# Waves Basics

### Wave:

• Definition: Waves are disturbances that transfer energy through a medium or space without permanently displacing the medium itself.

• Types:

• Mechanical Waves: Require a medium (solid, liquid, or gas) to propagate. Examples include sound waves, water waves, and seismic waves.

• Electromagnetic Waves: Can travel through a vacuum (empty space) and do not require a medium. Examples include light waves, radio waves, and X-rays.

• Medium: The substance through which a mechanical wave travels.

### Wave Motion:

• Longitudinal Waves:

• Particles oscillate parallel to the direction of wave propagation.

• Example: Sound waves.

• Transverse Waves:

• Particles oscillate perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation.

• Example: Light waves.

### Wave Properties:

• Crest/Trough:

• Crest: Highest point of a wave.

• Trough: Lowest point of a wave.

• Amplitude: Maximum displacement from the rest position of a wave. Indicates the energy of the wave.

• Wavelength (λ): Distance between two consecutive crests or troughs.

• Frequency (f): Number of wave cycles passing a point per unit time.

• Period (T): Time taken for one complete wave cycle to pass a point. Inversely related to frequency (T = 1/f).

• Wave Speed (v): Rate at which a wave travels through a medium. Calculated as the product of frequency and wavelength (v = f x λ).

### Relationships and Equations:

• v = f x λ

• T=f/1 (Period is inversely proportional to frequency)

• Inversely Proportional Relationships:

• Wavelength and Frequency: Longer wavelength, lower frequency, and vice versa.

• Frequency and Period: Higher frequency, shorter period, and vice versa.

• Directly Proportional Relationship:

• Amplitude and Energy: Higher amplitude, more energy.

### Real-life Applications:

• Medical Imaging: Ultrasound and X-rays use wave properties to visualize internal structures.

• Communication Systems: Radio, microwaves, and light waves are used for long-distance communication.

• Seismic Studies: Analysis of seismic waves helps in understanding the Earth's interior structure.