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Chapter 22 - The Revolt of the Common Man

National Labor Union

  • Founded in 1866

  • Was one of the first national labor movements

  • Promoted an 8 hour workday

Mother Jones

  • The nickname of Mary Harris Jones

  • Was the labor organizer for the Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor

  • Founded in 1869

  • Led by Terence Powderly

  • Included both skilled + unskilled workers

  • Used boycotts in order to force negotiations with employers

  • The Haymarket Square Riot eventually led to their downfall

Terence V. Powderly

  • Leader of the Knights of Labor

  • Believed in regulating trusts, reforming the currency, and abolishing child labor

  • Positions in the Republican + Greenback Labor Party

Eugene V. Debs

  • 1893 - Organized the American Railway Union

  • Important role in the Pullman Strike

  • 1897 - Leader in the Social Democratic Party

  • Ran for president as a Socialist

  • Later violated the World War I Sedition and Espionage Acts

Molly Maguires

  • Was a secret organization of Irish miners

  • Promoted labor violence instead of peaceful negotiation

  • When they were later infiltrated by the Pinkerton Detectives, they were jailed and hanged

    • Ruined the reputation of future labor movements

Pinkerton Detectives

  • Originally specialized in railway theft cases, protecting trains and apprehending train robbers

  • Hired by large corporations to protect their property against violent labor riots

National Railroad Strike

  • Caused by the railroads reducing their workers’ wages in order to cut costs

  • 1877

  • When it became violent, the US military was sent in to shut it down

  • Began an era of labor violence

Haymarket Square Riot

  • 1886

  • Anarchists threw a bomb in Haymarket Square that was the site of a labor demonstration

  • Ruined the reputation of the Knights of Labor

Samuel Gompers

  • 1886 - Organized American Federation of Labor (AFL)

  • Believed in using practical measures to achieve practical goals

  • Not radical

American Federation of Labor

  • Founded in 1886

  • A craft union made of skilled workers

  • Used strikes

  • Believed laborers have the right to collective bargaining

  • Ended the bad reputation of labor unions

Closed vs. Open Shop

  • The idea of a closed shop was that workers were very united within a union, but non-union workers were excluded

  • Yellow dog contracts were used by employers to tempt employees not to join destructive unions

Homestead Strike

  • 1892

  • Henry Clay Frick was in charge of the Homestead steel plant

  • A violent worker strike led to a lock-out

  • Culminated in a battle between strikers and the Pinkerton Detectives and eventually the National Guard

  • Resulted in many workers being “blacklisted”

Injunction

  • A court order requested during worker strikes

  • If workers failed to comply and stop striking, they were arrested

Pullman Strike

  • 1894

  • American Railway Union

  • Widespread railroad strike and boycott that severely disrupted rail traffic in the Midwest of the United States in June–July 1894

  • An injunction led to the strikers being forced to give up

Jacob Coxey

  • Believed that the federal government should provide jobs for the poor

  • 1894 - Formed “Coxey’s Army,” which was a group of strikers that marched on Washington

    • They were eventually dispersed by the police and arrested

Patrons of Husbandry (Grange)

  • Founded in 1867

  • Used to protect agricultural interests with the cooperation of farmers

  • Wanted to reduce corporate monopolies (like railroads)

  • Granger Laws were regulations on railroads

  • Led to the formation of the Populist Party

Gibson Girl

  • Targeted young, middle-class women

  • She was a cartoon character that was pretty and athletic and had an important role in the workforce

  • Encouraged female independence

Populist Party

  • Founded in 1891

  • Made a stand against capitalists

  • 1892 - Introduced their Omaha Platform

    • A new national currency

    • Silver coinage

    • The government would own the transportation + communication industries (which would prevent monopolies)

    • Graduated income tax

    • Direct election of senators

    • Shorter working hours

    • Restrictions on immigration

Mary Lease

  • Politically active in the Populist Party

  • Didn’t support William Jennings Bryan

  • Her progressive causes included supporting women’s suffrage + prohibition

William Jennings Bryan

  • Democrat

  • 1896 - Made his famous “Cross of Gold” speech

  • Supported by the Populists

  • Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson

Gold Standard

  • “Promissory notes” based on the amount of gold in the US Treasury

  • Paper money was exchanged for gold at the banks

  • Eventually abandoning the gold standard led to the expansion of the supply of currency

William McKinley

  • 1896 - Republican for president

  • Wanted high tariffs + the gold standard

  • Implemented the Dingley Tariff, which was a very high tariff

Election of 1896

  • 1896

  • Farmers vs. urban capitalists

  • William Jennings Bryan supported debtors + farmers

  • William McKinley supported creditors + sound money

    • Theodore Roosevelt was his Vice President

BIG PICTURE

  • Laborers - Action for wages + hours + working conditions

  • Violence → Bad reputation for labor unions

  • AFL - Not radical + collective bargaining

  • Farmer grassroots movement

  • Election of 1896 - McKinley + Roosevelt

JQ

Chapter 22 - The Revolt of the Common Man

National Labor Union

  • Founded in 1866

  • Was one of the first national labor movements

  • Promoted an 8 hour workday

Mother Jones

  • The nickname of Mary Harris Jones

  • Was the labor organizer for the Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor

