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L2S3 THE BRITISH ISLES AFTER 1485

L2S3 THE BRITISH ISLES SINCE 1485

CM N°1 : THE TUDOR DYNASTY I

INTRODUCTION

Henry VII : 1485-1509

Henry VIII : 1509-1547

Edward VI : 1547-1553

Lady Jane Grey : 1553 (9 days, deposed)

Mary Tudor : 1553-1558, married Phillip II of Spain (against Reformation)

Elizabeth I : 1558-1603

(James VI succeeded after)

The 16th century was marked by several changes => social, political, religious and economic turmoil. It was also the end of the M-A + expansion in thoughts and deeds => more interaction with continental Europe regarding art, culture, philosophy, ideas, inventions such as printing, ships were built as a result to explore beyond the national frontiers. The Reformation was also taking place, first in Germany.

As a result of the expansion and trade => political changes with the evolution of the union in 1536 when England started signing treaties with Wales (Statue of Rhuddlan – 1284), Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England (1603), Act of Union between Scotland (1707) and Ireland (1801).

= > Beginning of the Tudor period : Battle of Bosworth in 1485. Richard III was defeated by Henry the VII. As a result, Henry VII was crowned in 1485 and ruled for 23 years.

= > Main monarchs : Henry VII, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.

  1. HENRY VII
  2. Securing the throne

= > His main goal : secure the throne since nobles were fighting for the throne at the time at the beginning of his reign. He was shrewd, far-seeing (able to handle politics and built for the future of the country), cherished justice. He was the one who started colonisation and decided to build ships.

= > The war of the roses : tensions between the House of Lancaster (rulers since 1399) and The House of York.

He managed to handle this situation by strengthening and centralizing his power. All the monarchs of the 15th century were strong minded and respected, so as a result their monarchy was effective.

In the 15th century, the nobility won lands at the expense of the crown, so to limit their power Henry VII decided to implement attainders (= decret de confiscation de biens et de mort civile) which were special laws enabling him to seize titles + possessions of the noble as a result for disloyalty. => financial control over the nobles + financial bond from individual nobles towards The Crown, leading to the nobles being in debt to the crown.

  1. Henry VII’S Government

= > Personal government with the king and his advisers, ruling by degrees and proclamations. The parliament was used sparingly, on his own will.

His foreign policy was dictated by 2 things :

  • Careful about his succession (ex : marriage with French heir to get more land) + no aggressive foreign policy.
  • Cautious about the lack of money (ex : by taxing the nobles to swell his treasury).

He still maintained a lavish court despite the lack of money; he invited musicians, artists, philosophers, …

= > Between 1485 and 1492 : he managed to sign a series of truces to prevent conflicts :

  • France : The treaty of Redon – 1492.
  • Scotland : 3-year truce treaty – 1486, ruled by James III from 1460 and 1488 so it was a distinct country.
  • Spain : Anglo-Spanish Truce treaty in 1489 called Medina del Campo.

He led a common policy with France, and these truces led to a reduction of tariffs. A marriage contract was also established with his son Arthur and Catherine of Aragon (Ferdinand II’s daughter), later with Henry VIII as Arthur died.

= > The Habsburg Empire : included the Netherlands, Spain, parts of Italy and Hungary. They reigned until the 18th century. Founder : Phillip I.

Henry VII had 7 children :

  • Arthur : marriage with Catherine of Aragon.
  • Margaret : marriage with James IV of Scotland, mother of James V, great grand mother of King James VI of Scotland
  • Mary Tudor : marriage with Louis XII, Charles Brandon of Suffolk, had a daughter (Lady Jane Grey).
  • Henry VIII : marriage with Catherine of Aragon.
  1. HENRY VIII
  2. Political situation

His royal court was at the centre of politics and gvt like his father. He became king at 15 of age in 1509. His reign was focused on pleasure and refinement (art, plays, …). He controlled the ambitions of the nobility by threatening both their statues and wealth with taxes. He kept around him only the people he could trust. He was a hardworking king and helped by important men :

  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (king’s chief minister between 1515-1529). <3
  • Thomas Cromwell (governed between 1532-1540). <3

He was seen as a medieval good lord, a renaissance man and respected for his courage and honour.

  1. Government under Wolsey (1515-1530)

His government introduced reforms helping him deal with the potential opponents. He created legal reforms, financial reforms (saved money), religious reforms to limit the spread of Protestantism and was seen as the peacemaker of Europe bc of his foreign policy.

  1. Government under Cromwell (1530s)

DO NOT CONFUSE Oliver Cromwell with Thomas Cromwell

Thomas Cromwell : earl of Essex, condemned in 1540, family link with Oliver Cromwell.

Oliver Cromwell => after Charles I’s execution, was head of the Commonwealth/Republic, lord Protector (1649-1660).

Thomas Cromwell was elected MP in 1539 and attacked the financial abuses within the Catholic Church. In 1530, he became a member of the Royal council. In 1532, he managed the king’s divorce.

= > Reformed the system of gvt away from a personal monarchy, introduced a more bureaucratic government with specialized departments with trained officials. Ex : the Exchequer.

= > The Royal council : at the core of the gvt, composed of noblemen, clergymen, members of the king’s household staff. It was organized by meetings with the king and took care of the national finance through a body of advisers instead of the Exchequer and the treasury.

The Parliament played an important role during Henry VIII’s reign. In 1530, Cromwell used it to enact legislation :

  • Legalise the break with Rome.
  • Strengthen royal authority in outlying regions.

Henry VIII died in 1547.

  1. ELIZABETH I (1559-1603)
  2. A new feature in the monarchy

All together the Tudors reigned for 75 years, and Elizabeth was a confident female monarch, she travelled a lot throughout the country. She toned down the extravagance at court. She was reluctant to marriage and devoted herself to politics.

  1. Elizabeth’s government

She put in place a privy council of 20 members and a core of professional men (her confidence), which made it easier to manage and reduce the power of the traditional nobility.

Her privy council had 4 main roles :

  • It offered advice to the monarch
  • It administered public policy
  • It coordinated the work of different elements of government
  • It acted as a royal court of law.
  1. Government crisis (1584-1604)

She had a difficult reign bc of external issues.

= > End of 16th century : the plague struck Britain, leading to economic difficulties (food prices, lack of food, riots). There also was a rise in invasion threats from Spain and France since she was protestant, they wanted to restore the old roman faith, like Philip II of Spain intended to do. She also supported the Dutch in their war with Spain, creating tensions with Philip II.

= > Anglo-Spanish war from 1585 to 1604 : Philip of Spain planned an invasion with the Spanish Armada (130 ships), but it was defeated in 1588.

She also had to deal with political problems in Ireland. Since 1541, Ireland was seen as an official part of the English Crown but difficult to control. In the 1590s, she decided to implement a policy of plantation which was to remove the Irish from the land and give it to protestants.

CONCLUSION : The Tudor dynasty ruled for a long period of time, introduced political, constitutional and religious fields. Home policies and foreign policies were very important and shaped the relations between England/Europe/Ireland. The Stuarts (James I) reigned after Elizabeth I.

The Treason Act : offences vs the king, the first one was in 1351 (Edward III) and enacted in 1495. => to protect the Queen and King against compassing their deaths, violating them, levying war, adhering to the king’s enemies.

METTRE LA SLIDE ICI DE L’ARBRE G2N2ALOGIQUE

CM N°2 : THE TUDOR DYNASTY II

Introduction :

The country was completely changed due to the King and EU : politics, economy and society. Religion was changed due to human, economic and political reason. The Reformation was not implemented easily and took a long time to be accepted.

  1. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION
  2. Origins
  3. Economic reasons

Henry VII and Henry VIII were looking for money and noticed that the Catholic Church was a huge landowner. Due to their wealth, the church was unpopular to the people. Henry VIII had no control over the church since it was ruled by Rome which meant that most of the money was sent there and not to the kingdom. The king had no influence on Rome contrary to France and Spain.

Pope Clement VII : 1523-1534

Pope Paul III : 1534-1549

The taxes given to the Church reduced the King’s income, which made him understood that he had to centralize State authority.

  1. Human reasons

In 1509, Henry VIII got married with Catherine of Aragon (Habsburg). In 1526, the couple had a daughter, Mary Tudor but still no male heir. Henry then decided to divorce Catherine, helped by Wolsey.

The Pope did not accept Henry VIII’s divorce demand due to his political and family links with Charles V (King of Spain 1516-1556, Catherine’s nephew). Ferdinand II (1475-1516) was Catherine’s father. + Phillip II married Mary Tudor later.

As a result, Henry VIII beheaded Wolsey bc he’s a little shit with angry issues.

  1. The Break with Rome
  2. A political choice

In 1531, he persuaded the bishop to make him Head of the Church of England; breaking from Rome and that England was no longer a catholic country. He decided to base the Church on Anglicana Ecclesia, based on the protestant religion (Martin Luther + John Calvin). But it was based on nothing at first, it was only a political and economic tool.

= > The Act of Supremacy in 1534. Henry was head of the Anglican Church, so above all ranks in the church, which meant he could do whatever he wanted to.

The Church of England became the established/State Church.

He created 2 provinces : Canterbury (south) and York (north).

The text (Act of Supremacy) focused on the figure of the king, the imbalance between parliament and the king, his supremacy prevailed. It gave him infinite power and authority, his prerogatives increased.

An established church means that :

  • The monarch is at the head of the church.
  • The Church performs a number of official functions (ex : in Parliament, 26 bishops sat in the House of Lords).
  • Church and State are linked.

Hence, Henry finally divorce Catherine and married Anne Boleyn in 1533. However, Henry himself was not in favour of the Reformation and preferred Catholicism, but its advantages were better.

  1. A religious step

Henry made the break legal thanks to parliament in 1534, progressively, by introducing several acts of parliament between 1532 and 1536. On the 23 March 1534 : Act of Succession, removing succession to Catherine of Aragon’s heirs. It put princess Elizabeth against Mary Tudor. Princess Elizabeth was taught the protestant education, making Mary a bastard. This act of succession proclaimed that all English subjects had to swear an oath to the king and recognize his supremacy. People who refused to take the oath were charged with treason (Act of Treason).

