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AP HUG REVIEW

Unit 1

Introduction to Maps:

Reference maps: used for navigation and provide absolute location. Types: Political marks influence of politics ex states , physical marks features e.g. mountains, road directions to places, and classroom.

Thematic Maps: used to communicate data across space and used for spatial analysis. Ex: Isoline, cartograms, Choropleth, Dot Density/ Dot Distribution, Proportional (Graduated) Symbol, plus more.

Isoline map shows: temperature similar to forecast maps. Cartogram Maps: are  not specifically physically accurate they take geometric shapes all to convey information. Choropleth map: map that conveys information through colors, mainly red and blue. Dot Distribution/Density Map: Map conveys data in the shape of dots it can look similar to choropleth but is NOT the same. Proportional (Graduated) Symbol Map: Takes for in large circles that encompass areas of land used to convey data, not a density map.

Distortion: Maps experience distribution because converting a 3D surface to a 2D surface is impossible to depict without distortion.

Cartographic Scale: cartographic scale is the ratio of the distance of a place on earth to the distance of a map. Common types of scale include: Global, National, Regional, Local. All in order from smallest to largest scale

Geographic Data:

Data is divided to two categories of data Quantitative and Qualitative Data. Quantitative being able to be measured while qualitative more descriptive and opinionated. The process of collecting data is called Field Work. Field work helps geographer understand linkages among places and to see the complexities of issues.

Technologies used to conduct Fieldwork include: GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, Online Mapping. GIS is the layering of data in order to create a visual representation of spatial distribution. GPS is data collected by satellites to provide absolute location and or data necessary for navigation.

Five Themes of Geography: Movement, Region, Location, Place, Interaction. Space refers to the relational concept and sense when related to other concepts. Place refers to a unique location - a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular characteristic: Toponym, Site, and Situation.

Site: Physical characteristics of a place, includes climate, elevation topography and soil type. Situation: a place in relation to another place. Sense of Place: characteristics of a place that distinguishes it from other places. Globalization has caused the diffusion of ideas and traits that impact our cultural landscape and create a uniform landscape, this  can be related to placelessness.

Diffusion of ideas, people goods, and ideas is called diffusion or flow. Distance decay: The phenomenon that the farther an idea travels, the weaker,  or less impactful it becomes. Ex imagine playing a hearing game as the idea travel it gets misinterpreted and becomes a different message. Time Space Compression: The rapid flow of ideas, communication, and transportation over time. As time space compression increased distance decay decreases due to the world feeling smaller.

Human Environmental Interaction:

Sustainability refers to the use or consumption of resources in a way that preserves the ability for future generation to use those resources as well. Nonrenewable cant be reused or renewed, renewable can be reused and renewed.

Two Theories for Human Environment Interaction: Environmental Determinism and Human Possibilism.

Environmental determinism: the belief that the physical environment places limitations on human activity and causes social development.

Human Possibilism: the belief that the physical environment may limit some human activity, but people ultimately have the ability to adjust and adapt to the environment.

Scales of Analysis:

The geographic scale of a map may differ from its scale of analysis while geographic scale provides a description of the "big picture' scale of analysis refers specifically to the scale at which data on the map is presented.

Regional Analysis:

Region refers to an area of earth defined by having one or more shared characteristics. Three types of regions: Formal/Uniform, Functional/Nodal, Perceptual/Vernacular regions. Formal regions describe places that share common distinct characteristics, ex common language, laws or economic activity. Functional regions describe an area organized by a node or focal point, ex radio stations. Perceptual regions or vernacular regions are defined by an individuals unique perception or experience about them. ex

Unit 2

Physical factors influence population distribution basic needs like food water and shelter are needed by humans, which is why most people live at midlatitudes 30n to 60n. Ecumene refers to the part of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. Sparsely populated regions include; dry lands, wetland, cold land, and highlands.

Calculating Population Density:

Arithmetic: People divided by land area

Physiological: People divided by arable land; allows us to see the strain of people on land.

Agricultural: Farmers divided by arable land; regions with low agricultural density tend to be more developed.

Consequence of Population Distribution include strain on land and resources, pollution, and so on.

Population Composition

Ethnic groups are often clustered in specific area due to immigrants forming ethnic enclaves. Age composition varies across regions and scales of analysis. Sex composition can vary due to wars/conflicts.

