Metaphase I aligns two chromatids simultaneously, compared to one for mitosis.

  3. Meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells with different genetic materials, while mitosis produces two diploid daughter cells with the same genetic material.

  4. Meiosis occurs only to produce egg and sperm cells.

Primary Purposes of Mitosis

  1. Asexual Reproduction - Mitosis is the method of reproduction of single-celled asexual organisms.

  2. Growth - Mitosis is involved in cell reproduction, resulting in increased cell number, adding mass to the body.

  3. Tissue Repair - Mitosis produces cells that replace damaged or dead cells.

Primary Purposes of Meiosis

  1. Sexual Reproduction - Meiosis of a single diploid germ cell involved DNA replication followed by two-division rounds, resulting in haploid cells called gametes. These haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes of the original single diploid germ cell. This also results in genetic variation among the haploid cells.

  2. Spermatogenesis - Immature sperm cells undergo successive cell divisions and a change in cell form to produce mature sperm cells.

  3. Oogenesis - The formation of the ovum or egg. Oogenesis consists of two events: the ovum precursor germ cell undergoes meiotic division and accumulates a significant amount of cytoplasm.

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis

Light reactions

  • Chlorophyll helps absorb the energy from the light.

  • Protons from light enter a photosystem that excites a single electron.

  • Water is split into electrons, H+ and O2; the O2 is released as a by-product, and the H+ is released into the thylakoid for future use.

  • The excited electrons pass the energy along an electron transport chain, producing ATP. In the process, NADP+ is the final electron acceptor and is converted into NADPH.

Calvin Cycle

  • Carbon fixation and reduction of RuBP by CO2 convert it into G3P, which can be further processed into glucose.

  • The fixed and reduced RuBP is then converted back to be ready for the next cycle; the whole cycle consumes ATP and NADPH.

Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis

Breakdown of glucose and investment of 2 ATP to produce pyruvate, 4 ATP, and 2 NADPH.

Pyruvate Oxidation

Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl CoA, producing CO2 and transforming NAD+ into NADH in the process.

Citric Acid Cycle/Krebs Cycle

  1. Acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate, which undergoes another series of reactions, reducing NAD+ into NADH, FAD+ into FADH2, ADP into ATP, and producing CO2; 2 ATP is produced per molecule of glucose.

  2. Oxaloacetate is converted back to original form to be used in the next cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation/Electron Transport Chain

  1. Electron transport chain: electrons are transported from NADH and passed on until it reaches O2, converting them into water.

  2. Chemiosmosis: H+ ions travel through ATP synthase, allowing it to synthesize ADP into ATP; 32 to 34 ATP is produced.

Fermentation

occurs when there is no O2 present after glycolysis

  1. Alcohol fermentation: pyruvate to ethanol

  2. Lactic acid fermentation: pyruvate to lactic acid

Organ Systems

  1. Digestive System

    • Food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.

    • Mouth/Oral Cavity: site of ingestion, mechanical digestion, and chemical digestion

    • Esophagus: moves bolus from the mouth to the stomach

    • Stomach: digests proteins and added gastric juice, producing chyme

    • Small Intestine: site of most enzymatic hydrolysis

    • Pancreas: produces an alkaline solution to stabilize acidic chyme

    • Liver: creates bile, which helps digest lipids

    • Gallbladder: stores bile

    • Large Intestine: reabsorbs water to solidify feces

  2. Circulatory System

    • 4 Heart Chambers: Left Ventricle, Right Ventricle, Left Atrium, Right Atrium

    • Blood Vessels

      a. Arteries: transport blood away from the heart

      • Pulmonary Artery: an artery that transports deoxygenated blood from the heart’s right ventricle to the lungs

      • Aorta: largest artery, transports blood from the heart to other parts of the body

      b. Veins: transport blood towards the heart

      • Pulmonary Vein: a vein that transports oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart’s left atrium

      • Superior Vena Cava: a most prominent vein that transports oxygen-poor blood from the upper half of the body to the heart’s right atrium

      • Inferior Vena Cava: transports oxygen-poor blood from the lower half of the body to the heart’s correct atrium

      c. Capillaries: site of exchange of oxygen and other materials between cells and blood

  3. Respiratory System

    • Lungs - the central organ of the respiratory system; house the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

    • Air pathway:

      Mouth/Nose → Pharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveoli

  4. Immune System

    • Includes lymphoid organs such as the thymus, spleen, tonsils, bone marrow, the skin, and specialized cells.

    • Innate Immunity - a defense that is activated immediately and is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously

    • Adaptive Immunity - receptors recognize features of a specific pathogen and develop an immunity against it

  5. Excretory System

    • Kidney - carries out osmoregulation and excretion of urea in mammals.

    • Ureter - duct which transports urine from the kidney to the bladder

    • Bladder - place where urine is stored before excretion

    • Urethra - tube in which urine from the bladder is excreted

  6. Reproductive System

    a. Male Reproductive System

    • Testes - male gonads produce sperm in the seminiferous tubules.

    • Epididymis - site of sperm cell storage and maturation

    • Vas Deferens - transports sperm cells from the testes to the urethra.

    • Seminal Vesicles - provide fluids that constitute most of the semen to nourish the sperm cells.

    • Prostate Glands - produces fluids that lubricate and neutralize the acidity of the urethra.

    • Bulbourethral Glands - produces fluids that lubricate and neutralize the acidity of the urethra.

    • Scrotum - sac of skin that protects and regulates the temperature of the testicles

    • Penis - a series of muscular erectile tissues that aid in sexual intercourse

    b. Female Reproductive System

    • Labia Majora - protect female external reproductive organs

    • Labia Minora - surround and protect the vagina and urethra.

    • Bartholin’s Glands - produce mucus.

    • Clitoris - meeting point of labia minora, sensitive to simulation

    • Ovaries - female gonads, site of maturation of oocytes

    • Fallopian Tube - passageway of an egg cell from the ovary to the uterus

    • Uterus - womb, site of fertilized egg maturity

    • Cervix - uterus neck that separates it from the vagina

    • Vagina - opening of the female reproductive system to the environment

    c. Gametogenesis - production of gametes, continuous and prolific in males, only active in females up to the age of 50

    d. Early Animal Development

    • Sexual reproduction - a fusion of two haploid cells from different individuals, forming a zygote.

    • Asexual reproduction - generation of new individuals without the need for fertilization

    • Differentiation - assignment of divided cells into specialized functions

    • Gastrula - a group of cells from a divided zygote that shows first cell differentiation into three germ layers:

      • Ectoderm - becomes future epidermis, nervous system, and sensory organs.

      • Mesoderm - becomes future skeletal, muscular, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems.

      • Endoderm - becomes future liver, thymus.

  7. Nervous System

    • Central Nervous System - site of processing of nerve impulses

    • Peripheral Nervous System - site of detection and transmission of nerve impulses

    • Neurons - nerve cells that carry impulses across the body

      • Types of Neurons

        1. Afferent Neurons - carry signals toward the CNS.

        2. Interneurons - present in CNS, pass signals from afferent neurons to efferent neurons.

        3. Efferent Neurons - transmit signals from the CNS towards the motor and sensory organs.

    • Autonomic Nervous System - functions involuntarily, controls the smooth and cardiac muscles, divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which do antagonistic/opposite effects from each other.

