Chapter 9 - Solutions
When a solvent dissolves in a solvent, a solution forms.
The solvent particles are evenly dispersed into the solvent in a solution.
Soluble, liquid, or gas can be the solution and solvent.
Polar O-H bond leads to water molecular hydrogen bonding
A polar solvent is an ionic solvent dissolved in water because the molecules of polar water attract and hydrate the ions into the solution.
The word "dissolves" means that a polar or ionic solvent disintegrates into a polar solvent while a nonpolar solvent dissolves into a nonpolar solvent.
Substances that create water ions, as their solutions conduct electrical power, are called electrolytes.
Strong electrolytes are completely dissociated, but only partially disconnected weak electrolytes.
Nonelectrolytes are substances that only produce molecules in water and cannot conduct electric streams.
A solvent has a solubility that can dissolve into 100 g of solvent as much as possible.
A saturated solution is a solution that includes the maximum dissolved solvent.
The unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum dissolved solution.
An increase in temperature increases the solubility of most water solids but reduces the water solubility of gases.
Soluble in water ionic compounds usually include Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3 -, C2H3O2-.
Mass percent is the mass/mass ratio of solution mass to solution mass multiplied by 100%.
The volume/volume (v/v) and mass/volume (m/v) ratios may also be the per cent concentration ratio.
Molarity is the solute moles per liter solution.
Concentration is used as a conversion factor for calculations of grams or milliliters of solution or solution
Molarity (or moles/L) for the solution moles of solvent volume is written as a conversion factor.
A solution is added in the course of dilution, a solvent like water, which increases its volume and reduces its concentration.
Colloids contain particles that are mostly filtered but not semipermeable membranes or settled.
There are very large particles settling in suspensions.
The osmotic pressure is increased by the particles in a solution.
Solvent (water) transmissions from a lower osmotic (lower solution concentration) solution to a higher-osmotic (higher-osmotic) solution in osmotic conditions through a semi-permeable membrane.
Isotonic solutions are equal to body fluid osmotic pressures.
A red blood cell keeps its volume in an inside solution but shrinks into a hypotonic solution.
In dialysis, a dialyzing membrane passes via water and small solvents while retaining larger particles.