The Act of Succession made Jane Seymour’s children first in line for the throne (married in 1536 with Henry VIII, his 3rd wife). It made it legal that the previous marriages became unlawful, and Elizabeth and Mary Tudor became illegitimate.

England was a protestant country, but the popular religion was Catholicism.

He replaced Wolsey with Thomas Cromwell, accepting the change of Church and decided to close all the monasteries between 1536 and 1539. = to make money and made himself popular among the rising classes, since the catholic lands could be sold to them. Nuns and monks were thrown out of monasteries.

In 1541, an Irish parliament was set up in Dublin as a way to make sure that Ireland was an English country, conferred to him the title of King of Ireland and could impose his church to the Irish Catholics.

  1. Evolution of the Reformation
  2. The catholic backlash

In 1540, the protestant converts were a small minority and adopted extreme ideas, displeasing the population. This led to the fall of Cromwell in 1540 as the population (pro-Catholics groups) started to fight the new church.

Between 1540 and 1547, protestants were persecuted, and their ideas attacked.

When Henry VIII died in 1547, his Reformation reached a stalemate. The teaching of protestant ideas was suppressed, making England a catholic country without a Pope.

Between 1553 and 1558, Mary Tudor tried to undo the Reformation and restore the faith of Rome, inspired by her husband Philip II who was catholic. Philip II’s goal was to dethrone Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and restore England to the catholic faith. Elizabeth was supported by the Dutch against Spain during the war from 1568 and 1648, with the Armada of 1588.

  1. The Elizabethan Settlement of 1558-63

The situation at the time was difficult, both economic and socially.

1564 : the black death (bubonic plague) ≠ the Black plague (1348-1350).

Elizabeth priorities were political and not only religious. Her aim was to establish a settlement of religion to heal the division between Catholics and protestants and increased her control over the Church to impose more regulation and rules to the population.

Elizabeth’s religious settlement included the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity in 1558-59.

Otherwise, she knew there would be no peace between the different faiths, national unity would be destroyed and lead to unrest and civil war. Since she was raised was a protestant child, she was more inclined towards protestant ideas.

Two events :

  • Signing of peace treaty between France and Spain : the Treaty of Cateau Cambresis (1559).
  • Debates between protestant and catholic clergy.

The catholic clergy did not accept Elizabeth’s authority over them. So, she decided to arrest its members and imprisoned them, making it easier after for the Parliament to enact a law.

Elizabeth became the Supreme Governor of the Church and made all churchmen swear an oath of loyalty to the Supreme Governor. She made the dogmas clearer and set out 57 rules concerning appearance of churches and religious practices in the Act of Supremacy. The book of Common Prayer was published, imposing more uniformity and simplicity. Attendance at the Church was made compulsory.

She also claimed that the Anglican church was also the church of Ireland. So, she started the plantation process from the 15th to 16th centuries : the lands owned by the Catholics was confiscated and given to the protestant settlers, protestant faith was imposed in the country.

In 1603, James VI of Scotland/James I of England succeeded her.

CONCLUSION : Religion was used to centralize State authority, to position England/Europe and was used as an economic tool. The British population finally accepted the new Church.

CM N°3 : THE TUDOR DYNASTY PART III

  1. A “REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD”

This period led to a strong England within EU and the world. It was also rev. in the way that Henry VIII created the new church. The main goal was to consolidate their political place.

= > discoveries of new lands

= > new values

= > cultural changes

  1. A new church

= > new travels around EU. In the 1530, everyone was devoted to Erasmus, he emphasized the need for moral reforms and asking people to follow the rules.

There were different values, understandings of what the church had to look like : closer to the people + more open minded since the church was wealthy and distant before.

In 1531-32, Henry VIII implemented several acts to threaten Rome.

= > The Act in Restraint of Appeals in 1533 = transferring the power of the Catholic Church to the King.

The King asserted the figure of the King as central in the Church, so in 1531, the King went to Canterbury to make him Head of the Church, to assert England as an independent country and unify it religiously.

= > Accusations of praemunire = prohibited the assertion or maintenance of papal jurisdiction, or any other foreign jurisdiction or claim of supremacy in England, against the supremacy of the monarch, dealt with by the King, which was “an offence to the crown punishable chiefly by forfeiture and originally committed by assuring papal legal supremacy in England”.

= > Payment of annates to Rome = forbidden.

= > Forbade appeal to Rome (marriage to C. of Aragon).

Henry VIII died in 1547. When Elizabeth I came to power, she wanted to avoid religious war and took the Reformation a step farther.

= > 1549 : the first Act of uniformity imposed the first book of Common Prayer. In 1548, Archbishop Cranmer composed a Communion rite in English.

= > Penalties : confiscation of income/prison sentences.

= > 1552 : Second Prayer book (revised) included baptism and communion.

= > 1559 = Elizabeth became Supreme Governor of the Church and introduced a new reform.

The Act of Supremacy is one long sentence. = secure sovereignty, secure the throne, secure the church, swell the treasuries. Personal dimension = divorce, need to re-organize the state, foreign policy against the Hapsburg, expand the frontiers of the kingdom. = used Parliament to enact it.

  1. National sovereignty

Keywords in The Act of Supremacy : Henry VIII, The Church, peace/unity/foreign law/authority.

The Act of Supremacy of 1559 emphasized what had been started by Henry VIII = ref to parliament, legal aspect, the kingdom is based on the Anglican church, Supreme government, HVIII, Queen Mary, emphasizing the place of the Church of England. Religion and politics are one same thing.

  1. ENGLAND’S FOREIGN POLICY
  2. Relationship with foreign countries

“This realm of England is an Empire, and so hath been accepted in the world, governed by one Supreme Head, King having the dignity and royal estate of the Imperial Crown of the same, unto whom a body politic…”

England is described as a political unit & independent/sovereign state, the body politic and new understandings of being a nation.

= > Ref to Dudley who wrote the Tree of Common Wealth (later created in 1649), he was Henry VII’s financial agent + administrator. He showed the most efficient way to govern. This book paved the way to Henry VIII’s way of governing. Dudley was part of the council learned in the law, which concentrated on the King & his needs, how taxes could be increased, the ways of exploiting the treaties it had enacted with foreign countries. He wrote treaties in support of absolute monarchy. Following Henry VII’s death in 1509, he was sent to the Tower of London.

The main monarchs :

  • Mary : England and Spain through marriages.
  • Elizabeth I : Netherlands, trade, encouraged the trade and its dev, enclosures to increase production.
  • Henry VII : merchants ships => conquered the world
  • Henry VIII : trades, spent a lot of money in war guns, ships and stuffs.

The different monarchs introduced new values regarding politics, trades, position in EU which led to new relationships with other countries. The Anglican Church also questioned former values like money, it wasn’t a problem anymore, it was at the core of the new policies. The state was both protective and controlling.

= > T. More, Utopia. = perfect/imaginary society, egalitarian society for the good of every inhabitant, no poverty. In book 1, truth and justice are dealt with & in book 2, vices and virtues are analysed.

= > The Armada Portrait by George Gower (1588) = power & authority, empress of the world & commander of the sea (pearls), ref to virginity too with the pearls.

  1. New opportunities

Under Elizabeth I’s reign, new process of colonizing emerged.

= > 1497 : John Cabot sent by Henry VII, he went as far as NA where he claimed CAN for England. In the 15th & 16th century, seas were sold to England. The first explorations began with the Tudors.

= > Thirst for knowledge, convert heathens, military ambitions, trade, wealth.

England was at the crossroads of exchanges/trades.

  1. CULTURAL CHANGES
  2. Intellectual life

Renaissance = There were English scholars like Edmund Spencer, they were eager to learn more about Rome, a lot of translations of ancient works in Greek and latin were done. Elizabeth I’s reign was known as the Golden Age of Literature. The importance of printing was crucial as well (William Caxton).

= > 1500 : 10% of adult men could read & write.

= > 1600 : More than ¼.

= > 1700 : 50%.

  1. The arts

Paintings flourished as well as music. Regarding paintings, England attracted learning men like Erasmus or Hans Holbein who was called to the court to paint important men (The Ambassadors, 1533).

= > Luth, telescope, explorations, clothes.

= > Music : Thomas Tallis (Magnificat, Sancte Deus). Many musicians were supported by the Church. Kings and Queens also played music

Architecture was also evolving, Tudor buildings had a specific aspect (Wollaton Hall, Merton College Chapel, The Great Court of Trinity College in Cambridge) + gardens (regularity, fountains)

CONCLUSION : turning point moving away from the M-A, major changes at diff. levels, strong monarchy & gov., change in religion so had to face many new enemies and strengthened the country. 1558, even bigger changes, new exploration. Took time to establish a strong gov./country. In 1603, it was the end of the Tudor era and James the 1rst was crowned.

CM N°4 : ETABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE

Introduction :

In the 17th c., the British empire was already being established as said by historians. It took several steps to implement it : human, cultural, social… and along defeats, victories, several policies. Trade, money & wealth were at the centre of the process. The aim was to try to defend English trade against rival Europeans countries. They were also looking for new land since the country was small.

  1. ORIGINS
  2. The Tudor dynasty

Henry VII wanted to be the peacemaker in EU, to sign truces/peace treaties with as many countries as possible to prevent wars + building a large fleet of merchant ships to support the dev. of trade.

Henry VIII went on building war ships and guns + trade. He had a more ambitious policy.

Elizabeth also placed trade at the centre of her policy, foreign policy was very important to her too.

By the end of the Tudor dynasty, there were many wars ships & trade policies established so the network/structure of the kingdom was very strong.

At the time, England’s trade rivals (FR, Spain, …) was the greatest enemy since it based its colonizing conquest on trade.

England presented itself since the Tudor dynasty as a sea power. It meant that the Tudor had been able to support a large fleet to roam the seas, but also to dev. trade links.

Trading and exploring meant new lands to conquer.

Elizabeth made it possible to organize all the potential of the colonizing process. This sea power was possible because of new values : intellectuals & economists coming to England to give their advice, new travel possibilities, opening of the Anglican Church, Mercantilism (created with the gold found in South America), customs wars with tariffs and taxes when trading.