    • Sympathetic Nervous System - manages the body’s stress response.

    • Parasympathetic Nervous System - manages the body at rest.

  8. Endocrine System

    a. Hypothalamus

    • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone - stimulates the anterior pituitary gland release of TSH.

    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - stimulates the anterior pituitary gland release of FSH and LH.

    • Growth hormone-releasing hormone - stimulates the anterior pituitary gland release of GH.

    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone - stimulates anterior pituitary gland release of ACTH.

    • Somatostatin - decreases the amount of released GH and TSH.

    • Dopamine - decreases the amount of released prolactin and activates “reward centers” of the brain

    b. Anterior pituitary gland

    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone - stimulates thyroxin release from the thyroid gland.

    • Luteinizing hormone - promotes estrogen production, progesterone production, and ovulation in females and announces testosterone release in males.

    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone - promotes hormone released by the adrenal cortex.

    • Follicle-stimulating hormone - promotes the development of effects and follicles in females and stimulates testosterone production in males.

    • Growth hormone - promotes the growth of the bones and muscles.

    • Prolactin - promotes milk production in breasts.

    c. Posterior pituitary gland

    • Vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone - maintains blood pressure by increasing kidney fluid retention.

    • Oxytocin - stimulates contractions of the uterus at birth, stimulates the release of milk when a baby suckles

    d. Thyroid gland

    • Thyroxine - increases energy expended during rest periods.

    • Calcitonin - reduces blood calcium concentration levels

    e. Parathyroid gland

    • Parathyroid hormone - increases calcium absorption in the small intestine and increases calcium release rate from bones

    f. Adrenal cortex

    • Cortisol - has anti-inflammatory properties and regulates the immune system.

    • Aldosterone - raises levels of sodium in the blood

    g. Pancreas

    • Insulin - lowers blood sugar levels when necessary.

    • Glucagon - raises blood sugar levels when necessary.

    h. Adrenal medulla

    • Produces the stress hormones in a fight-or-flight situation:

      • Adrenaline - increases heart rate and blood sugar levels and relaxes breathing muscles to improve breathing.

      • Noradrenaline increases heart rate, blood sugar, and blood pressure by narrowing blood vessels.

    i. Pineal gland

    • Melatonin - regulates circadian rhythms or sleep cycles

    j. Ovaries

    • Estrogen - primary female sex hormone; development of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics

    k. Corpus luteum

    • Progesterone - regulates the menstrual cycle and is crucial for pregnancy

    l. Testes

    • Androgens - cause the development of secondary male characteristics like sperm cell production.

  9. Musculoskeletal Systems

    • Endoskeleton - the internal skeleton of chordates that consists of bones and cartilage

    • Tendons - attach the striated muscles to bones.

    • Ligaments - connect bones inside joints.

    • Types of muscles

      • Smooth muscle - muscles found in internal organs, involuntary action

      • Cardiac muscle - muscles found in the heart, involuntary action

      • Skeletal Muscle - muscles that aid in locomotion, voluntary action

Genetics

  1. Mendelian Genetics

    • Law of segregation and Mendel’s Genetic Model

      a. Alternative/different versions of a gene are expressed as alleles, which may be dominant or recessive.

      b. If a dominant allele is present, it will determine the gene’s expression.

      c. Each offspring inherits an allele from each parent.

      d. The two alleles in a gene separate so that different gametes contain one of each allele.

    • Phenotype - external appearance dictated by genotype

    • Genotype - genetic make-up of gene, shows the alleles present.

    • Homozygous - genotypes that contain the same type of alleles

    • Heterozygous - genotypes that contain different types of alleles

    • Punnett Square - used to determine genotype and phenotype of offspring in a parent test cross.

  2. Non-Mendelian Genetics

    • Incomplete Dominance

      Heterozygous offspring have phenotypes that are intermediate between dominant and recessive types.

    • Codominance

      Heterozygous offspring have phenotypes where both dominant and recessive types are expressed.

    • Multiple Alleles

      A gene still contains two alleles, but more than two types of alleles have different degrees of dominance.

    • Pleiotropy

      A single gene affects different phenotypes.

    • Epistasis

      A single phenotype is affected by two different genes.

    • Polygenic Inheritance

      A gene expression is not limited to different traits but several degrees of the trait. Two or more genes also contribute to the phenotype.

Chromosomes and DNA

a. Sex-linked genes

  • Genes that are found in the 23rd pair of chromosomes/sex chromosomes

  • Females have an XX chromosome. Males have an XY chromosome.

    • Examples of diseases with X-linked dominant inheritance are vitamin D-resistant rickets, oral-facial-digital syndrome type I, and Fragile X syndrome.

    • Examples of diseases with X-linked recessive inheritance are red-green color blindness, hemophilia A and B, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  • If a gene is found in the Y chromosome, it will only be passed to male offspring.

  • Central Dogma

    • describes the processes of gene expression from DNA to the external appearance

    • DNA Replication: involves unwinding and unzipping of DNA, separating nucleotide pairs; enzymes add base pairs to the unzipped DNA, forming two copies of the original strand

    • Transcription: synthesis/creation of mRNA in the nucleus; mRNA nucleotide chain is based on the template strand of DNA and will be the complement

    • Translation: synthesis/creation of proteins in the ribosome given an mRNA sequence; each group of the consecutive nucleotides translates to a given amino acid which constitutes the protein

b. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • Double-helix structure constitutes the chromosome.

  • Complementary base pairing: only a purine can bind with a pyrimidine

c. RNA: Ribonucleic Acid

  • single-strand only contains one chain of nucleotide bases

  • contains A, C, G, and U

  • mRNA - messenger RNA, contains genetic information used to form a polypeptide

  • tRNA - transfer RNA transports amino acids to ribosomes

  • rRNA - ribosomal RNA makes up the ribosomes

Applications of Genetics

  1. Paternity testing uses DNA to determine if a person is a child's parent.

  2. Mammalian gene expression is the production of genetic products from gene instructions.

  3. Recombinant DNA technology involves joining DNA strands of two different organisms to produce certain traits, such as parasitic resistance, in an organism.

  4. Reproductive cloning involves creating an organism genetically identical to a donor organism through somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Evolution & Taxonomy

  • Binomial nomenclature is a scientific way of naming organisms; each organism is given a scientific name based on its genus and species.

  • Phylogeny - the study of the evolutionary histories of organisms

  • Systematics - a discipline focused on determining the evolutionary relationships of different organisms

Evolution

descent with modification shaped through natural selection

Natural Selection

  1. Individual organisms have variations in traits.

  2. Individuals organisms with traits that are more adapted to the environment survive and pass on those traits to their offspring

  3. Increases the match/harmony of the organism to its environment

Proofs of Evolution

  1. Adaptive evolution

  2. Homology - similarity due to common ancestry

  3. Fossil records

  4. Molecular biology - DNA analysis shows common DNA strands among organisms.

Classification of Life

Domain → Kingdom → Phylum → Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species

Dear King Philip Came Over From Great Spain

Organization of Life

Biosphere → Biome → Ecosystem → Community → Population → Organism → Organ System → Organ → Tissue → Cell

Three Domain System

  1. Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotic organisms

  2. Domain Archaea - prokaryotes that have no peptidoglycan in their cell walls

  3. Domain Bacteria - prokaryotes that have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

Prokaryotes

  • Have no true nucleus and mitochondria

  • Have circular chromosomes

  • Fast reproduction, allowing for quick adaptive evolution

  • Multiple modes of nutrition

Eukaryotes

a. Protists

  1. Eukaryotic, single-called organisms

  2. Multiple modes of nutrition

  • Endosymbiosis - engulfing of unicellular cells by another cell, eventually becoming an organelle of it

  • Animal-like protists - include amoeba and the common ancestors of animals and fungi.