Population Pyramids: are age-sex composition graphs based on the percentages of males and females withing different age groups in specific areas.  Population pyramids includes males on the left and females on the right, and are used to show evidence of natural disasters, wars, political changes, and epidemics. Vertical axis shows different age groups cohorts in intervals and horizontal axis provides absolute numbers or percentages of males and females in age cohorts. TRENDS: Wide base; high CBR as many children are being born. Narrow base that expands shows low CBR and high life expectancy. DEPENDENCY RATIO: comparison of potential workforce of the dependent population.

Population Dynamics

Mortality -  a measure of the number of deaths in a particular population per unit of time.

CDR - total numbers of deaths per 1000 people over the age of 1

IMR - total number of infant deaths per 1000 live births

MMR - total number of maternal deaths due to pregnancy or childbirth per 1000 successful pregnancies/births

Life Expectancy - the average number of years a person is predicted to live.

Fertility - measures the likelihood of population growth through childbirth

TFR - the average number of children a woman is likely to have within her lifetime.

CBR - the total number of births per 1000 people

RNI - the percentage of population increase over 1 year

THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL

The DTM refers to changes within a region's population in response to development over time. DTM provides visual representation of each stage of societal development depending on the CBR, CDR, and RNI.

STAGE 1: HIGH STATIONARY: CDR=HIGH; poor medical knowledge leads to death by famine and disease. CBR=HIGH; no access to family planning many children needed for successful agricultural practices. RNI = STABLE, slow increase.

STAGE 2: EARLY EXPANDING: CDR = FALLING RAPIDLY; medical revolution, improvement in medical care, water supply, and sanitation help prevent deaths. CBR = HIGH; no access to family planning, manu children needed for successful agricultural practices. RNI = RAPID INCREASE.

STAGE 3: LATE EXPANDING: CDR = SLOWLY FALLING; medical revolution improvements in medical care, water supply, and sanitation help prevent deaths. CBR = FALLING; improved medical care and diet lead to fewer unplanned pregnancies. RNI = Less rapid increase/still increasing.

STAGE 4: LOW STATIONARY: CDR = LOW; quality health care and reliable food supply result in fewer preventable deaths. CBR = LOW; Improved status of women and access to family planning lead to marriage later in life and fewer children. RNI = stable/slow increase

STAGE 5: DECLINING: CDR = LOW; quality healthcare and reliable food supply result in fewer preventable deaths. CBR = VERY LOW/NEGATIVE; improved status of women and access to family planning lead to marriage later in life and fewer children. RNI = NEGATIVE/ DECLINING.

THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION MODEL (ETM)

Epidemiology is the study of diseases and other factors related to health. The ETM is divided into 5 stages of the DTM which shows the primary cause of death at various demographic development. STAGE 1 = PESTILENCE +FAMINE. STAGE 2 = RECEDING PANDEMICS ex cholera. STAGE 3 = DEGENERATIVE DISEASES.  STAGE 4 = DELAYED DEGENERATIVE DISEASES ex Alzheimer's or diabetes. STAGE 5 = REEMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS/PARASITIC DISEASES

MALTHUSIAN THEORY:

Theory that theorized population would outpace food growth, was criticized because it didn't consider possibilism, gave rise to NEO MALTHUSIANS who theorized that population would not just outpace food growth but all resources, water, resources, and food.

Population Policies:

Anti-Natalist Policies, Pronatalist Policies, and Immigration policies.

Anti-natalist policies discourage large family sizes in order to slow population growth, ex China, and India.

Pronatalist policies encourage large family sizes, they offer incentives to have kids

Immigration, some countries encourage immigration, while others actively discourage immigration policies.

Factors that Cause Migration:

Push factors: factors that cause an individual to leave/emigrate a country or region.

Pull factors: describe factors that lead an individual to choose/come to immigrate to a specific country or
 region.

RAVENSTEIN LAWS OF MIGRATION: People are more likely to travel shorter distances rather than long distance similar to distance decay, people are more likely to settle in urban areas, and through step migration. Men tend to travel internationally through different countries, while women tend to travel intranationally, within a single country.

FORCED VS VOLUNTARY MIGRATION

Indian ocean slave trade, people were forced to migrate through slave labor.  Forced labor causes consequences like displacement and disruption leads to refugees.

Transnational migration migration from one country to another with a shared border, transhuman is the seasonal migration that involves relocating livestock both are voluntary migration.

HOW TO CALCULATE RNI? = 70 years / rate of natural increase. Countries must have a 2.1 - 2.3 TFR to replace themselves in the years to come if not the country will be unable to maintain a stable population base.