= > 1566-1568 : Dutch vs Spaniards in which England supported the Dutch, however later on => Anglo-Dutch wars :

  • First war : 1652-1654
  • Second war : 1655-1667
  • Third war : 1672-1674
  1. The fall of Calais

Calais used to be part of English control from 1347 to 1558, which made it easy for the English to have a link with continental Europe. The fall of Calais was a turning point. It used to be a hub of exchange, where wool was exchanged, where there was an English parliament. Its loss made England look for new lands.

It led to the unification of the British Isles bc the country had the present as strong to EU.

  1. BUILDING AN EMPIRE
  2. Motivations

The aim was to find new land.

= > Propaganda literature which dealt with exploration, to support the idea of finding new lands and make the most out of the new lands found. Ex : Richard Eden, Treatise of the New India (1553) + Thomas Wyndham, Trade with Africa.

There were also different books published referring to the way economy could be developed, based on money => investors / 1558 : Royal exchange.

Ex : explore the Caribbeans.

The aim was to create export markets. The same thing was happening in the Netherlands.

This was also based on religious motivations : The Mayflower (1620).

Elizabeth I supported settlements and transportation in the pacific ocean, like in Australia.

The aim was to take all these into account and support the development.

  1. Chartered companies

1585 : the Dutch lost Antwerp. Elizabeth decided to support the Dutch in their rebel against Spain between 1556 and 1558.

= > The Dutch Hansa : several Dutch wars from 1652-1674.

= > support The Merchant Adventurers Company : discover new lands, new populations, it was established before the end of the 15th c, this was the beginning of the organisation of the Empire. It led to the implementation of Charters, kind of like rights on trade in regions. It led to the formation of the English Empire.

A charter was intended to make profit for The Crown & an opportunity for a merchant to be given rights to establish a company in a specific region. In return, the chartered company had to give some of their profits to the crown so it could develop quickly.

  • First chartered company created in 1553 called the Muscovy Co (Russia)
  • The Eastland Co in 1579 (Scandinavia and the Baltic)
  • The Levant Co in 1581 (Ottoman Empire)
  • The Africo Co in 1588 (trade of Slaves)
  • The East India Co in 1600

= > Sir W. Raleigh : Trinidad/Florida, Guyana in 1595.

= > Sir Francis Drake : discovered the Pacific Ocean, circumnavigated the globe from 1577-1580.

= > The lesser Antilles in 1624-1650.

= > Jamaica by Martin Frobisher in 1655, he also discovered Labrador & Terre Neuve.

Lots of the good like sugar & spices were bought back to England.

  1. RULE BRITANNIA
  2. Impact on Britain

= > Important development of cities with new factories & industries, the work of children in wool industries, harbours, banks, slavery.

Several acts were implemented, ex 1651 : The Navigation Acts.

= > Adam Smith (Scottish philosopher), The Wealth of Nations (1776), he explained that tariffs had to be imposed to hoard gold and on products. He explained that England had to sell their goods and sell nothing in return bc he thought it could rely on its own produce.

= > During Queen Victoria’s reign (1837-1901), she owned 1/5 of the world’s land.

= > No new colonies in the 1830s.

= > Trade routes between India, Africa, …

The Empire protected the areas it had colonized, its merchants, moneyed gentry and sailors.

= > Possessions across the world.

= > Possible attacks from EU powers.

  1. A civilizing mission

= > “Rule Britannia” was the name of a British patriotic song which was composed by James Thomson and Thomas Arne (1er August 1740). = ref to the nations, the UK, to slaves, that EN would never be submitted to another nations, god supported this colonizing process, it was the king’s mission to expand the church.

= > The White Man’s Burden (1899), Rudyard Kipling : ref to the Philippines, Imperialism (= policy, ideology, political, economic control). “Child” repeated = refers to the need to be educated. Paternalistic aspect, to bring religion as a tool through education.

= > The Great Exhibition = The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton in 1851.

  1. TEXTS

= > Les Anglais et la mer au XVIe siècle = banner : nation, merchants : trade, empire, countries worldwide.

= > 1672 : Spain as the rivals, Jamaica as a strategic colony, plantations, fertile lands, settlements.
= > Another text (to W. Pitt) about slavery where it’s presented. Refs to humanity, abolition of slavery (1833), what was needed was a “more human trade”, was considered abolitionist at the time who campaigned 1780s, shipowners : lobbied parliament + The Cabinet.

CONLUSION :

There were economic interest linked to the British Empire, which started during the Tudor era and went on with the creation of the Commonwealth and free trade between EN and the colonies. There was also a political aspect : present Britian as a thriving country in Europe, need to create strong ports. Mercantilism, settlements, imperialism

CM N°5

  • SCOTLAND AND IRELAND, THE CELTIC MARGINS

INTRODUCTION

= > Ireland and Scotland = shared history regarding the way they were conquered, leading to the end of Gaelic society. The English language was imposed to both of them as a political tool, loss of their identity with their language. The lands were used to make money, so the Irish & Scottish fled. The colonization was similar in the 2 countries, the aim was to support the English economy, make profits.

= > Slow process since the 12th c. until the 17th c which imposed another culture, religion, language.

  1. SPECIFICITIES OF GAELIC SOCIETY
  2. Laws
  • James VI, Basilikon Doron, 1599. “I have intended implanting colonies […] may reform and civilize”, stereotypes linked to the Scotts.

1891 – 2001 => The Demise of Scots Gaelic speaking areas. Same for the Irish Gaelic.

“barbarous” = recurring when dealing with Ireland & Scotland, “kept the English from implanting its feudal system in Ireland”, “The Brehon Laws” codified everything in Irish society.

  1. Gaelic Society

The 2 Gaelic society were very similar : composed of Celtic inhabitants, their social organisation was based on tribes & clans. The language was slightly different between the two, yet they share many similarities. Scottish Gaelic was mainly used by the highlanders & at the end of the 12th c. around 300 000 Highlanders spoke Gaelic. The society was based on druids, bards & musicians. The druids were those who handed down orally history, laws, medicine. the bards transmitted songs, legends, dances, tales, they were considered as musicians & doctors. There were mainly small villages, many clans like small kingdom with different chiefs/leaders who ruled. (moodle) Each clan had its own specific tartan; they wore specific garments depending on their clan.

  1. A negative image

Punch magazine : the Irish were often represented as apes. Caricatures.

  1. CONQUEST
  2. The Bull of Pope Adrian IV

The Irish were seen as variants needing to be civilized. The Pope asked Henry II to invade Ireland, to spread the Catholic values from Rome. In the 12th c, Ireland was a Catholic country, but druidism was still practiced. The Pope knew Henry II was looking for new lands, so this was an opportunity. “evil”, “faith and love of religion” = from his pov, Catholicism wasn’t taught properly in Ireland. “one penny” = no taxes were imposed in Ireland at the time, the aim was also to impose taxes for Rome.

Ireland was conquered in the 12th c. who did it in the name of the Roman church, so it didn’t look like a conquest. It started with “The Pale”; a small part were the English soldiers remained until the 17th c bc they couldn’t move westward. The clans opposed thanks to their strength & organisation. The English organised their headquarters in Dublin against the Irish community, the Irish clans were heavily armed, constructed tower.

Ireland was divised in 4 : Ulster, Connaught, Munster, Leinster. Ulster includes the entire northern part, but not anymore. During the independence (1990), the English wanted to keep only the 6 counties, because many protestants lived here, because they feared a conflict might happen with the other catholic counties of Ulster.

The English aimed at taking the lands owned by the Irish Catholics : MacDonald

1556 = plantation of Munster. It involved the displacement of Catholic families, so the land were given to the protestants. The plantations took place until 1610. Protestants officials saw their position strengthened. The English succeeded in replacing the chieftains and clans.

  1. Scotland

There were the battles led by the Jacobites. In 1603 the Scottish king had reigned over England & Scotland, so William of Orange wanted peaceful links between Ireland & England. All the chiefs of the clans had to swear an oath of religion to him. James Francis Stuart wanted to reconquer his father’s throne, the Jacobite army gathered in the Ireland and supported King James II (Jacobus). His descendants wanted to take the throne back, it led to the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which was a failure. Scottish Gaelic society was dismantled, and the system of clans was destroyed = end of Scottish resistance.

  1. Battles (17th / 18th)

1601 : The battle of Kinsale => changes in Irish society, the Spaniards supported the Irish but failed bc of a storm. It led to the flight of the earls in 1609, another turning point, as the English gained more land. Many of the earls fled to Spain & France.

= > 1649 : Oliver Cromwell removed the remaining Irish leaders & almost managed to complete the conquest.

= > 1690 : The battle of the Boyne which opposed William the Orange & James II who was a roman catholic. Their troops met near Dublin. The English faced the French who supported the Irish & some Spaniards as well. It was a victory for the English, the conquest would then be completed.

  1. IMPACT OF COLONIALISM
  2. Dismantlement of Gaelic society

The outcome of the Plantation process led to 2 societies, which dev. a different social organisation. The Catholic landowners in Ulster took up arms in 1641 = against loss of property & status.

= > Onslaught against protestants & belongings.

2000 protestants settlers were killed & spread throughout the country. Oliver Cromwell led an army in 1649.

= > 1609 : Status of Iona, the population in Scotland had to accept the Anglican Church & they had to finance it. They had to send their sons in the Ionas and no longer in the Highlands, since there could be resistance there.

= > 1597 – 1616 : acts, the English managed to suppress the clans. If they wanted to claim their territory, the clans had to show the official papers of the land. In 1616, no one could own lands if they didn’t speak, read or write in English. = language used as a political tool.

Scotland was excluded from trade with English colonies thanks to the Navigation acts between 1651 and 1661 = loss of wealth. In reaction in 1695, the Scots created their own trade company, but it was a failure. The Act of Union of 1707 between England & Scotland was enacted : 110 were in favour, 69 against. Scotland lost its remaining political power bc it was merged into Westminster. Scottish laws were kept as well as the Church of Scotland.

  1. Penal laws

A set of laws against Roman Catholics in both Britain and Ireland after the reformation. The feudal laws imposed to Ireland & Scotland were against the Catholic Church. The penal laws focused on Ireland and led to penalties, taxes, fines, imprisonment for those who remained Catholics. They lost their social positions; could no longer vote, hold public office. This was an opportunity for the English to take back the political powers.