  • Plant-like protists - photosynthetic protists that arose from endosymbiosis

b. Plants

  • Bryophytes: land plants with no vascular system, consist of liverworts, hornworts, and mosses

  • Ferns: the majority of plants during the Carboniferous Period reproduce using spores

  • Gymnosperms: cone-bearing plants that have seeds with unenclosed ovaries

  • Angiosperms: seeds grow inside a fruit

  • Monocots: angiosperms that only have one cotyledon in the seed

  • Dicots: angiosperms with two cotyledons in the seed

Name

Vascular System?

Seed-bearing?

Seed encasement

Bryophytes

No

No

Ferns

Yes

No

Gymnosperms

Yes

Yes

Cones

Angiosperms

Yes

Yes

Fruits

c. Fungi

  • Heterotrophs that feed through absorption of foodstuffs

  • May reproduce sexually through spores, or asexually through budding, fragmentation, or spores

d. Animals

  • ingest food and uses enzymes to digest it into smaller molecules

  • multicellular eukaryotes containing collage in their cells for structural support

  • Invertebrates

Phylum

Characteristic

Examples

Porifera

No actual issues but have choanocytes

Sponges

Cnidaria

Have stinging structures, radially symmetric, gastrovascular cavity

Hydras, Jellyfish

Platyhelminthes

Dorsoventrally flat, unsegmented, gastrovascular cavity

Flatworms

Mollusca

Bilaterally symmetrical

Snails, Mollusks

Annelida

Segmented body wall and internal organs

Earthworms

Nematoda

Unsegmented, has pseudocoelom

Roundworms

Arthropoda

Segmented, has coelom and exoskeleton

Insects

Echinodermata

Five-part body organization

Sea stars

  • Chordates and Vertebrates

    • Four Characteristics of Chordates

      • Notochord

      • A dorsal, hollow nerve cord

      • Pharyngeal slits

      • Post-anal tail

    • Vertebrates - organisms with a backbone or vertebrae

    • Fish - the first organisms to develop jaws live in aquatic environments

    • Amphibians - the first four-limbed organisms, live both on land and water.

    • Reptiles - lay terrestrial amniotic eggs, ectothermic

    • Birds - lay eggs, have feathers and are endothermic.

    • Mammals - endothermic, have mammary glands which produce milk.

Ecology

  • Population - a group of organisms of the same species living in the exact location

  • Community - a group of populations of different species living in the same area

  • Trophic Structure - the structure of feeding relationships in a community

  • Food Chain - shows energy exchange in a community as it goes up to different trophic levels from plants to herbivores to carnivores.

  • Food Web - shows the relationships and connections.

  • Ecological Succession - sequence of community and ecosystem changes over time.

  • Ecosystem - a community of organisms in an area and the influence of abiotic factors

  • Biome - a mosaic of ecosystems that have the same climate

  • Biosphere - the global ecosystem, the union of all of Earth’s biomes and ecosystems

Population Ecology

  • Population Density - number of organisms divided by area.

  • Immigrants - individual arriving in the area

  • Emigrants - individuals leaving the area

  • Carrying Capacity - maximum population an rea can support

Population Growth = (Births - Death) + (Immigrants - Emigrants)

Community Ecology

Interspecific Interactions

Competitive Exclusion - survival of only between or among two or more species competing for identical resources in a particular habitat

  1. Commensalism - one species benefits from the interaction; the other is hardly affected.

  2. Mutualism - both species benefit from the interaction

  3. Parasitism - the parasite gets food and nourishment from the host; the host is negatively affected.

  4. Predation - the predator eats and kills the prey.

More Information on Biology

  1. Which of the following is part of the circulatory process responsible for supplying oxygen from the heart to the body tissues and bringing deoxygenated blood back to the heart?

    Systematic circulation

    Pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs and returns it to the heart oxygenated. At the same time, coronary circulation refers to blood movement through the heart only. The part referred to in the statement is the systematic circulation.

  2. Which of the following is true about how protein is made using information from DNA?

    The order of bases in mRNA determines which specific protein to produce during translation.

    Each codon in mRNA corresponds to a specific amino acid. Protein synthesis that occurs in the ribosome needs mRNA and tRNA only. Transfer RNA carries anti-codon, which matches with the codon in mRNA.

  3. With the same extreme weather condition, a grassland community with different species had a higher productivity level than those with fewer plant species. This suggests that diversity increases the survival of organisms.

    Genetic variant among individuals is essential in an unstable environment.

Earth Science and Biology

Review of Earth Science

  • Geological Classification

  • Minerals

  • Rocks

  • Plate Tectonics

  • Lithosphere

  • Hydrosphere

  • Atmosphere

  • Astronomy

Geological Classification

Atom → Mineral → Rock → Mountain → Planet → Star System → Universe

Minerals

  • It is a naturally occurring inorganic solid material with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition.

  • Properties of minerals: crystal shape, luster, color, streak, tenacity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, density

  • Most common element composition of minerals: Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium

  • Silicates - the most common group of minerals, contain -SO2 groups that have a tetrahedral crystal shape.

  • Carbonates - minerals that contain carbonate ions that exhibit effervescence

  • Ore - naturally occurring concentration of mineral deposits that can be mined.

Value

Mineral

Shortcut

1

Talc

True

2

Gypsum

Geologists

3

Calcite

Climb

4

Fluorite

Faults

5

Apatite

And

6

Orthoclase

Observe

7

Quartz

Quarries

8

Topaz

To

9

Corundum

Contemplate

10

Diamond

Deformation

Rocks

consolidated mixtures of minerals

Types of Rocks

  1. Igneous

  • formed from cooled magma that solidified through crystallization

  • classified by texture and mineral composition

  • size of solidified crystals dependent on the rate of cooling of magma

  • Types of Igneous Rocks:

    a. Intrusive - large crystals formed from slow cooling of magma below Earth’s surface

    b. Extrusive - tiny crystals formed from the quick cooling of lava at the Earth’s Surface

  1. Sedimentary

  • Formed from the lithification of sediment

    a. Detrital sediment - originate as solid particles derived from weathering and are transported

    b. Chemical deposition - creates from soluble materials produced by chemical weathering

  1. Metamorphic

  • formed from previous rocks that were subjected to extreme pressure and heat

    Metamorphism

  • rocks are subjected to extreme heat and pressure

    Effects of Metamorphism:

  • Increased density

  • Recrystallization

  • Reorientation of mineral grains

  • Formation of new minerals

Plate Tectonics

  1. Continental Drift - hypothesis proposed by Alfred Wegener of the breaking apart of a supercontinent into smaller continents, then drifting into their current positions; no scientific explanation for the drifting mechanism was proposed.