OS

AP HUG REVIEW

Unit 1

Introduction to Maps:

Reference maps: used for navigation and provide absolute location. Types: Political marks influence of politics ex states , physical marks features e.g. mountains, road directions to places, and classroom.

Thematic Maps: used to communicate data across space and used for spatial analysis. Ex: Isoline, cartograms, Choropleth, Dot Density/ Dot Distribution, Proportional (Graduated) Symbol, plus more.

Isoline map shows: temperature similar to forecast maps. Cartogram Maps: are  not specifically physically accurate they take geometric shapes all to convey information. Choropleth map: map that conveys information through colors, mainly red and blue. Dot Distribution/Density Map: Map conveys data in the shape of dots it can look similar to choropleth but is NOT the same. Proportional (Graduated) Symbol Map: Takes for in large circles that encompass areas of land used to convey data, not a density map.

Distortion: Maps experience distribution because converting a 3D surface to a 2D surface is impossible to depict without distortion.

Cartographic Scale: cartographic scale is the ratio of the distance of a place on earth to the distance of a map. Common types of scale include: Global, National, Regional, Local. All in order from smallest to largest scale

Geographic Data:

Data is divided to two categories of data Quantitative and Qualitative Data. Quantitative being able to be measured while qualitative more descriptive and opinionated. The process of collecting data is called Field Work. Field work helps geographer understand linkages among places and to see the complexities of issues.

Technologies used to conduct Fieldwork include: GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, Online Mapping. GIS is the layering of data in order to create a visual representation of spatial distribution. GPS is data collected by satellites to provide absolute location and or data necessary for navigation.

Five Themes of Geography: Movement, Region, Location, Place, Interaction. Space refers to the relational concept and sense when related to other concepts. Place refers to a unique location - a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular characteristic: Toponym, Site, and Situation.

Site: Physical characteristics of a place, includes climate, elevation topography and soil type. Situation: a place in relation to another place. Sense of Place: characteristics of a place that distinguishes it from other places. Globalization has caused the diffusion of ideas and traits that impact our cultural landscape and create a uniform landscape, this  can be related to placelessness.

Diffusion of ideas, people goods, and ideas is called diffusion or flow. Distance decay: The phenomenon that the farther an idea travels, the weaker,  or less impactful it becomes. Ex imagine playing a hearing game as the idea travel it gets misinterpreted and becomes a different message. Time Space Compression: The rapid flow of ideas, communication, and transportation over time. As time space compression increased distance decay decreases due to the world feeling smaller.

Human Environmental Interaction:

Sustainability refers to the use or consumption of resources in a way that preserves the ability for future generation to use those resources as well. Nonrenewable cant be reused or renewed, renewable can be reused and renewed.

Two Theories for Human Environment Interaction: Environmental Determinism and Human Possibilism.

Environmental determinism: the belief that the physical environment places limitations on human activity and causes social development.

Human Possibilism: the belief that the physical environment may limit some human activity, but people ultimately have the ability to adjust and adapt to the environment.

Scales of Analysis:

The geographic scale of a map may differ from its scale of analysis while geographic scale provides a description of the "big picture' scale of analysis refers specifically to the scale at which data on the map is presented.

Regional Analysis:

Region refers to an area of earth defined by having one or more shared characteristics. Three types of regions: Formal/Uniform, Functional/Nodal, Perceptual/Vernacular regions. Formal regions describe places that share common distinct characteristics, ex common language, laws or economic activity. Functional regions describe an area organized by a node or focal point, ex radio stations. Perceptual regions or vernacular regions are defined by an individuals unique perception or experience about them. ex

Unit 2

Physical factors influence population distribution basic needs like food water and shelter are needed by humans, which is why most people live at midlatitudes 30n to 60n. Ecumene refers to the part of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. Sparsely populated regions include; dry lands, wetland, cold land, and highlands.

Calculating Population Density:

Arithmetic: People divided by land area

Physiological: People divided by arable land; allows us to see the strain of people on land.

Agricultural: Farmers divided by arable land; regions with low agricultural density tend to be more developed.

Consequence of Population Distribution include strain on land and resources, pollution, and so on.

Population Composition

Ethnic groups are often clustered in specific area due to immigrants forming ethnic enclaves. Age composition varies across regions and scales of analysis. Sex composition can vary due to wars/conflicts.