  1. Emigration

The Clearances (1815) = the farmers in the Highlands were replaced by grand sheep farmers, the population had to immigrate.

Between 1815-1838 = 22 000 Highlanders emigrated.

The landlords made lots of money from the land they now owned.

Several families were killed & potatoes were introduced as a mean to feed those who remained in the Highlands.

In addition, there were bad harvests between 1816-1817/1825.

The government implemented the Passenger Vessels Act between 1846 & 1856, preventing the Scots from emigrating bc they increase the price of the fares.

In Ireland, laws annihilated the social/cultural specificities of Ireland.

= > 1840s : The Great Hunger, all the food was exported to England. 8.4 million in 1844 had fallen to 6.6 million by 1851. The policy of the catholic church led to huge impact on the population : either died or emigrated. Between 1815-45, 1 million people emigrated. 1846-1855 : 2.5 million. 1856-1914 : 4 million.

= > The Act of Union of 1707 : religion imposed to the population, politics, trade/economy handled by England, the colonies too. It led to the end of any rebellion from the Scots, political independence.

= > The Act of Union of 1800 : remained in force until 1920. Following the Rising of 1798, to prevent any rebellion from the Irish & merge the 2 countries into one. It wasn’t a union but more like an absorption. It was an anti-Catholic text; it imposed the Anglican Church. It led to the Catholic Emancipation movement in 1829, leading to the Catholic Emancipation Act which led to the end of the fact that people could be catholic in Ireland. = opposite of what it intended.

CONCLUSION : The union was an opportunity for England to strengthen its central power. The Gaelic society disappeared. The main aims were economic & religious. In 1921, Northen Ireland was created. 2014 = Scottish referendum.

CM N°6

  • THE VICTORIAN ERA

INTRODUCTION

Based on the industrial revolution, affected every single aspect of British society, at the centre => economic & social changes. Lasted for about 64 years. Ongoing & quick changes, because over a short period of time society moved from a mainly rural society to an urban + industrialized society. This period shaped a new society which had new taste, values, political parties, women & workers who started to revendicate for their rights. + clothes, food, furniture changed. The artists wanted to leave their marks in history, literature, art.

  1. A NEW SOCIETY
  • The Great Exhibition (1851)

Cristal palaces built for the Great Exhibition. The idea of Prince Albert & Queen Victoria was to gather international exhibitors to take part in it. Located in Hyde Park in London. This was an opportunity to show that her society had changed, emphasise that her society was evolving, display Britain’s success & power. Many things came from the colonies = worldwide.

Show how British factories mastered new techniques.

Sculptures, cars, ivory, …

Opening speech by Prince Albert : emphasise its political role, show that England played an important political role. “the national undertaking”, “success”, “Your Majesty’s dominions”, “Majesty’s colonies”, “Works of Industry”. 15 000 British productions. “raw material, machinery, fine art, manufacture”. Ends with a ref to novelty = shows that the country was the leader in Europe.

  • Science

At the centre of this revolution, core of all the changes. The Victorian Era was dominated by technology and its progress, the spirit of invention & innovation like railways, steam, trains, physics (Electromagnetism/Joule).

Mathematics : Kelvin, basis of modern physics.

Biology : Charles Darwin, The Origins of Species (1859) => natural selection, struggle for life, adapt to a specific context, linked to society. It also led later on to novels (Thomas Huxley), new political theories.

  • Values

Philanthropy : the giving of money to people who need it, without wanting anything in return. Individualism was not at the centre of philanthropy. Robert Owen was a Welsh manufacturer interested in the faith of the world, influential, interested in philanthropy. He created the New Lanark in Scotland, composed of mills and made him able to develop his understanding of an ideal society. He introduced social & welfare programs, helped the workers, built schools, the place became a place of pilgrimage for social reformers.

Religion : debates with Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason (1794, 1795), series of pamphlet. People tried to link evolution and moral progress. Deist. He believed in spn occurrences in the bible, he tackled the notion of religion => new at the time. He said that at times the Church was corrupted, and it was institutionalized. An increasing number of people stopped attending Mass, even tough it was compulsory & the number of atheists increased a little. The morals based on Christian values became at the basis of what the ruling classes wanted to support.

  1. SOCIAL CHANGES
  • The middle classes

The British beehive => a bank at the bottom, the foundation is based on money, the queen is at the top and in between we find people who supported the dev. of the country. At the time, the middle classes shad played a major role in dev. the country. There was a decline in the former agrarian wealth, which was turned into an increase of bank.

In between there were lawyers, civil servants, clerks, shop owners. Two socials classes with no class in between : superior classes which included the aristocracy, the gentry and then there were inferior classes composed of workers, craftsmen. It was the first time that these categories had an influence on the dev of the country.

For the first time at this period, a new class appeared : the middle classes. Social changes started being changed.

Disraeli was the first one to mention the fact that within this beehive there were the upper classes and the inferior classes and in between them in 1851 : 18%.

He wrote a lot on imperialism which he supported and tory democracy. Sybil or the Two Nations (1845) = social organisation, growing economic disparities between the rich, richer and poorer. He depicted the inequalities which existed within Victorian society.

  • The bourgeois

= the middle classes. This class belonged to a wealthy social class; they had a specific social position which made it easy for them to access higher positions. The young bourgeois would have to make his fortune before getting married, so it led to them getting married in their late 20s/early 30s. They supported the dev of prostitution, considered as a curse = Jack The Ripper.

Supported puritan laws and resorted to prostitution. The bourgeois presented themselves as the pillars of society, respectable man, considered as the one embodying virtue and social values. Contradictory time, no legislation to protect children. = hypocrisy.

  • The Victorian family

Represented as an element of purity, ideal representation of English society. The father was at the core of the family structure and the master, there was a very strict idea of what a family had to look like. The Indu. Rev. had led to changes; the family was against changes. This society which was well organised feared for the French Rev. Segregation between the sexes, each member of the family had its own responsibility. Girls had to play the piano, learn how to sing and draw, organise their future marriage.

Mother and wives had to look after their children, help create a nice atmosphere within the home, look after the servants. The place of women was to have “influence in every sphere”, “good cooks alone”, brides, “domestic management”, “general”, “manager”.

Mrs Beeton, Household management, 1861.

  • Women

Not allowed to vote, had to stay at home, they started to show some distress towards their status since they were depicted as weak, belonged to their husbands and houses. When they got married, they lost their rights. Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindicate of the Rights of Women = feminist movement, started to point the things which didn’t work well in society. She claimed the education system was negative for women => frivolous and incapable. A education system same as boy would make them capable workers in many professions <= revolutionary. She supported radical reforms, not only political but also regarding education. She claimed that such changes would benefit all of society. This led to the suffragette movement in the early 20th century.

Some of the movement of the time led to important changes, some women writers wrote under pennames like the Bronte sisters. Currer/Ellis/Acton Belt => Charlotte/Emily/Anne Bronte.

Divorce : 1855

  1. NEW LANDSCAPES
  • Towns & cities

Towns and cities became important visual elements. The balance between countryside and towns was turned. All the evolutions led to crisis in the countryside, there was a migration from the urban areas and city centres = more job opportunities. Electricity, chemical products leading to a revolution within the factories. The harvests were organised differently. The old agrarian society changed along the new hierarchy and wealth which developed at the time.

1851 => population in towns > population in the countryside.

1901 => ¾ of the population => towns.

New industries linked to harbours, good brought from the colonies and cities thanks to steam engines. New means of transportations. Some cities appeared thanks to the new industries : Liverpool, Glasgow, Leeds. Such cities were at the core of British society.

Cities were divided according to their inhabitants’ social status. The bourgeois lived in the outskirts of the city. New habits started to appear day migrations (= commuting). New networks made it easier to travel. Stamps started to appear, allowing people to be linked between cities. Manchester was composed of warehouses. Cities and towns became overcrowded.

  • Architecture

Philip Hardwick / William Henry Barlow. Britian changed the way it looked, new understanding of architecture influenced by the renaissance as well as classical and gothic style = eclectic. New building materials. No real harmony.

Railway stations : Euston Station (1836-38) / St Pancras (1876).

Supporting something new.

World’s first long distance ??????????? Birmingham railway.

The bourgeois wanted to support the Anglican Church => built many churches, support faith.

Pugin (artist) : Contrast, 1836 : his taste regarding churches.

Balliol College, Oxford / St. Giles, Cheadle / House of Lords.

Architecture was also a way to assert power = Banks, insurance, companies, …

  • Art & decoration

Homes/arts and craft movement created by William Morris : evolution within homes, considered as precious, had to display how their families were happy and wealthy.

= > Cluttered, loud, chairs, velveted wallpapers and tapestries, chandeliers.

William Ruskin, the Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) = pre-Raphaelite brotherhood. He also painted and presented elements of architecture in his works. He went back to the gothic Middle Age. The pre-Raphaelites decided to support a specific art which was very important at the time. According to him, the gothic MA was considered as a time of order and moral values.

William Morris was also a supporter of this movement; he was a poet. This movement was imported in FR, America = linked later to the Art Nouveau. He was disappointed by the Great Exhibition, disliked machines and standardized goods, consumers society = build his red house in Upton in contrast of the era.

Pre-Raphaelite : mind map on moodle. They were against the royal academy, going back to paintings close to nature and perfection. Main painter : Raphael.

They also attached an importance to spiritual purity.

Exs : Ophelia by Millais, The Awakening Conscience by Holman Hunt.

Dante Rosseti : 8 paintings among Proserpine in 1874. She is trapped in a subterrain world, he wrote a sonnet with the painting in which he refers to Italy and Italian paintings. Show Eve holding an apple. The painting has subdued colors, shadows, she’s motionless, in her thoughts, only movement = smoke. Like a goddess, but tortured = in the twist of her wrist and neck which bulges, she is twisted like rubber.

CONCLUSION : In 1880s = slow down of agriculture, used to be at the core of progress and competition. Victorians wanted to mark history, introduced a new society, Greenwich time, department stores, suffragettes, socialism and socialist organisation like the Fabian Society and the Chartists who wanted to implement charters for the workers.