  • Founded in 1869

  • Led by Terence Powderly

  • Included both skilled + unskilled workers

  • Used boycotts in order to force negotiations with employers

  • The Haymarket Square Riot eventually led to their downfall

Terence V. Powderly

  • Leader of the Knights of Labor

  • Believed in regulating trusts, reforming the currency, and abolishing child labor

  • Positions in the Republican + Greenback Labor Party

Eugene V. Debs

  • 1893 - Organized the American Railway Union

  • Important role in the Pullman Strike

  • 1897 - Leader in the Social Democratic Party

  • Ran for president as a Socialist

  • Later violated the World War I Sedition and Espionage Acts

Molly Maguires

  • Was a secret organization of Irish miners

  • Promoted labor violence instead of peaceful negotiation

  • When they were later infiltrated by the Pinkerton Detectives, they were jailed and hanged

    • Ruined the reputation of future labor movements

Pinkerton Detectives

  • Originally specialized in railway theft cases, protecting trains and apprehending train robbers

  • Hired by large corporations to protect their property against violent labor riots

National Railroad Strike

  • Caused by the railroads reducing their workers’ wages in order to cut costs

  • 1877

  • When it became violent, the US military was sent in to shut it down

  • Began an era of labor violence

Haymarket Square Riot

  • 1886

  • Anarchists threw a bomb in Haymarket Square that was the site of a labor demonstration

  • Ruined the reputation of the Knights of Labor

Samuel Gompers

  • 1886 - Organized American Federation of Labor (AFL)

  • Believed in using practical measures to achieve practical goals

  • Not radical

American Federation of Labor

  • Founded in 1886

  • A craft union made of skilled workers

  • Used strikes

  • Believed laborers have the right to collective bargaining

  • Ended the bad reputation of labor unions

Closed vs. Open Shop

  • The idea of a closed shop was that workers were very united within a union, but non-union workers were excluded

  • Yellow dog contracts were used by employers to tempt employees not to join destructive unions

Homestead Strike

  • 1892

  • Henry Clay Frick was in charge of the Homestead steel plant

  • A violent worker strike led to a lock-out

  • Culminated in a battle between strikers and the Pinkerton Detectives and eventually the National Guard

  • Resulted in many workers being “blacklisted”

Injunction

  • A court order requested during worker strikes

  • If workers failed to comply and stop striking, they were arrested

Pullman Strike

  • 1894

  • American Railway Union

  • Widespread railroad strike and boycott that severely disrupted rail traffic in the Midwest of the United States in June–July 1894

  • An injunction led to the strikers being forced to give up

Jacob Coxey

  • Believed that the federal government should provide jobs for the poor

  • 1894 - Formed “Coxey’s Army,” which was a group of strikers that marched on Washington

    • They were eventually dispersed by the police and arrested

Patrons of Husbandry (Grange)

  • Founded in 1867

  • Used to protect agricultural interests with the cooperation of farmers

  • Wanted to reduce corporate monopolies (like railroads)

  • Granger Laws were regulations on railroads

  • Led to the formation of the Populist Party

Gibson Girl

  • Targeted young, middle-class women

  • She was a cartoon character that was pretty and athletic and had an important role in the workforce

  • Encouraged female independence

Populist Party

  • Founded in 1891

  • Made a stand against capitalists

  • 1892 - Introduced their Omaha Platform

    • A new national currency

    • Silver coinage

    • The government would own the transportation + communication industries (which would prevent monopolies)

    • Graduated income tax

    • Direct election of senators

    • Shorter working hours

    • Restrictions on immigration

Mary Lease

  • Politically active in the Populist Party

  • Didn’t support William Jennings Bryan

  • Her progressive causes included supporting women’s suffrage + prohibition

William Jennings Bryan

  • Democrat

  • 1896 - Made his famous “Cross of Gold” speech

  • Supported by the Populists

  • Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson

Gold Standard

  • “Promissory notes” based on the amount of gold in the US Treasury

  • Paper money was exchanged for gold at the banks

  • Eventually abandoning the gold standard led to the expansion of the supply of currency

William McKinley

  • 1896 - Republican for president

  • Wanted high tariffs + the gold standard

  • Implemented the Dingley Tariff, which was a very high tariff

Election of 1896

  • 1896

  • Farmers vs. urban capitalists

  • William Jennings Bryan supported debtors + farmers

  • William McKinley supported creditors + sound money

    • Theodore Roosevelt was his Vice President

BIG PICTURE

  • Laborers - Action for wages + hours + working conditions

  • Violence → Bad reputation for labor unions

  • AFL - Not radical + collective bargaining

  • Farmer grassroots movement

  • Election of 1896 - McKinley + Roosevelt