  2. Plate Tectonics - provides the mechanism for the continental drift hypothesis and proposes that the Earth is divided into a solid and liquid layers.

    Lithosphere - an outer solid layer of the Earth, divided into segments called plates; plates move uniformly and are deformed across their boundaries

    Asthenosphere - a weaker inner liquid layer of the Earth

  3. Earthquake - rapid vibration of Earth due to the release of energy from rocks that were subjected to extreme pressure; happens in faults, which are associated with plate boundaries.

Three Types of Plate Boundaries:

Convergent Boundary

  • Plates move towards each other.

  • Results in the subduction of oceanic lithosphere

  • Associated with the formation of volcanic arcs and the formation of mountain ranges

  • Example: Himalayas

Types of Convergent Boundaries:

  1. Oceanic-Oceanic: one of the oceanic plates will go under the other, producing magma chambers that make volcanic island chains, trenches

  2. Continental-Continental: produces compressed rocks, which form mountain ranges

  3. Oceanic-Continental: the oceanic plate will go under the continental scale, producing magma chambers that have volcanoes, and mountain ranges such as the Andes

Divergent Boundary

  • Plates move apart from each other.

  • Results in upwelling of magma

  • Associate with seafloor spreading

  • Example: Mid-Atlantic RidgePlates

1

.

1

.

Transform Boundary

  • Plates grind against each other.

  • No lithosphere is created nor destroyed.

  • Can be sites for earthquakes

Evidence of Plate Tectonics:

a. Jigsaw fit of the coastlines of South America and Africa

b. Similar fossils were found on continents separated by water

c. Similar fragments of mountain belts were found on continents separated by water

d. Similar glacial deposits are located in the Antarctic, Africa, South America, India, and Australia

, e. Sediments closer to plate boundaries have ages that are different from those of farther sediments

f. Island hotspots - moving lithosphere creates several islands even if there is only one magma source

, g. Paleomagnetism - evidence of the changing location of the magnetic north pole; different paths of the change of the magnetic north pole imply that the plates move

Volcanism

Composition of a volcanic eruption:

a. Lava Flow

b. Gases

c. Pyroclastic Material

Types of Pyroclastic Material by Size:

Ash/Dust → Lapilli/Cinder → Block → Bomb

Types of Volcanoes:

Composite Volcano

symmetrical cones with structures of interbedded lava and pyroclastic material

Cinder Cone Volcano

have steep slopes made up of pyroclastic material

Shield Volcano

broad, domed volcanoes composed of basaltic lava

Lithosphere

External Processes:

  • Weathering - disintegration, and decomposition of rock near the surface

  • Mass-wasting - transfer of rock material down a slope due to gravity

  • Erosion - incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent such as water or wind

Internal Processes:

Movement of tectonic plates

  • Can result in earthquakes and the formation of volcanoes, mountains, rift valleys, trenches, mid-oceanic ridges, and islands.

Hydrosphere

  • Continental Shelf: underwater landmass that extends from the coastline to the shelf break, then towards the deep-ocean basin.

  • Continental Slope: steep sloping from the continental shelf into the deep ocean floor

  • Continental Rise: found where trenches do not exist, smoother, and has a gradual incline.

  • Deep-ocean Basin: found in between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge system

  • Deep-ocean Trenches: crustal plates descending into the mantle

  • Abyssal Plains: level area, contains thick accumulations of sediment

  • Seamounts and Guyots: isolated volcanic peaks

  • Oceanic Plateaus: accumulations of basaltic lava flows atolls reef-building of corals and other organisms on the side of sinking volcano islands

  • Oceanic Ridge: found in the middle of ocean basins, site of divergent plate boundaries where seafloor spreading occurs

  • Upwelling: cold water moving up from deeper layers

  • Shore: an area extending between the lowest tide level and the highest elevation on land which is affected by storm waves

  • Beach: accumulation of sediment found along the landward margin of the shore

  • Tides: daily rise and fall in the elevation of the ocean surface at a specific location; caused by the gravitational attraction of the Moon and the Sun

  • Hydrologic Cycle: water being exchanged continuously between the oceans, the atmosphere, and the continents

  • Drainage Basin: a land area that feeds water to a stream

  • Groundwater: water that occupies spaces in the bedrock, the largest reservoir of fresh water available to humans

  • Spring: the intersection of a water table to the surface

  • Geyser: heated groundwater that expands and changes to steam, causing a water eruption

Atmosphere

  • Thermosphere: where space shuttles orbit; gasses here are not distributed uniformly; temperature increases as altitude increases

  • Mesosphere: where most meteors burn up; temperature decreases as altitude increases

  • Stratosphere: site of absorption of ultraviolet radiation due to the high concentration of ozone; temperature increases as altitude increases

  • Troposphere: site of most weather phenomena; temperature decreases as altitude increases

  • Weather: status of the atmosphere during a specific period

  • Climate: generalization of weather conditions of a place over a long period

  • El Niño: periodic warming of the central and eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean

  • La Niña: periodic cooling of the central and eastern parts of the Pacific Ocean

  • Wind: the flow of air from areas of high to low pressure

  • Air mass: large air body with the same temperature and moisture content

  • Front: separates air masses of different densities

  • Humidity: a measure of moisture in the air

  • Clouds: condensed visible aggregates of water droplets or ice crystals

  • Fog: cloud-based near the ground

  • Precipitation: joining of several tiny cloud droplets, may be in the form of rain, snow, sleet, glaze, hail, or rime.

  • Air pressure: the downward force exerted by air particles

  • Anticyclone: center of high-pressure regions; fair and transparent weather is expected

  • Cyclone: air mass rotating around a low-pressure center; cloudy conditions and precipitation are expected

  • Hurricanes: tropical cyclones with wind speeds exceeding 119 kph

  • Thunderstorms: caused by the upwards movement of warm, moist air, associated with cumulonimbus clouds

  • Tornadoes: violent windstorms taking the form of a rotating column of air that extends down a cumulonimbus cloud

Elements of Weather:

  • Air temperature

  • Relative humidity

  • Cloudiness

  • Precipitation

  • Air pressure

  • Wind speed

Types of Clouds:

  • Cirrus - high, white, and thin

  • Cumulus - consists of individual globular masses

  • Stratus - low-lying, sheet-like

Astronomy

Models of the Solar System

  • Geocentric theory - Earth is the center of the solar system/universe.

  • Heliocentric Theory - the solar system revolves around the sun

Motions of the Earth

  • Rotation

    • Earth spinning on its axis

  • Revolution

    • Earth is moving along its solar orbit.