A•

L2S3 THE BRITISH ISLES AFTER 1485

L2S3 THE BRITISH ISLES SINCE 1485

CM N°1 : THE TUDOR DYNASTY I

INTRODUCTION

Henry VII : 1485-1509

Henry VIII : 1509-1547

Edward VI : 1547-1553

Lady Jane Grey : 1553 (9 days, deposed)

Mary Tudor : 1553-1558, married Phillip II of Spain (against Reformation)

Elizabeth I : 1558-1603

(James VI succeeded after)

The 16th century was marked by several changes => social, political, religious and economic turmoil. It was also the end of the M-A + expansion in thoughts and deeds => more interaction with continental Europe regarding art, culture, philosophy, ideas, inventions such as printing, ships were built as a result to explore beyond the national frontiers. The Reformation was also taking place, first in Germany.

As a result of the expansion and trade => political changes with the evolution of the union in 1536 when England started signing treaties with Wales (Statue of Rhuddlan – 1284), Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England (1603), Act of Union between Scotland (1707) and Ireland (1801).

= > Beginning of the Tudor period : Battle of Bosworth in 1485. Richard III was defeated by Henry the VII. As a result, Henry VII was crowned in 1485 and ruled for 23 years.

= > Main monarchs : Henry VII, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I.

  1. HENRY VII
  2. Securing the throne

= > His main goal : secure the throne since nobles were fighting for the throne at the time at the beginning of his reign. He was shrewd, far-seeing (able to handle politics and built for the future of the country), cherished justice. He was the one who started colonisation and decided to build ships.

= > The war of the roses : tensions between the House of Lancaster (rulers since 1399) and The House of York.

He managed to handle this situation by strengthening and centralizing his power. All the monarchs of the 15th century were strong minded and respected, so as a result their monarchy was effective.

In the 15th century, the nobility won lands at the expense of the crown, so to limit their power Henry VII decided to implement attainders (= decret de confiscation de biens et de mort civile) which were special laws enabling him to seize titles + possessions of the noble as a result for disloyalty. => financial control over the nobles + financial bond from individual nobles towards The Crown, leading to the nobles being in debt to the crown.

  1. Henry VII’S Government

= > Personal government with the king and his advisers, ruling by degrees and proclamations. The parliament was used sparingly, on his own will.

His foreign policy was dictated by 2 things :

  • Careful about his succession (ex : marriage with French heir to get more land) + no aggressive foreign policy.
  • Cautious about the lack of money (ex : by taxing the nobles to swell his treasury).

He still maintained a lavish court despite the lack of money; he invited musicians, artists, philosophers, …

= > Between 1485 and 1492 : he managed to sign a series of truces to prevent conflicts :

  • France : The treaty of Redon – 1492.
  • Scotland : 3-year truce treaty – 1486, ruled by James III from 1460 and 1488 so it was a distinct country.
  • Spain : Anglo-Spanish Truce treaty in 1489 called Medina del Campo.

He led a common policy with France, and these truces led to a reduction of tariffs. A marriage contract was also established with his son Arthur and Catherine of Aragon (Ferdinand II’s daughter), later with Henry VIII as Arthur died.

= > The Habsburg Empire : included the Netherlands, Spain, parts of Italy and Hungary. They reigned until the 18th century. Founder : Phillip I.

Henry VII had 7 children :

  • Arthur : marriage with Catherine of Aragon.
  • Margaret : marriage with James IV of Scotland, mother of James V, great grand mother of King James VI of Scotland
  • Mary Tudor : marriage with Louis XII, Charles Brandon of Suffolk, had a daughter (Lady Jane Grey).
  • Henry VIII : marriage with Catherine of Aragon.
  1. HENRY VIII
  2. Political situation

His royal court was at the centre of politics and gvt like his father. He became king at 15 of age in 1509. His reign was focused on pleasure and refinement (art, plays, …). He controlled the ambitions of the nobility by threatening both their statues and wealth with taxes. He kept around him only the people he could trust. He was a hardworking king and helped by important men :

  • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey (king’s chief minister between 1515-1529). <3
  • Thomas Cromwell (governed between 1532-1540). <3

He was seen as a medieval good lord, a renaissance man and respected for his courage and honour.

  1. Government under Wolsey (1515-1530)

His government introduced reforms helping him deal with the potential opponents. He created legal reforms, financial reforms (saved money), religious reforms to limit the spread of Protestantism and was seen as the peacemaker of Europe bc of his foreign policy.

  1. Government under Cromwell (1530s)

DO NOT CONFUSE Oliver Cromwell with Thomas Cromwell

Thomas Cromwell : earl of Essex, condemned in 1540, family link with Oliver Cromwell.

Oliver Cromwell => after Charles I’s execution, was head of the Commonwealth/Republic, lord Protector (1649-1660).

Thomas Cromwell was elected MP in 1539 and attacked the financial abuses within the Catholic Church. In 1530, he became a member of the Royal council. In 1532, he managed the king’s divorce.

= > Reformed the system of gvt away from a personal monarchy, introduced a more bureaucratic government with specialized departments with trained officials. Ex : the Exchequer.

= > The Royal council : at the core of the gvt, composed of noblemen, clergymen, members of the king’s household staff. It was organized by meetings with the king and took care of the national finance through a body of advisers instead of the Exchequer and the treasury.

The Parliament played an important role during Henry VIII’s reign. In 1530, Cromwell used it to enact legislation :

  • Legalise the break with Rome.
  • Strengthen royal authority in outlying regions.

Henry VIII died in 1547.

  1. ELIZABETH I (1559-1603)
  2. A new feature in the monarchy

All together the Tudors reigned for 75 years, and Elizabeth was a confident female monarch, she travelled a lot throughout the country. She toned down the extravagance at court. She was reluctant to marriage and devoted herself to politics.

  1. Elizabeth’s government

She put in place a privy council of 20 members and a core of professional men (her confidence), which made it easier to manage and reduce the power of the traditional nobility.

Her privy council had 4 main roles :

  • It offered advice to the monarch
  • It administered public policy
  • It coordinated the work of different elements of government
  • It acted as a royal court of law.
  1. Government crisis (1584-1604)

She had a difficult reign bc of external issues.

= > End of 16th century : the plague struck Britain, leading to economic difficulties (food prices, lack of food, riots). There also was a rise in invasion threats from Spain and France since she was protestant, they wanted to restore the old roman faith, like Philip II of Spain intended to do. She also supported the Dutch in their war with Spain, creating tensions with Philip II.

= > Anglo-Spanish war from 1585 to 1604 : Philip of Spain planned an invasion with the Spanish Armada (130 ships), but it was defeated in 1588.

She also had to deal with political problems in Ireland. Since 1541, Ireland was seen as an official part of the English Crown but difficult to control. In the 1590s, she decided to implement a policy of plantation which was to remove the Irish from the land and give it to protestants.

CONCLUSION : The Tudor dynasty ruled for a long period of time, introduced political, constitutional and religious fields. Home policies and foreign policies were very important and shaped the relations between England/Europe/Ireland. The Stuarts (James I) reigned after Elizabeth I.

The Treason Act : offences vs the king, the first one was in 1351 (Edward III) and enacted in 1495. => to protect the Queen and King against compassing their deaths, violating them, levying war, adhering to the king’s enemies.

METTRE LA SLIDE ICI DE L’ARBRE G2N2ALOGIQUE

CM N°2 : THE TUDOR DYNASTY II

Introduction :

The country was completely changed due to the King and EU : politics, economy and society. Religion was changed due to human, economic and political reason. The Reformation was not implemented easily and took a long time to be accepted.

  1. THE ENGLISH REFORMATION
  2. Origins
  3. Economic reasons

Henry VII and Henry VIII were looking for money and noticed that the Catholic Church was a huge landowner. Due to their wealth, the church was unpopular to the people. Henry VIII had no control over the church since it was ruled by Rome which meant that most of the money was sent there and not to the kingdom. The king had no influence on Rome contrary to France and Spain.

Pope Clement VII : 1523-1534

Pope Paul III : 1534-1549

The taxes given to the Church reduced the King’s income, which made him understood that he had to centralize State authority.

  1. Human reasons

In 1509, Henry VIII got married with Catherine of Aragon (Habsburg). In 1526, the couple had a daughter, Mary Tudor but still no male heir. Henry then decided to divorce Catherine, helped by Wolsey.

The Pope did not accept Henry VIII’s divorce demand due to his political and family links with Charles V (King of Spain 1516-1556, Catherine’s nephew). Ferdinand II (1475-1516) was Catherine’s father. + Phillip II married Mary Tudor later.

As a result, Henry VIII beheaded Wolsey bc he’s a little shit with angry issues.

  1. The Break with Rome
  2. A political choice

In 1531, he persuaded the bishop to make him Head of the Church of England; breaking from Rome and that England was no longer a catholic country. He decided to base the Church on Anglicana Ecclesia, based on the protestant religion (Martin Luther + John Calvin). But it was based on nothing at first, it was only a political and economic tool.

= > The Act of Supremacy in 1534. Henry was head of the Anglican Church, so above all ranks in the church, which meant he could do whatever he wanted to.

The Church of England became the established/State Church.

He created 2 provinces : Canterbury (south) and York (north).

The text (Act of Supremacy) focused on the figure of the king, the imbalance between parliament and the king, his supremacy prevailed. It gave him infinite power and authority, his prerogatives increased.

An established church means that :

  • The monarch is at the head of the church.
  • The Church performs a number of official functions (ex : in Parliament, 26 bishops sat in the House of Lords).
  • Church and State are linked.

Hence, Henry finally divorce Catherine and married Anne Boleyn in 1533. However, Henry himself was not in favour of the Reformation and preferred Catholicism, but its advantages were better.

  1. A religious step

Henry made the break legal thanks to parliament in 1534, progressively, by introducing several acts of parliament between 1532 and 1536. On the 23 March 1534 : Act of Succession, removing succession to Catherine of Aragon’s heirs. It put princess Elizabeth against Mary Tudor. Princess Elizabeth was taught the protestant education, making Mary a bastard. This act of succession proclaimed that all English subjects had to swear an oath to the king and recognize his supremacy. People who refused to take the oath were charged with treason (Act of Treason).

