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Chapter 7: Inflation and the Measurement of Prices

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2.2: Data Transformations and Z-Scores

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Chp 9 Race, Ethnicity and Class: Understanding Identity and Social Inequality

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Ionic & Covalent Bonding

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FINANCIAL MATHS

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Chapters 5.1 and 5.2 Populations >

Ecologists investigating species use terms such as density, distribution, growth rate, population, and age structure in order to describe their stability.

**density and distribution-** Individuals in a population in a given area, and how they are spread out

*Uniform distribution:* evenly spaced out, normally due to competition or when an organism is territorial

*Clumped distribution:* When organisms clump together for protective, or resource purposes.

*Random distribution:* No pattern, could happen with seed dispersion or wind dispersion (ex-dandelions)

**Population growth-** Factors that will add organisms are Births/immigration, then factors which remove are emigration/deaths. To determine the population: (Births+immigration)-(Deaths+Emigration).

__Population growth determines if a population increases, decreases, or stays the same__ depending on how many individuals are added or subtracted from it.

** Age structure***-

the x-axis is the number of individuals/percentage of the population, the y-axis is the ages, and the population is divided into males and females;* *allows us to make predictions on whether a population is stable, growing, or declining**(way to analyze the population, important for the government)*

** Geographic range***-*

**Growth rate-**how much a population grows over a period of time*

When the growth rate is zero, the population size is unchanged. However when it is greater, the population is increasing; less than, decreasing

Patterns in population growth-

*Stage 1 [Exponential Growth]= under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially (J shape)

Stage 2 [Logistic growth]=When an increase in population is met by limiting factors, causing the growth to come to a halt (S shape)

__Stage 3 [Carrying capacity__]=The maximum number of individuals that a particular ecosystem can support

A limiting factor is something that causes the growth of a population to decrease, it is the factor that controls and affects the growth of a population. They may or may not be dependent on the density of the population. Regardless, they decide the carrying capacity of an environment and also make sure that a species is neither heading towards extinction nor overrunning an ecosystem.**Limiting factors that depend on population density** operate strongly when population density reaches a certain level. __These factors may include:__

✩competition

✩parasitism

✩disease

✩stress from overcrowding

✩predation/herbivory

↓

**Competition** causes resources to be used up sooner since the organisms are trying to use the same limited resource in the same place, at the same time.

__Interspecific competition-__ Between members of different species

Intraspecific competition- Between members of the same species

**Parasitism and disease** spread quickly through dense host populations

**Stress from overcrowding** can lead to species fighting among themselves, causing lower birth rates, higher emigration rates, and higher death rates.

**Predator-prey Relationships:** As the prey population increases, the predators increase as well. The opposite applies: when the prey population decreases, the predators decrease.

**Herbivore effects**: as plants increase, predators increase (similar to Predator-prey)**On the other hand, Density-Independent factors affect all populations regardless of population density.** **Factors may include:**

✩Weather events

✩Natural disasters

Ecologists investigating species use terms such as density, distribution, growth rate, population, and age structure in order to describe their stability.

**density and distribution-** Individuals in a population in a given area, and how they are spread out

*Uniform distribution:* evenly spaced out, normally due to competition or when an organism is territorial

*Clumped distribution:* When organisms clump together for protective, or resource purposes.

*Random distribution:* No pattern, could happen with seed dispersion or wind dispersion (ex-dandelions)

**Population growth-** Factors that will add organisms are Births/immigration, then factors which remove are emigration/deaths. To determine the population: (Births+immigration)-(Deaths+Emigration).

__Population growth determines if a population increases, decreases, or stays the same__ depending on how many individuals are added or subtracted from it.

** Age structure***-

the x-axis is the number of individuals/percentage of the population, the y-axis is the ages, and the population is divided into males and females;* *allows us to make predictions on whether a population is stable, growing, or declining**(way to analyze the population, important for the government)*

** Geographic range***-*

**Growth rate-**how much a population grows over a period of time*

When the growth rate is zero, the population size is unchanged. However when it is greater, the population is increasing; less than, decreasing

Patterns in population growth-

*Stage 1 [Exponential Growth]= under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially (J shape)

Stage 2 [Logistic growth]=When an increase in population is met by limiting factors, causing the growth to come to a halt (S shape)

__Stage 3 [Carrying capacity__]=The maximum number of individuals that a particular ecosystem can support

A limiting factor is something that causes the growth of a population to decrease, it is the factor that controls and affects the growth of a population. They may or may not be dependent on the density of the population. Regardless, they decide the carrying capacity of an environment and also make sure that a species is neither heading towards extinction nor overrunning an ecosystem.**Limiting factors that depend on population density** operate strongly when population density reaches a certain level. __These factors may include:__

✩competition

✩parasitism

✩disease

✩stress from overcrowding

✩predation/herbivory

↓

**Competition** causes resources to be used up sooner since the organisms are trying to use the same limited resource in the same place, at the same time.

__Interspecific competition-__ Between members of different species

Intraspecific competition- Between members of the same species

**Parasitism and disease** spread quickly through dense host populations

**Stress from overcrowding** can lead to species fighting among themselves, causing lower birth rates, higher emigration rates, and higher death rates.

**Predator-prey Relationships:** As the prey population increases, the predators increase as well. The opposite applies: when the prey population decreases, the predators decrease.

**Herbivore effects**: as plants increase, predators increase (similar to Predator-prey)**On the other hand, Density-Independent factors affect all populations regardless of population density.** **Factors may include:**

✩Weather events

✩Natural disasters

5.0(1)

Explore Top Notes

Chapter 7: Inflation and the Measurement of Prices

Note

Studied by 10 people

5.0(1)

2.2: Data Transformations and Z-Scores

Note

Studied by 10 people

5.0(1)

Chp 9 Race, Ethnicity and Class: Understanding Identity and Social Inequality

Note

Studied by 14 people

5.0(1)

Ionic & Covalent Bonding

Note

Studied by 56 people

5.0(3)

FINANCIAL MATHS

Note

Studied by 46 people

5.0(1)

Thai Consonants

Note

Studied by 6 people

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