  • Precession

    • Slow-motion of Earth’s axis tracing out a cone

Eclipse

  • Solar Eclipse: Occurs when the Moon blocks the Earth from receiving sunlight; only appears in the new moon phase

  • Lunar Eclipse: occurs when the earth blocks the moon from receiving sunlight

Moon

  • the lone natural satellite of the Earth

  • rotation and revolution are simultaneous. Thus, only one side is visible on Earth

  • lower gravitational force than Earth; objects weigh lighter

  • originated from a large body crashing into the proto-Earth, ejecting molten material which cooled into the Moon

Sun

  • Photosphere: the surface of the Sun; source of solar radiation

  • Chromosphere: a thin layer of incandescent gases above the photosphere

  • Corona: outermost portion of the Sun’s atmosphere, crown-shaped

  • Sunspots: dark blemishes on the surface of the Sun

  • Prominences: cloudlike structures that jut out of the chromosphere

  • Solar Flares: a brief outburst of a sunspot cluster; causes Aurora Borealis near the Earth’s north and south poles

  • Core: central region of the sun where hydrogen is transformed into helium; the energy of the reaction is released as light

  • Spicule: a jet of gas ejected from the chromosphere

Stars and the Universe

  • Big Bang Theory: most accurate explanation of the beginning of the universe, with a cataclysmic explosion that followed with the expansion and cooling of the universe

  • Hertzprung-Russell Diagrams: plots stars according to their absolute magnitude and diagram spectral type; divides stars into three general categories.

  • Nebula: interstellar cloud consisting primarily of hydrogen and helium birthplace of stars

  • Protostar: gravitational attraction of particles in the nebula; start of hydrogen fusion

  • Main sequence: a star with minimal change in size or energy output

  • Star: continuous hydrogen fusion until all hydrogen is depleted

  • Red Giant: a star in which hydrogen is nearly depleted, resulting in a helium-rich core; start of core contraction

  • White Dwarf: a slow star consumption of depleted hydrogen fuel

  • Planetary Nebula: a spherical cloud of particles made up of heavy elements

  • Supernova: the bright explosion of a red supergiant

  • Neutron Star: a small, extremely dense star resulting from a supernova implosion

  • Black Hole: resulting from a supernova explosion of supermassive stars produces a gravitational field that also attracts light

  • Constellation: a group of stars seen from the Earth, forming patterns in the sky and changing position over time due to Earth’s revolution

  • Galaxy: a collection of interstellar matter, stars, and stellar remnants that are bound by gravity

Life Cycle of a Star

For an average star:

Nebula → Protostar → Main Sequence Star → Red Giant → Planetary Nebula → White Dwarf

For a massive star:

Nebula → Protostar → Massive Star → Red Supergiant → Supernova → Neutron Star or Black Hole

Types of Galaxies

  • Spiral Galaxy

  • Elliptical Galaxy

  • Irregular Galaxy

Solar System

Plants in the Solar System

Terrestrial Planets:

  • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

  • Smaller, more dense, mostly rocky composition

Jovian Planets:

  • Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

  • Larger, gaseous planets

Small Solar System Bodies

  • Asteroid: rocky/metallic material more than 100m in diameter

  • Meteoroid: small chunk of rocky/metallic material traveling in space

  • Comet: a loose collection of rocky material, frozen gases, dust, and ice

  • Dwarf Planets: spherical celestial bodies orbiting the Sun that are too small to remove smaller objects in their orbit

More Information on Earth Science

  1. What type of energy can be used to power a geothermal power plant?

    The heat energy is passed through lava to the surface of the earth.

    During a volcano eruption, the heat energy is transferred through lava to the surface of Earth. In a short time, the lava begins to cool. As the heat escapes, the lava hardens to dark black rock. This heat can be used to power a geothermal power plant.

  2. The Sun is believed to have a lifespan of 10 billion years before it enters the red giant stage.

    A white dwarf is the last stage in the life cycle of a star like the Sun.

  3. As the world moves, the visible stars are changing, just like the seasons. Different constellations will depend on the time and place in which the observer is located. Based on this information, we can say that other constellations are not found in other parts of the world with different seasons.

    Since the world rotates, we experience different seasons, and like the seasons, the stars we see also change.

  4. During which phase of the moon does a solar eclipse occur?

    New moon

    An eclipse of the Sun can only occur at New Moon when the Moon passes between Earth and Sun. A lunar eclipse occurs at a Full Moon when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon.

Review of Biology

  • Biomolecules

  • Cells

  • Cellular Reproduction

  • Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

  • Organ System

  • Genetics

  • Evolution and Taxonomy

  • Ecology

Biomolecules

  1. Carbohydrates - sugars and polymers of sugars, composed of a carbonyl and hydroxide group

    a. Monosaccharide 0 single carbon skeleton

    b. Disaccharides - two monosaccharides linked by a glycosidic bond

    c. Polysaccharides - several linked monosaccharides

  2. Lipids - hydrophobic nonpolar hydrocarbon molecules

    a. Fats - consist of glycerol connected to a fatty acid through an ester linkage

    • Unsaturated Fat - contains a cis-double bond in the fatty acid; liquid at room temperature

    • Saturated Fat - no fatty acid double bonds; solid at room temperature

    • Trans Fat - contains a trans-double bond in the fatty acid

    b. Phospholipids - lipids with a phosphate group attached to the glycerol, has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic end; compose the cell membrane

    c. Steroids - carbon skeleton is composed of four fused rings

  3. Proteins - consist of one or more chains of amino acids

    • Amino acid - consists of an amino group and carboxyl group there are 20 kinds of amino acids

  4. Nucleic Acids - polymers of nucleotides

    • Nucleotide - contains a nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group

      a. Pyrimidines - Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil

      b. Purines - Adenine, Guanine

Cells

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes

Genetic Information

DNA is round and flows freely in the cytoplasm

DNA is helix-shaped and straight, found in the nucleus

Organelles

DNA, plasma membrane, nucleoid, cytoplasm

DNA, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, Golgi body

Cell Wall

Present, composed of peptidoglycans

It can be found in plant and fungal cells but is not composed of peptidoglycans; it can’t be found in animal cells

Size

Small

Larger

Organisms

Bacteria and archaea

Animals, plants, fungi, and protists

Cell Structure

Unicellular

Can be unicellular or multicellular

Parts of the Eukaryotic Cell

Parts

Characteristics

Nucleus

control center; houses genetic material

Ribosome

free-floating or attached; site of protein synthesis

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

site of lipid synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

synthesizer of membranes and proteins; has attached ribosomes

Golgi apparatus

modifier, sorter, and shipper of materials throughout the cell

Lysosome

digests cellular materials

Vacuoles

storage sac of water and nutrients

Mitochondrion

site of cellular respiration

Chloroplast

site of photosynthesis

Peroxisome

producer of hydrogen peroxide and other enzymes involved in metabolic reactions

Cytoplasm

a gel-like substance that fills the cell; the location of most biochemical reactions

Plasmodesmata

pores between cell walls that allow intercellular communication

Cell membrane

semi-permeable layer that surrounds the cytoplasm

Cell wall

covers and protects the cell membrane

Differences Between Animal and Plant Cell

Features

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Lysosome

absent

present

Centrosome with centriole

absent

present

Chloroplast

present

absent

Vacuole

present; central and relatively larger

present

Cell wall

present

present

Plasmodesmata

present

present

Modern Cell Theory

  1. All living things are composed or made up of cells, the most basic life unit.

  2. Cells are products of the reproduction of pre-existing cells.

  3. Cells pass genetic information to their offspring cells.

  4. Cells have similar chemical compositions compared to other cells.

  5. Cells are the sites of energy flow mechanisms such as respiration and metabolism.

Types of Cell Transport

  1. Passive transport - adenosine triphosphate is not required

    a. Diffusion - transfer of materials from a higher concentration to a lower concentration

    b. Osmosis - water transfer towards the membrane's side with a higher solute concentration. A solution, relative to the cell, can be:

    • hypotonic

    • hypertonic

    • isotonic

  2. Active transport - use of ATP to move nutrients against a concentration gradient

    a. Exocytosis - vesicles stick to the cell membrane and expel their contents

    b. Endocytosis - molecules enter the cell through phagocytosis or pinocytosis

Cellular Reproduction

  • Interphase - consists of the G1, S, and G2 phase

  • G1, G2 -phrase - cell growth and metabolism phase

  • S-phase - The DNA synthesis phase occurs between G1 and G2, and chromosomes are duplicated.