The Act of Succession made Jane Seymour’s children first in line for the throne (married in 1536 with Henry VIII, his 3rd wife). It made it legal that the previous marriages became unlawful, and Elizabeth and Mary Tudor became illegitimate.

England was a protestant country, but the popular religion was Catholicism.

He replaced Wolsey with Thomas Cromwell, accepting the change of Church and decided to close all the monasteries between 1536 and 1539. = to make money and made himself popular among the rising classes, since the catholic lands could be sold to them. Nuns and monks were thrown out of monasteries.

In 1541, an Irish parliament was set up in Dublin as a way to make sure that Ireland was an English country, conferred to him the title of King of Ireland and could impose his church to the Irish Catholics.

  1. Evolution of the Reformation
  2. The catholic backlash

In 1540, the protestant converts were a small minority and adopted extreme ideas, displeasing the population. This led to the fall of Cromwell in 1540 as the population (pro-Catholics groups) started to fight the new church.

Between 1540 and 1547, protestants were persecuted, and their ideas attacked.

When Henry VIII died in 1547, his Reformation reached a stalemate. The teaching of protestant ideas was suppressed, making England a catholic country without a Pope.

Between 1553 and 1558, Mary Tudor tried to undo the Reformation and restore the faith of Rome, inspired by her husband Philip II who was catholic. Philip II’s goal was to dethrone Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and restore England to the catholic faith. Elizabeth was supported by the Dutch against Spain during the war from 1568 and 1648, with the Armada of 1588.

  1. The Elizabethan Settlement of 1558-63

The situation at the time was difficult, both economic and socially.

1564 : the black death (bubonic plague) ≠ the Black plague (1348-1350).

Elizabeth priorities were political and not only religious. Her aim was to establish a settlement of religion to heal the division between Catholics and protestants and increased her control over the Church to impose more regulation and rules to the population.

Elizabeth’s religious settlement included the Act of Supremacy and the Act of Uniformity in 1558-59.

Otherwise, she knew there would be no peace between the different faiths, national unity would be destroyed and lead to unrest and civil war. Since she was raised was a protestant child, she was more inclined towards protestant ideas.

Two events :

  • Signing of peace treaty between France and Spain : the Treaty of Cateau Cambresis (1559).
  • Debates between protestant and catholic clergy.

The catholic clergy did not accept Elizabeth’s authority over them. So, she decided to arrest its members and imprisoned them, making it easier after for the Parliament to enact a law.

Elizabeth became the Supreme Governor of the Church and made all churchmen swear an oath of loyalty to the Supreme Governor. She made the dogmas clearer and set out 57 rules concerning appearance of churches and religious practices in the Act of Supremacy. The book of Common Prayer was published, imposing more uniformity and simplicity. Attendance at the Church was made compulsory.

She also claimed that the Anglican church was also the church of Ireland. So, she started the plantation process from the 15th to 16th centuries : the lands owned by the Catholics was confiscated and given to the protestant settlers, protestant faith was imposed in the country.

In 1603, James VI of Scotland/James I of England succeeded her.

CONCLUSION : Religion was used to centralize State authority, to position England/Europe and was used as an economic tool. The British population finally accepted the new Church.

CM N°3 : THE TUDOR DYNASTY PART III

  1. A “REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD”

This period led to a strong England within EU and the world. It was also rev. in the way that Henry VIII created the new church. The main goal was to consolidate their political place.

= > discoveries of new lands

= > new values

= > cultural changes

  1. A new church

= > new travels around EU. In the 1530, everyone was devoted to Erasmus, he emphasized the need for moral reforms and asking people to follow the rules.

There were different values, understandings of what the church had to look like : closer to the people + more open minded since the church was wealthy and distant before.

In 1531-32, Henry VIII implemented several acts to threaten Rome.

= > The Act in Restraint of Appeals in 1533 = transferring the power of the Catholic Church to the King.

The King asserted the figure of the King as central in the Church, so in 1531, the King went to Canterbury to make him Head of the Church, to assert England as an independent country and unify it religiously.

= > Accusations of praemunire = prohibited the assertion or maintenance of papal jurisdiction, or any other foreign jurisdiction or claim of supremacy in England, against the supremacy of the monarch, dealt with by the King, which was “an offence to the crown punishable chiefly by forfeiture and originally committed by assuring papal legal supremacy in England”.

= > Payment of annates to Rome = forbidden.

= > Forbade appeal to Rome (marriage to C. of Aragon).

Henry VIII died in 1547. When Elizabeth I came to power, she wanted to avoid religious war and took the Reformation a step farther.

= > 1549 : the first Act of uniformity imposed the first book of Common Prayer. In 1548, Archbishop Cranmer composed a Communion rite in English.

= > Penalties : confiscation of income/prison sentences.

= > 1552 : Second Prayer book (revised) included baptism and communion.

= > 1559 = Elizabeth became Supreme Governor of the Church and introduced a new reform.

The Act of Supremacy is one long sentence. = secure sovereignty, secure the throne, secure the church, swell the treasuries. Personal dimension = divorce, need to re-organize the state, foreign policy against the Hapsburg, expand the frontiers of the kingdom. = used Parliament to enact it.

  1. National sovereignty

Keywords in The Act of Supremacy : Henry VIII, The Church, peace/unity/foreign law/authority.

The Act of Supremacy of 1559 emphasized what had been started by Henry VIII = ref to parliament, legal aspect, the kingdom is based on the Anglican church, Supreme government, HVIII, Queen Mary, emphasizing the place of the Church of England. Religion and politics are one same thing.

  1. ENGLAND’S FOREIGN POLICY
  2. Relationship with foreign countries

“This realm of England is an Empire, and so hath been accepted in the world, governed by one Supreme Head, King having the dignity and royal estate of the Imperial Crown of the same, unto whom a body politic…”

England is described as a political unit & independent/sovereign state, the body politic and new understandings of being a nation.

= > Ref to Dudley who wrote the Tree of Common Wealth (later created in 1649), he was Henry VII’s financial agent + administrator. He showed the most efficient way to govern. This book paved the way to Henry VIII’s way of governing. Dudley was part of the council learned in the law, which concentrated on the King & his needs, how taxes could be increased, the ways of exploiting the treaties it had enacted with foreign countries. He wrote treaties in support of absolute monarchy. Following Henry VII’s death in 1509, he was sent to the Tower of London.

The main monarchs :

  • Mary : England and Spain through marriages.
  • Elizabeth I : Netherlands, trade, encouraged the trade and its dev, enclosures to increase production.
  • Henry VII : merchants ships => conquered the world
  • Henry VIII : trades, spent a lot of money in war guns, ships and stuffs.

The different monarchs introduced new values regarding politics, trades, position in EU which led to new relationships with other countries. The Anglican Church also questioned former values like money, it wasn’t a problem anymore, it was at the core of the new policies. The state was both protective and controlling.

= > T. More, Utopia. = perfect/imaginary society, egalitarian society for the good of every inhabitant, no poverty. In book 1, truth and justice are dealt with & in book 2, vices and virtues are analysed.

= > The Armada Portrait by George Gower (1588) = power & authority, empress of the world & commander of the sea (pearls), ref to virginity too with the pearls.

  1. New opportunities

Under Elizabeth I’s reign, new process of colonizing emerged.

= > 1497 : John Cabot sent by Henry VII, he went as far as NA where he claimed CAN for England. In the 15th & 16th century, seas were sold to England. The first explorations began with the Tudors.

= > Thirst for knowledge, convert heathens, military ambitions, trade, wealth.

England was at the crossroads of exchanges/trades.

  1. CULTURAL CHANGES
  2. Intellectual life

Renaissance = There were English scholars like Edmund Spencer, they were eager to learn more about Rome, a lot of translations of ancient works in Greek and latin were done. Elizabeth I’s reign was known as the Golden Age of Literature. The importance of printing was crucial as well (William Caxton).

= > 1500 : 10% of adult men could read & write.

= > 1600 : More than ¼.

= > 1700 : 50%.

  1. The arts

Paintings flourished as well as music. Regarding paintings, England attracted learning men like Erasmus or Hans Holbein who was called to the court to paint important men (The Ambassadors, 1533).

= > Luth, telescope, explorations, clothes.

= > Music : Thomas Tallis (Magnificat, Sancte Deus). Many musicians were supported by the Church. Kings and Queens also played music

Architecture was also evolving, Tudor buildings had a specific aspect (Wollaton Hall, Merton College Chapel, The Great Court of Trinity College in Cambridge) + gardens (regularity, fountains)

CONCLUSION : turning point moving away from the M-A, major changes at diff. levels, strong monarchy & gov., change in religion so had to face many new enemies and strengthened the country. 1558, even bigger changes, new exploration. Took time to establish a strong gov./country. In 1603, it was the end of the Tudor era and James the 1rst was crowned.

CM N°4 : ETABLISHMENT OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE

Introduction :

In the 17th c., the British empire was already being established as said by historians. It took several steps to implement it : human, cultural, social… and along defeats, victories, several policies. Trade, money & wealth were at the centre of the process. The aim was to try to defend English trade against rival Europeans countries. They were also looking for new land since the country was small.

  1. ORIGINS
  2. The Tudor dynasty

Henry VII wanted to be the peacemaker in EU, to sign truces/peace treaties with as many countries as possible to prevent wars + building a large fleet of merchant ships to support the dev. of trade.

Henry VIII went on building war ships and guns + trade. He had a more ambitious policy.

Elizabeth also placed trade at the centre of her policy, foreign policy was very important to her too.

By the end of the Tudor dynasty, there were many wars ships & trade policies established so the network/structure of the kingdom was very strong.

At the time, England’s trade rivals (FR, Spain, …) was the greatest enemy since it based its colonizing conquest on trade.

England presented itself since the Tudor dynasty as a sea power. It meant that the Tudor had been able to support a large fleet to roam the seas, but also to dev. trade links.

Trading and exploring meant new lands to conquer.

Elizabeth made it possible to organize all the potential of the colonizing process. This sea power was possible because of new values : intellectuals & economists coming to England to give their advice, new travel possibilities, opening of the Anglican Church, Mercantilism (created with the gold found in South America), customs wars with tariffs and taxes when trading.

