6.2: State Expansion
Essential Question: By what processes did state power shift in various parts of the world between 1750 and 1900?
Colonialism - establishing colonies for social/economic gain, involved displacement of indigenous populations, imposition of European political and economic systems and extraction of resources
Imperialism - domination and control of other countries. Led to subjugation of native populations, exploitation of resources, and suppression of native cultures.
Industrialization - led to growth of capitalist economies and expansion of trade and commerce and emergence of new social classes and new economic/political power
Britain, France, Belgium, and more engaged in imperialism in Africa, involved colonization and domination of continent
exploitation of African resources
suppression of local cultures and traditions
the Scramble for Africa was a period of intense competition among European powers (major aspect of Imperialism)
British Control of Egypt:
in 1882, Britain invaded and occupied Egypt.
Suez Canal - wanted by Britain. Connected Mediterranean Sea to Red Sea, allowing ships to bypass the long and dangerous trip along Southern Tip of Africa
British West Africa - 19th century, Britain established colonies and imposed their systems on all of their territories
French Rule in Africa - began late 19th century, characterized by centralization, a strong military presence and forced assimilation of the people
Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 - Key event in the scramble for Africa. It established rules for the partition of Africa among European powers. Also established the principle of “effective occupation”, which meant that a power could claim control over a territory if they could show effective control over it and hold the territory.
Imperialism in Asia
Britain had control with military conquest and economic domination
1757, British East India Company defeated local ruler at battle of Plassey, marked beginning of British control in India. Continued to impose their systems in India.
the legacy of European powers’ control over countries in Asia continues to shape the political policy and economy of Asia today
United States Imperialism in Latin America and the Pacific during 1750-1900 involved the expansion of American influence and control over the region thru military force, political pressure, and economic domination
China maintained their gov, European nations carved out spheres of influence. Chinese were forced to sign treaties. Internal problems w/ Qing government such as Tai Ping Rebellion made it easier for foreign countries to dominate economic affairs of China
6.4: Global Economic Development
Essential Question: How did environmental factors contribute to the global economy between 1750 and 1900?
Technological Developments from this time:
mechanization - new tools and machinery
crop varieties, greater yields
enclosure movements - small plots into large farms
infrastructure facilitated transport of goods
Common Raw Material Exports:
cotton: most important !!!! From USA and India
rubber from South America, Southeast Asia and Africa
palm oil from West Africa and Southeast Asia
Copper and tin were in high demand
Ivory, minerals, diamonds, from Africa
These resources led to colonization because Europe sought to exploit countries for their natural resources to support their own economies
Global Consequences of Industrialization:
growth and development of export economies → creation of social hierarchy where working class got poorer and controllers of production got more wealth and power
new tech and innovations, led to an increase in efficiency and productivity
over-exploitation of natural resources, deforestation, soil erosion, other environmental degradation
loss of sovereignty and cultural heritage for many colonized people
focus on cash crops → displacement of native communities
institutionalization of racial segregation and discrimination
increased flow of information