  • Mitotic Phase - consists of Prophase, Prometaphase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase

  • Meiosis - Haploid: N number of chromosomes; Diploid: 2N number of chromosomes

  • Meiosis I - similar mitosis, produces two diploid daughter cells.

  • Meiosis II - occurs right after meiosis I and produces two haploid daughter cells.

Telophase

  • start of cytokinesis and formation of cleavage furrow

  • nuclear envelopes and nucleolus form

  • chromosomes become less condensed

  • mitotic spindles disappear

Prophase

  • nucleolus disappears

  • mitotic spindle forms

  • duplicated chromosomes appear as sister chromatids

  • centrosomes move in opposite directions

Prometaphase

  • nuclear envelope disappears

  • chromosomes become condensed

  • sister chromatids captured by kinetochore microtubules

  • mitotic spindle attaches to kinetochore

Metaphase

  • centrosomes now at opposite sides of the cell

  • chromosomes align at the metaphase plate

Anaphase

  • sister chromatids break apart from each other

  • shortening of microtubules, pulling chromatids toward opposite ends

  • cell elongates

Centrosome

contains material that functions in organizing mitotic spindles

Centromere

attachment point of two sister chromatids

Kinetochore

site of attachment of mitotic spindle to chromosomes

Mitosis vs. Meiosis

  1. Meiosis has synapsis during Prophase I.

  2. Metaphase I aligns two chromatids simultaneously, compared to one for mitosis.

  3. Meiosis produces four haploid daughter cells with different genetic materials, while mitosis produces two diploid daughter cells with the same genetic material.

  4. Meiosis occurs only to produce egg and sperm cells.

Primary Purposes of Mitosis

  1. Asexual Reproduction - Mitosis is the method of reproduction of single-celled asexual organisms.

  2. Growth - Mitosis is involved in cell reproduction, resulting in increased cell number, adding mass to the body.

  3. Tissue Repair - Mitosis produces cells that replace damaged or dead cells.

Primary Purposes of Meiosis

  1. Sexual Reproduction - Meiosis of a single diploid germ cell involved DNA replication followed by two-division rounds, resulting in haploid cells called gametes. These haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes of the original single diploid germ cell. This also results in genetic variation among the haploid cells.

  2. Spermatogenesis - Immature sperm cells undergo successive cell divisions and a change in cell form to produce mature sperm cells.

  3. Oogenesis - The formation of the ovum or egg. Oogenesis consists of two events: the ovum precursor germ cell undergoes meiotic division and accumulates a significant amount of cytoplasm.

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Photosynthesis

Light reactions

  • Chlorophyll helps absorb the energy from the light.

  • Protons from light enter a photosystem that excites a single electron.

  • Water is split into electrons, H+ and O2; the O2 is released as a by-product, and the H+ is released into the thylakoid for future use.

  • The excited electrons pass the energy along an electron transport chain, producing ATP. In the process, NADP+ is the final electron acceptor and is converted into NADPH.

Calvin Cycle

  • Carbon fixation and reduction of RuBP by CO2 convert it into G3P, which can be further processed into glucose.

  • The fixed and reduced RuBP is then converted back to be ready for the next cycle; the whole cycle consumes ATP and NADPH.

Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis

Breakdown of glucose and investment of 2 ATP to produce pyruvate, 4 ATP, and 2 NADPH.

Pyruvate Oxidation

Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl CoA, producing CO2 and transforming NAD+ into NADH in the process.

Citric Acid Cycle/Krebs Cycle

  1. Acetyl CoA reacts with oxaloacetate, which undergoes another series of reactions, reducing NAD+ into NADH, FAD+ into FADH2, ADP into ATP, and producing CO2; 2 ATP is produced per molecule of glucose.

  2. Oxaloacetate is converted back to original form to be used in the next cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation/Electron Transport Chain

  1. Electron transport chain: electrons are transported from NADH and passed on until it reaches O2, converting them into water.

  2. Chemiosmosis: H+ ions travel through ATP synthase, allowing it to synthesize ADP into ATP; 32 to 34 ATP is produced.

Fermentation

occurs when there is no O2 present after glycolysis

  1. Alcohol fermentation: pyruvate to ethanol

  2. Lactic acid fermentation: pyruvate to lactic acid

Organ Systems

  1. Digestive System

    • Food processing involves ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination.

    • Mouth/Oral Cavity: site of ingestion, mechanical digestion, and chemical digestion

    • Esophagus: moves bolus from the mouth to the stomach

    • Stomach: digests proteins and added gastric juice, producing chyme

    • Small Intestine: site of most enzymatic hydrolysis

    • Pancreas: produces an alkaline solution to stabilize acidic chyme

    • Liver: creates bile, which helps digest lipids

    • Gallbladder: stores bile

    • Large Intestine: reabsorbs water to solidify feces

  2. Circulatory System

    • 4 Heart Chambers: Left Ventricle, Right Ventricle, Left Atrium, Right Atrium

    • Blood Vessels

      a. Arteries: transport blood away from the heart

      • Pulmonary Artery: an artery that transports deoxygenated blood from the heart’s right ventricle to the lungs

      • Aorta: largest artery, transports blood from the heart to other parts of the body

      b. Veins: transport blood towards the heart

      • Pulmonary Vein: a vein that transports oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart’s left atrium

      • Superior Vena Cava: a most prominent vein that transports oxygen-poor blood from the upper half of the body to the heart’s right atrium

      • Inferior Vena Cava: transports oxygen-poor blood from the lower half of the body to the heart’s correct atrium

      c. Capillaries: site of exchange of oxygen and other materials between cells and blood

  3. Respiratory System

    • Lungs - the central organ of the respiratory system; house the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.

    • Air pathway:

      Mouth/Nose → Pharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveoli

  4. Immune System

    • Includes lymphoid organs such as the thymus, spleen, tonsils, bone marrow, the skin, and specialized cells.

    • Innate Immunity - a defense that is activated immediately and is the same whether or not the pathogen has been encountered previously

    • Adaptive Immunity - receptors recognize features of a specific pathogen and develop an immunity against it

  5. Excretory System

    • Kidney - carries out osmoregulation and excretion of urea in mammals.

    • Ureter - duct which transports urine from the kidney to the bladder

    • Bladder - place where urine is stored before excretion

    • Urethra - tube in which urine from the bladder is excreted

  6. Reproductive System

    a. Male Reproductive System

    • Testes - male gonads produce sperm in the seminiferous tubules.

    • Epididymis - site of sperm cell storage and maturation

    • Vas Deferens - transports sperm cells from the testes to the urethra.

    • Seminal Vesicles - provide fluids that constitute most of the semen to nourish the sperm cells.

    • Prostate Glands - produces fluids that lubricate and neutralize the acidity of the urethra.