= > 1566-1568 : Dutch vs Spaniards in which England supported the Dutch, however later on => Anglo-Dutch wars :

  • First war : 1652-1654
  • Second war : 1655-1667
  • Third war : 1672-1674
  1. The fall of Calais

Calais used to be part of English control from 1347 to 1558, which made it easy for the English to have a link with continental Europe. The fall of Calais was a turning point. It used to be a hub of exchange, where wool was exchanged, where there was an English parliament. Its loss made England look for new lands.

It led to the unification of the British Isles bc the country had the present as strong to EU.

  1. BUILDING AN EMPIRE
  2. Motivations

The aim was to find new land.

= > Propaganda literature which dealt with exploration, to support the idea of finding new lands and make the most out of the new lands found. Ex : Richard Eden, Treatise of the New India (1553) + Thomas Wyndham, Trade with Africa.

There were also different books published referring to the way economy could be developed, based on money => investors / 1558 : Royal exchange.

Ex : explore the Caribbeans.

The aim was to create export markets. The same thing was happening in the Netherlands.

This was also based on religious motivations : The Mayflower (1620).

Elizabeth I supported settlements and transportation in the pacific ocean, like in Australia.

The aim was to take all these into account and support the development.

  1. Chartered companies

1585 : the Dutch lost Antwerp. Elizabeth decided to support the Dutch in their rebel against Spain between 1556 and 1558.

= > The Dutch Hansa : several Dutch wars from 1652-1674.

= > support The Merchant Adventurers Company : discover new lands, new populations, it was established before the end of the 15th c, this was the beginning of the organisation of the Empire. It led to the implementation of Charters, kind of like rights on trade in regions. It led to the formation of the English Empire.

A charter was intended to make profit for The Crown & an opportunity for a merchant to be given rights to establish a company in a specific region. In return, the chartered company had to give some of their profits to the crown so it could develop quickly.

  • First chartered company created in 1553 called the Muscovy Co (Russia)
  • The Eastland Co in 1579 (Scandinavia and the Baltic)
  • The Levant Co in 1581 (Ottoman Empire)
  • The Africo Co in 1588 (trade of Slaves)
  • The East India Co in 1600

= > Sir W. Raleigh : Trinidad/Florida, Guyana in 1595.

= > Sir Francis Drake : discovered the Pacific Ocean, circumnavigated the globe from 1577-1580.

= > The lesser Antilles in 1624-1650.

= > Jamaica by Martin Frobisher in 1655, he also discovered Labrador & Terre Neuve.

Lots of the good like sugar & spices were bought back to England.

  1. RULE BRITANNIA
  2. Impact on Britain

= > Important development of cities with new factories & industries, the work of children in wool industries, harbours, banks, slavery.

Several acts were implemented, ex 1651 : The Navigation Acts.

= > Adam Smith (Scottish philosopher), The Wealth of Nations (1776), he explained that tariffs had to be imposed to hoard gold and on products. He explained that England had to sell their goods and sell nothing in return bc he thought it could rely on its own produce.

= > During Queen Victoria’s reign (1837-1901), she owned 1/5 of the world’s land.

= > No new colonies in the 1830s.

= > Trade routes between India, Africa, …

The Empire protected the areas it had colonized, its merchants, moneyed gentry and sailors.

= > Possessions across the world.

= > Possible attacks from EU powers.

  1. A civilizing mission

= > “Rule Britannia” was the name of a British patriotic song which was composed by James Thomson and Thomas Arne (1er August 1740). = ref to the nations, the UK, to slaves, that EN would never be submitted to another nations, god supported this colonizing process, it was the king’s mission to expand the church.

= > The White Man’s Burden (1899), Rudyard Kipling : ref to the Philippines, Imperialism (= policy, ideology, political, economic control). “Child” repeated = refers to the need to be educated. Paternalistic aspect, to bring religion as a tool through education.

= > The Great Exhibition = The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton in 1851.

  1. TEXTS

= > Les Anglais et la mer au XVIe siècle = banner : nation, merchants : trade, empire, countries worldwide.

= > 1672 : Spain as the rivals, Jamaica as a strategic colony, plantations, fertile lands, settlements.
= > Another text (to W. Pitt) about slavery where it’s presented. Refs to humanity, abolition of slavery (1833), what was needed was a “more human trade”, was considered abolitionist at the time who campaigned 1780s, shipowners : lobbied parliament + The Cabinet.

CONLUSION :

There were economic interest linked to the British Empire, which started during the Tudor era and went on with the creation of the Commonwealth and free trade between EN and the colonies. There was also a political aspect : present Britian as a thriving country in Europe, need to create strong ports. Mercantilism, settlements, imperialism

CM N°5

  • SCOTLAND AND IRELAND, THE CELTIC MARGINS

INTRODUCTION

= > Ireland and Scotland = shared history regarding the way they were conquered, leading to the end of Gaelic society. The English language was imposed to both of them as a political tool, loss of their identity with their language. The lands were used to make money, so the Irish & Scottish fled. The colonization was similar in the 2 countries, the aim was to support the English economy, make profits.

= > Slow process since the 12th c. until the 17th c which imposed another culture, religion, language.

  1. SPECIFICITIES OF GAELIC SOCIETY
  2. Laws
  • James VI, Basilikon Doron, 1599. “I have intended implanting colonies […] may reform and civilize”, stereotypes linked to the Scotts.

1891 – 2001 => The Demise of Scots Gaelic speaking areas. Same for the Irish Gaelic.

“barbarous” = recurring when dealing with Ireland & Scotland, “kept the English from implanting its feudal system in Ireland”, “The Brehon Laws” codified everything in Irish society.

  1. Gaelic Society

The 2 Gaelic society were very similar : composed of Celtic inhabitants, their social organisation was based on tribes & clans. The language was slightly different between the two, yet they share many similarities. Scottish Gaelic was mainly used by the highlanders & at the end of the 12th c. around 300 000 Highlanders spoke Gaelic. The society was based on druids, bards & musicians. The druids were those who handed down orally history, laws, medicine. the bards transmitted songs, legends, dances, tales, they were considered as musicians & doctors. There were mainly small villages, many clans like small kingdom with different chiefs/leaders who ruled. (moodle) Each clan had its own specific tartan; they wore specific garments depending on their clan.

  1. A negative image

Punch magazine : the Irish were often represented as apes. Caricatures.

  1. CONQUEST
  2. The Bull of Pope Adrian IV

The Irish were seen as variants needing to be civilized. The Pope asked Henry II to invade Ireland, to spread the Catholic values from Rome. In the 12th c, Ireland was a Catholic country, but druidism was still practiced. The Pope knew Henry II was looking for new lands, so this was an opportunity. “evil”, “faith and love of religion” = from his pov, Catholicism wasn’t taught properly in Ireland. “one penny” = no taxes were imposed in Ireland at the time, the aim was also to impose taxes for Rome.

Ireland was conquered in the 12th c. who did it in the name of the Roman church, so it didn’t look like a conquest. It started with “The Pale”; a small part were the English soldiers remained until the 17th c bc they couldn’t move westward. The clans opposed thanks to their strength & organisation. The English organised their headquarters in Dublin against the Irish community, the Irish clans were heavily armed, constructed tower.

Ireland was divised in 4 : Ulster, Connaught, Munster, Leinster. Ulster includes the entire northern part, but not anymore. During the independence (1990), the English wanted to keep only the 6 counties, because many protestants lived here, because they feared a conflict might happen with the other catholic counties of Ulster.

The English aimed at taking the lands owned by the Irish Catholics : MacDonald

1556 = plantation of Munster. It involved the displacement of Catholic families, so the land were given to the protestants. The plantations took place until 1610. Protestants officials saw their position strengthened. The English succeeded in replacing the chieftains and clans.

  1. Scotland

There were the battles led by the Jacobites. In 1603 the Scottish king had reigned over England & Scotland, so William of Orange wanted peaceful links between Ireland & England. All the chiefs of the clans had to swear an oath of religion to him. James Francis Stuart wanted to reconquer his father’s throne, the Jacobite army gathered in the Ireland and supported King James II (Jacobus). His descendants wanted to take the throne back, it led to the Battle of Culloden in 1746, which was a failure. Scottish Gaelic society was dismantled, and the system of clans was destroyed = end of Scottish resistance.

  1. Battles (17th / 18th)

1601 : The battle of Kinsale => changes in Irish society, the Spaniards supported the Irish but failed bc of a storm. It led to the flight of the earls in 1609, another turning point, as the English gained more land. Many of the earls fled to Spain & France.

= > 1649 : Oliver Cromwell removed the remaining Irish leaders & almost managed to complete the conquest.

= > 1690 : The battle of the Boyne which opposed William the Orange & James II who was a roman catholic. Their troops met near Dublin. The English faced the French who supported the Irish & some Spaniards as well. It was a victory for the English, the conquest would then be completed.

  1. IMPACT OF COLONIALISM
  2. Dismantlement of Gaelic society

The outcome of the Plantation process led to 2 societies, which dev. a different social organisation. The Catholic landowners in Ulster took up arms in 1641 = against loss of property & status.

= > Onslaught against protestants & belongings.

2000 protestants settlers were killed & spread throughout the country. Oliver Cromwell led an army in 1649.

= > 1609 : Status of Iona, the population in Scotland had to accept the Anglican Church & they had to finance it. They had to send their sons in the Ionas and no longer in the Highlands, since there could be resistance there.

= > 1597 – 1616 : acts, the English managed to suppress the clans. If they wanted to claim their territory, the clans had to show the official papers of the land. In 1616, no one could own lands if they didn’t speak, read or write in English. = language used as a political tool.

Scotland was excluded from trade with English colonies thanks to the Navigation acts between 1651 and 1661 = loss of wealth. In reaction in 1695, the Scots created their own trade company, but it was a failure. The Act of Union of 1707 between England & Scotland was enacted : 110 were in favour, 69 against. Scotland lost its remaining political power bc it was merged into Westminster. Scottish laws were kept as well as the Church of Scotland.

  1. Penal laws

A set of laws against Roman Catholics in both Britain and Ireland after the reformation. The feudal laws imposed to Ireland & Scotland were against the Catholic Church. The penal laws focused on Ireland and led to penalties, taxes, fines, imprisonment for those who remained Catholics. They lost their social positions; could no longer vote, hold public office. This was an opportunity for the English to take back the political powers.