Population Pyramids: are age-sex composition graphs based on the percentages of males and females withing different age groups in specific areas.  Population pyramids includes males on the left and females on the right, and are used to show evidence of natural disasters, wars, political changes, and epidemics. Vertical axis shows different age groups cohorts in intervals and horizontal axis provides absolute numbers or percentages of males and females in age cohorts. TRENDS: Wide base; high CBR as many children are being born. Narrow base that expands shows low CBR and high life expectancy. DEPENDENCY RATIO: comparison of potential workforce of the dependent population.

Population Dynamics

Mortality -  a measure of the number of deaths in a particular population per unit of time.

CDR - total numbers of deaths per 1000 people over the age of 1

IMR - total number of infant deaths per 1000 live births

MMR - total number of maternal deaths due to pregnancy or childbirth per 1000 successful pregnancies/births

Life Expectancy - the average number of years a person is predicted to live.

Fertility - measures the likelihood of population growth through childbirth

TFR - the average number of children a woman is likely to have within her lifetime.

CBR - the total number of births per 1000 people

RNI - the percentage of population increase over 1 year

THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL

The DTM refers to changes within a region's population in response to development over time. DTM provides visual representation of each stage of societal development depending on the CBR, CDR, and RNI.

STAGE 1: HIGH STATIONARY: CDR=HIGH; poor medical knowledge leads to death by famine and disease. CBR=HIGH; no access to family planning many children needed for successful agricultural practices. RNI = STABLE, slow increase.

STAGE 2: EARLY EXPANDING: CDR = FALLING RAPIDLY; medical revolution, improvement in medical care, water supply, and sanitation help prevent deaths. CBR = HIGH; no access to family planning, manu children needed for successful agricultural practices. RNI = RAPID INCREASE.

STAGE 3: LATE EXPANDING: CDR = SLOWLY FALLING; medical revolution improvements in medical care, water supply, and sanitation help prevent deaths. CBR = FALLING; improved medical care and diet lead to fewer unplanned pregnancies. RNI = Less rapid increase/still increasing.

STAGE 4: LOW STATIONARY: CDR = LOW; quality health care and reliable food supply result in fewer preventable deaths. CBR = LOW; Improved status of women and access to family planning lead to marriage later in life and fewer children. RNI = stable/slow increase

STAGE 5: DECLINING: CDR = LOW; quality healthcare and reliable food supply result in fewer preventable deaths. CBR = VERY LOW/NEGATIVE; improved status of women and access to family planning lead to marriage later in life and fewer children. RNI = NEGATIVE/ DECLINING.

THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL TRANSITION MODEL (ETM)

Epidemiology is the study of diseases and other factors related to health. The ETM is divided into 5 stages of the DTM which shows the primary cause of death at various demographic development. STAGE 1 = PESTILENCE +FAMINE. STAGE 2 = RECEDING PANDEMICS ex cholera. STAGE 3 = DEGENERATIVE DISEASES.  STAGE 4 = DELAYED DEGENERATIVE DISEASES ex Alzheimer's or diabetes. STAGE 5 = REEMERGENCE OF INFECTIOUS/PARASITIC DISEASES

MALTHUSIAN THEORY:

Theory that theorized population would outpace food growth, was criticized because it didn't consider possibilism, gave rise to NEO MALTHUSIANS who theorized that population would not just outpace food growth but all resources, water, resources, and food.

Population Policies:

Anti-Natalist Policies, Pronatalist Policies, and Immigration policies.

Anti-natalist policies discourage large family sizes in order to slow population growth, ex China, and India.

Pronatalist policies encourage large family sizes, they offer incentives to have kids

Immigration, some countries encourage immigration, while others actively discourage immigration policies.

Factors that Cause Migration:

Push factors: factors that cause an individual to leave/emigrate a country or region.

Pull factors: describe factors that lead an individual to choose/come to immigrate to a specific country or
 region.

RAVENSTEIN LAWS OF MIGRATION: People are more likely to travel shorter distances rather than long distance similar to distance decay, people are more likely to settle in urban areas, and through step migration. Men tend to travel internationally through different countries, while women tend to travel intranationally, within a single country.

FORCED VS VOLUNTARY MIGRATION

Indian ocean slave trade, people were forced to migrate through slave labor.  Forced labor causes consequences like displacement and disruption leads to refugees.

Transnational migration migration from one country to another with a shared border, transhuman is the seasonal migration that involves relocating livestock both are voluntary migration.

HOW TO CALCULATE RNI? = 70 years / rate of natural increase. Countries must have a 2.1 - 2.3 TFR to replace themselves in the years to come if not the country will be unable to maintain a stable population base.