    • Bulbourethral Glands - produces fluids that lubricate and neutralize the acidity of the urethra.

    • Scrotum - sac of skin that protects and regulates the temperature of the testicles

    • Penis - a series of muscular erectile tissues that aid in sexual intercourse

    b. Female Reproductive System

    • Labia Majora - protect female external reproductive organs

    • Labia Minora - surround and protect the vagina and urethra.

    • Bartholin’s Glands - produce mucus.

    • Clitoris - meeting point of labia minora, sensitive to simulation

    • Ovaries - female gonads, site of maturation of oocytes

    • Fallopian Tube - passageway of an egg cell from the ovary to the uterus

    • Uterus - womb, site of fertilized egg maturity

    • Cervix - uterus neck that separates it from the vagina

    • Vagina - opening of the female reproductive system to the environment

    c. Gametogenesis - production of gametes, continuous and prolific in males, only active in females up to the age of 50

    d. Early Animal Development

    • Sexual reproduction - a fusion of two haploid cells from different individuals, forming a zygote.

    • Asexual reproduction - generation of new individuals without the need for fertilization

    • Differentiation - assignment of divided cells into specialized functions

    • Gastrula - a group of cells from a divided zygote that shows first cell differentiation into three germ layers:

      • Ectoderm - becomes future epidermis, nervous system, and sensory organs.

      • Mesoderm - becomes future skeletal, muscular, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems.

      • Endoderm - becomes future liver, thymus.

  7. Nervous System

    • Central Nervous System - site of processing of nerve impulses

    • Peripheral Nervous System - site of detection and transmission of nerve impulses

    • Neurons - nerve cells that carry impulses across the body

      • Types of Neurons

        1. Afferent Neurons - carry signals toward the CNS.

        2. Interneurons - present in CNS, pass signals from afferent neurons to efferent neurons.

        3. Efferent Neurons - transmit signals from the CNS towards the motor and sensory organs.

    • Autonomic Nervous System - functions involuntarily, controls the smooth and cardiac muscles, divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, which do antagonistic/opposite effects from each other.

    • Sympathetic Nervous System - manages the body’s stress response.

    • Parasympathetic Nervous System - manages the body at rest.

  8. Endocrine System

    a. Hypothalamus

    • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone - stimulates the anterior pituitary gland release of TSH.

    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone - stimulates the anterior pituitary gland release of FSH and LH.

    • Growth hormone-releasing hormone - stimulates the anterior pituitary gland release of GH.

    • Corticotropin-releasing hormone - stimulates anterior pituitary gland release of ACTH.

    • Somatostatin - decreases the amount of released GH and TSH.

    • Dopamine - decreases the amount of released prolactin and activates “reward centers” of the brain

    b. Anterior pituitary gland

    • Thyroid-stimulating hormone - stimulates thyroxin release from the thyroid gland.

    • Luteinizing hormone - promotes estrogen production, progesterone production, and ovulation in females and announces testosterone release in males.

    • Adrenocorticotropic hormone - promotes hormone released by the adrenal cortex.

    • Follicle-stimulating hormone - promotes the development of effects and follicles in females and stimulates testosterone production in males.

    • Growth hormone - promotes the growth of the bones and muscles.

    • Prolactin - promotes milk production in breasts.

    c. Posterior pituitary gland

    • Vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone - maintains blood pressure by increasing kidney fluid retention.

    • Oxytocin - stimulates contractions of the uterus at birth, stimulates the release of milk when a baby suckles

    d. Thyroid gland

    • Thyroxine - increases energy expended during rest periods.

    • Calcitonin - reduces blood calcium concentration levels

    e. Parathyroid gland

    • Parathyroid hormone - increases calcium absorption in the small intestine and increases calcium release rate from bones

    f. Adrenal cortex

    • Cortisol - has anti-inflammatory properties and regulates the immune system.

    • Aldosterone - raises levels of sodium in the blood

    g. Pancreas

    • Insulin - lowers blood sugar levels when necessary.

    • Glucagon - raises blood sugar levels when necessary.

    h. Adrenal medulla

    • Produces the stress hormones in a fight-or-flight situation:

      • Adrenaline - increases heart rate and blood sugar levels and relaxes breathing muscles to improve breathing.

      • Noradrenaline increases heart rate, blood sugar, and blood pressure by narrowing blood vessels.

    i. Pineal gland

    • Melatonin - regulates circadian rhythms or sleep cycles

    j. Ovaries

    • Estrogen - primary female sex hormone; development of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics

    k. Corpus luteum

    • Progesterone - regulates the menstrual cycle and is crucial for pregnancy

    l. Testes

    • Androgens - cause the development of secondary male characteristics like sperm cell production.

  9. Musculoskeletal Systems

    • Endoskeleton - the internal skeleton of chordates that consists of bones and cartilage

    • Tendons - attach the striated muscles to bones.

    • Ligaments - connect bones inside joints.

    • Types of muscles

      • Smooth muscle - muscles found in internal organs, involuntary action

      • Cardiac muscle - muscles found in the heart, involuntary action

      • Skeletal Muscle - muscles that aid in locomotion, voluntary action

Genetics

  1. Mendelian Genetics

    • Law of segregation and Mendel’s Genetic Model

      a. Alternative/different versions of a gene are expressed as alleles, which may be dominant or recessive.

      b. If a dominant allele is present, it will determine the gene’s expression.

      c. Each offspring inherits an allele from each parent.

      d. The two alleles in a gene separate so that different gametes contain one of each allele.

    • Phenotype - external appearance dictated by genotype

    • Genotype - genetic make-up of gene, shows the alleles present.

    • Homozygous - genotypes that contain the same type of alleles

    • Heterozygous - genotypes that contain different types of alleles

    • Punnett Square - used to determine genotype and phenotype of offspring in a parent test cross.

  2. Non-Mendelian Genetics

    • Incomplete Dominance

      Heterozygous offspring have phenotypes that are intermediate between dominant and recessive types.

    • Codominance

      Heterozygous offspring have phenotypes where both dominant and recessive types are expressed.

    • Multiple Alleles

      A gene still contains two alleles, but more than two types of alleles have different degrees of dominance.

    • Pleiotropy

      A single gene affects different phenotypes.

    • Epistasis

      A single phenotype is affected by two different genes.

    • Polygenic Inheritance

      A gene expression is not limited to different traits but several degrees of the trait. Two or more genes also contribute to the phenotype.

Chromosomes and DNA

a. Sex-linked genes

  • Genes that are found in the 23rd pair of chromosomes/sex chromosomes

  • Females have an XX chromosome. Males have an XY chromosome.

    • Examples of diseases with X-linked dominant inheritance are vitamin D-resistant rickets, oral-facial-digital syndrome type I, and Fragile X syndrome.

    • Examples of diseases with X-linked recessive inheritance are red-green color blindness, hemophilia A and B, and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  • If a gene is found in the Y chromosome, it will only be passed to male offspring.

  • Central Dogma

    • describes the processes of gene expression from DNA to the external appearance

    • DNA Replication: involves unwinding and unzipping of DNA, separating nucleotide pairs; enzymes add base pairs to the unzipped DNA, forming two copies of the original strand

    • Transcription: synthesis/creation of mRNA in the nucleus; mRNA nucleotide chain is based on the template strand of DNA and will be the complement

    • Translation: synthesis/creation of proteins in the ribosome given an mRNA sequence; each group of the consecutive nucleotides translates to a given amino acid which constitutes the protein

b. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid

  • Double-helix structure constitutes the chromosome.