  1. Emigration

The Clearances (1815) = the farmers in the Highlands were replaced by grand sheep farmers, the population had to immigrate.

Between 1815-1838 = 22 000 Highlanders emigrated.

The landlords made lots of money from the land they now owned.

Several families were killed & potatoes were introduced as a mean to feed those who remained in the Highlands.

In addition, there were bad harvests between 1816-1817/1825.

The government implemented the Passenger Vessels Act between 1846 & 1856, preventing the Scots from emigrating bc they increase the price of the fares.

In Ireland, laws annihilated the social/cultural specificities of Ireland.

= > 1840s : The Great Hunger, all the food was exported to England. 8.4 million in 1844 had fallen to 6.6 million by 1851. The policy of the catholic church led to huge impact on the population : either died or emigrated. Between 1815-45, 1 million people emigrated. 1846-1855 : 2.5 million. 1856-1914 : 4 million.

= > The Act of Union of 1707 : religion imposed to the population, politics, trade/economy handled by England, the colonies too. It led to the end of any rebellion from the Scots, political independence.

= > The Act of Union of 1800 : remained in force until 1920. Following the Rising of 1798, to prevent any rebellion from the Irish & merge the 2 countries into one. It wasn’t a union but more like an absorption. It was an anti-Catholic text; it imposed the Anglican Church. It led to the Catholic Emancipation movement in 1829, leading to the Catholic Emancipation Act which led to the end of the fact that people could be catholic in Ireland. = opposite of what it intended.

CONCLUSION : The union was an opportunity for England to strengthen its central power. The Gaelic society disappeared. The main aims were economic & religious. In 1921, Northen Ireland was created. 2014 = Scottish referendum.

CM N°6

  • THE VICTORIAN ERA

INTRODUCTION

Based on the industrial revolution, affected every single aspect of British society, at the centre => economic & social changes. Lasted for about 64 years. Ongoing & quick changes, because over a short period of time society moved from a mainly rural society to an urban + industrialized society. This period shaped a new society which had new taste, values, political parties, women & workers who started to revendicate for their rights. + clothes, food, furniture changed. The artists wanted to leave their marks in history, literature, art.

  1. A NEW SOCIETY
  • The Great Exhibition (1851)

Cristal palaces built for the Great Exhibition. The idea of Prince Albert & Queen Victoria was to gather international exhibitors to take part in it. Located in Hyde Park in London. This was an opportunity to show that her society had changed, emphasise that her society was evolving, display Britain’s success & power. Many things came from the colonies = worldwide.

Show how British factories mastered new techniques.

Sculptures, cars, ivory, …

Opening speech by Prince Albert : emphasise its political role, show that England played an important political role. “the national undertaking”, “success”, “Your Majesty’s dominions”, “Majesty’s colonies”, “Works of Industry”. 15 000 British productions. “raw material, machinery, fine art, manufacture”. Ends with a ref to novelty = shows that the country was the leader in Europe.

  • Science

At the centre of this revolution, core of all the changes. The Victorian Era was dominated by technology and its progress, the spirit of invention & innovation like railways, steam, trains, physics (Electromagnetism/Joule).

Mathematics : Kelvin, basis of modern physics.

Biology : Charles Darwin, The Origins of Species (1859) => natural selection, struggle for life, adapt to a specific context, linked to society. It also led later on to novels (Thomas Huxley), new political theories.

  • Values

Philanthropy : the giving of money to people who need it, without wanting anything in return. Individualism was not at the centre of philanthropy. Robert Owen was a Welsh manufacturer interested in the faith of the world, influential, interested in philanthropy. He created the New Lanark in Scotland, composed of mills and made him able to develop his understanding of an ideal society. He introduced social & welfare programs, helped the workers, built schools, the place became a place of pilgrimage for social reformers.

Religion : debates with Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason (1794, 1795), series of pamphlet. People tried to link evolution and moral progress. Deist. He believed in spn occurrences in the bible, he tackled the notion of religion => new at the time. He said that at times the Church was corrupted, and it was institutionalized. An increasing number of people stopped attending Mass, even tough it was compulsory & the number of atheists increased a little. The morals based on Christian values became at the basis of what the ruling classes wanted to support.

  1. SOCIAL CHANGES
  • The middle classes

The British beehive => a bank at the bottom, the foundation is based on money, the queen is at the top and in between we find people who supported the dev. of the country. At the time, the middle classes shad played a major role in dev. the country. There was a decline in the former agrarian wealth, which was turned into an increase of bank.

In between there were lawyers, civil servants, clerks, shop owners. Two socials classes with no class in between : superior classes which included the aristocracy, the gentry and then there were inferior classes composed of workers, craftsmen. It was the first time that these categories had an influence on the dev of the country.

For the first time at this period, a new class appeared : the middle classes. Social changes started being changed.

Disraeli was the first one to mention the fact that within this beehive there were the upper classes and the inferior classes and in between them in 1851 : 18%.

He wrote a lot on imperialism which he supported and tory democracy. Sybil or the Two Nations (1845) = social organisation, growing economic disparities between the rich, richer and poorer. He depicted the inequalities which existed within Victorian society.

  • The bourgeois

= the middle classes. This class belonged to a wealthy social class; they had a specific social position which made it easy for them to access higher positions. The young bourgeois would have to make his fortune before getting married, so it led to them getting married in their late 20s/early 30s. They supported the dev of prostitution, considered as a curse = Jack The Ripper.

Supported puritan laws and resorted to prostitution. The bourgeois presented themselves as the pillars of society, respectable man, considered as the one embodying virtue and social values. Contradictory time, no legislation to protect children. = hypocrisy.

  • The Victorian family

Represented as an element of purity, ideal representation of English society. The father was at the core of the family structure and the master, there was a very strict idea of what a family had to look like. The Indu. Rev. had led to changes; the family was against changes. This society which was well organised feared for the French Rev. Segregation between the sexes, each member of the family had its own responsibility. Girls had to play the piano, learn how to sing and draw, organise their future marriage.

Mother and wives had to look after their children, help create a nice atmosphere within the home, look after the servants. The place of women was to have “influence in every sphere”, “good cooks alone”, brides, “domestic management”, “general”, “manager”.

Mrs Beeton, Household management, 1861.

  • Women

Not allowed to vote, had to stay at home, they started to show some distress towards their status since they were depicted as weak, belonged to their husbands and houses. When they got married, they lost their rights. Mary Wollstonecraft, Vindicate of the Rights of Women = feminist movement, started to point the things which didn’t work well in society. She claimed the education system was negative for women => frivolous and incapable. A education system same as boy would make them capable workers in many professions <= revolutionary. She supported radical reforms, not only political but also regarding education. She claimed that such changes would benefit all of society. This led to the suffragette movement in the early 20th century.

Some of the movement of the time led to important changes, some women writers wrote under pennames like the Bronte sisters. Currer/Ellis/Acton Belt => Charlotte/Emily/Anne Bronte.

Divorce : 1855

  1. NEW LANDSCAPES
  • Towns & cities

Towns and cities became important visual elements. The balance between countryside and towns was turned. All the evolutions led to crisis in the countryside, there was a migration from the urban areas and city centres = more job opportunities. Electricity, chemical products leading to a revolution within the factories. The harvests were organised differently. The old agrarian society changed along the new hierarchy and wealth which developed at the time.

1851 => population in towns > population in the countryside.

1901 => ¾ of the population => towns.

New industries linked to harbours, good brought from the colonies and cities thanks to steam engines. New means of transportations. Some cities appeared thanks to the new industries : Liverpool, Glasgow, Leeds. Such cities were at the core of British society.

Cities were divided according to their inhabitants’ social status. The bourgeois lived in the outskirts of the city. New habits started to appear day migrations (= commuting). New networks made it easier to travel. Stamps started to appear, allowing people to be linked between cities. Manchester was composed of warehouses. Cities and towns became overcrowded.

  • Architecture

Philip Hardwick / William Henry Barlow. Britian changed the way it looked, new understanding of architecture influenced by the renaissance as well as classical and gothic style = eclectic. New building materials. No real harmony.

Railway stations : Euston Station (1836-38) / St Pancras (1876).

Supporting something new.

World’s first long distance ??????????? Birmingham railway.

The bourgeois wanted to support the Anglican Church => built many churches, support faith.

Pugin (artist) : Contrast, 1836 : his taste regarding churches.

Balliol College, Oxford / St. Giles, Cheadle / House of Lords.

Architecture was also a way to assert power = Banks, insurance, companies, …

  • Art & decoration

Homes/arts and craft movement created by William Morris : evolution within homes, considered as precious, had to display how their families were happy and wealthy.

= > Cluttered, loud, chairs, velveted wallpapers and tapestries, chandeliers.

William Ruskin, the Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) = pre-Raphaelite brotherhood. He also painted and presented elements of architecture in his works. He went back to the gothic Middle Age. The pre-Raphaelites decided to support a specific art which was very important at the time. According to him, the gothic MA was considered as a time of order and moral values.

William Morris was also a supporter of this movement; he was a poet. This movement was imported in FR, America = linked later to the Art Nouveau. He was disappointed by the Great Exhibition, disliked machines and standardized goods, consumers society = build his red house in Upton in contrast of the era.

Pre-Raphaelite : mind map on moodle. They were against the royal academy, going back to paintings close to nature and perfection. Main painter : Raphael.

They also attached an importance to spiritual purity.

Exs : Ophelia by Millais, The Awakening Conscience by Holman Hunt.

Dante Rosseti : 8 paintings among Proserpine in 1874. She is trapped in a subterrain world, he wrote a sonnet with the painting in which he refers to Italy and Italian paintings. Show Eve holding an apple. The painting has subdued colors, shadows, she’s motionless, in her thoughts, only movement = smoke. Like a goddess, but tortured = in the twist of her wrist and neck which bulges, she is twisted like rubber.

CONCLUSION : In 1880s = slow down of agriculture, used to be at the core of progress and competition. Victorians wanted to mark history, introduced a new society, Greenwich time, department stores, suffragettes, socialism and socialist organisation like the Fabian Society and the Chartists who wanted to implement charters for the workers.