  • Complementary base pairing: only a purine can bind with a pyrimidine

c. RNA: Ribonucleic Acid

  • single-strand only contains one chain of nucleotide bases

  • contains A, C, G, and U

  • mRNA - messenger RNA, contains genetic information used to form a polypeptide

  • tRNA - transfer RNA transports amino acids to ribosomes

  • rRNA - ribosomal RNA makes up the ribosomes

Applications of Genetics

  1. Paternity testing uses DNA to determine if a person is a child's parent.

  2. Mammalian gene expression is the production of genetic products from gene instructions.

  3. Recombinant DNA technology involves joining DNA strands of two different organisms to produce certain traits, such as parasitic resistance, in an organism.

  4. Reproductive cloning involves creating an organism genetically identical to a donor organism through somatic cell nuclear transfer.

Evolution & Taxonomy

  • Binomial nomenclature is a scientific way of naming organisms; each organism is given a scientific name based on its genus and species.

  • Phylogeny - the study of the evolutionary histories of organisms

  • Systematics - a discipline focused on determining the evolutionary relationships of different organisms

Evolution

descent with modification shaped through natural selection

Natural Selection

  1. Individual organisms have variations in traits.

  2. Individuals organisms with traits that are more adapted to the environment survive and pass on those traits to their offspring

  3. Increases the match/harmony of the organism to its environment

Proofs of Evolution

  1. Adaptive evolution

  2. Homology - similarity due to common ancestry

  3. Fossil records

  4. Molecular biology - DNA analysis shows common DNA strands among organisms.

Classification of Life

Domain → Kingdom → Phylum → Class → Order → Family → Genus → Species

Dear King Philip Came Over From Great Spain

Organization of Life

Biosphere → Biome → Ecosystem → Community → Population → Organism → Organ System → Organ → Tissue → Cell

Three Domain System

  1. Domain Eukaryota - eukaryotic organisms

  2. Domain Archaea - prokaryotes that have no peptidoglycan in their cell walls

  3. Domain Bacteria - prokaryotes that have peptidoglycan in their cell walls

Prokaryotes

  • Have no true nucleus and mitochondria

  • Have circular chromosomes

  • Fast reproduction, allowing for quick adaptive evolution

  • Multiple modes of nutrition

Eukaryotes

a. Protists

  1. Eukaryotic, single-called organisms

  2. Multiple modes of nutrition

  • Endosymbiosis - engulfing of unicellular cells by another cell, eventually becoming an organelle of it

  • Animal-like protists - include amoeba and the common ancestors of animals and fungi.

  • Plant-like protists - photosynthetic protists that arose from endosymbiosis

b. Plants

  • Bryophytes: land plants with no vascular system, consist of liverworts, hornworts, and mosses

  • Ferns: the majority of plants during the Carboniferous Period reproduce using spores

  • Gymnosperms: cone-bearing plants that have seeds with unenclosed ovaries

  • Angiosperms: seeds grow inside a fruit

  • Monocots: angiosperms that only have one cotyledon in the seed

  • Dicots: angiosperms with two cotyledons in the seed

Name

Vascular System?

Seed-bearing?

Seed encasement

Bryophytes

No

No

Ferns

Yes

No

Gymnosperms

Yes

Yes

Cones

Angiosperms

Yes

Yes

Fruits

c. Fungi

  • Heterotrophs that feed through absorption of foodstuffs

  • May reproduce sexually through spores, or asexually through budding, fragmentation, or spores

d. Animals

  • ingest food and uses enzymes to digest it into smaller molecules

  • multicellular eukaryotes containing collage in their cells for structural support

  • Invertebrates

Phylum

Characteristic

Examples

Porifera

No actual issues but have choanocytes

Sponges

Cnidaria

Have stinging structures, radially symmetric, gastrovascular cavity

Hydras, Jellyfish

Platyhelminthes

Dorsoventrally flat, unsegmented, gastrovascular cavity

Flatworms

Mollusca

Bilaterally symmetrical

Snails, Mollusks

Annelida

Segmented body wall and internal organs

Earthworms

Nematoda

Unsegmented, has pseudocoelom

Roundworms

Arthropoda

Segmented, has coelom and exoskeleton

Insects

Echinodermata

Five-part body organization

Sea stars

  • Chordates and Vertebrates

    • Four Characteristics of Chordates

      • Notochord

      • A dorsal, hollow nerve cord

      • Pharyngeal slits

      • Post-anal tail

    • Vertebrates - organisms with a backbone or vertebrae

    • Fish - the first organisms to develop jaws live in aquatic environments

    • Amphibians - the first four-limbed organisms, live both on land and water.

    • Reptiles - lay terrestrial amniotic eggs, ectothermic

    • Birds - lay eggs, have feathers and are endothermic.

    • Mammals - endothermic, have mammary glands which produce milk.

Ecology

  • Population - a group of organisms of the same species living in the exact location

  • Community - a group of populations of different species living in the same area

  • Trophic Structure - the structure of feeding relationships in a community

  • Food Chain - shows energy exchange in a community as it goes up to different trophic levels from plants to herbivores to carnivores.

  • Food Web - shows the relationships and connections.

  • Ecological Succession - sequence of community and ecosystem changes over time.

  • Ecosystem - a community of organisms in an area and the influence of abiotic factors

  • Biome - a mosaic of ecosystems that have the same climate

  • Biosphere - the global ecosystem, the union of all of Earth’s biomes and ecosystems

Population Ecology

  • Population Density - number of organisms divided by area.

  • Immigrants - individual arriving in the area

  • Emigrants - individuals leaving the area

  • Carrying Capacity - maximum population an rea can support

Population Growth = (Births - Death) + (Immigrants - Emigrants)

Community Ecology

Interspecific Interactions

Competitive Exclusion - survival of only between or among two or more species competing for identical resources in a particular habitat

  1. Commensalism - one species benefits from the interaction; the other is hardly affected.

  2. Mutualism - both species benefit from the interaction

  3. Parasitism - the parasite gets food and nourishment from the host; the host is negatively affected.

  4. Predation - the predator eats and kills the prey.

More Information on Biology

  1. Which of the following is part of the circulatory process responsible for supplying oxygen from the heart to the body tissues and bringing deoxygenated blood back to the heart?

    Systematic circulation

    Pulmonary circulation carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs and returns it to the heart oxygenated. At the same time, coronary circulation refers to blood movement through the heart only. The part referred to in the statement is the systematic circulation.

  2. Which of the following is true about how protein is made using information from DNA?

    The order of bases in mRNA determines which specific protein to produce during translation.

    Each codon in mRNA corresponds to a specific amino acid. Protein synthesis that occurs in the ribosome needs mRNA and tRNA only. Transfer RNA carries anti-codon, which matches with the codon in mRNA.

  3. With the same extreme weather condition, a grassland community with different species had a higher productivity level than those with fewer plant species. This suggests that diversity increases the survival of organisms.

    Genetic variant among individuals is essential in an unstable environment.