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Protists and Fungi

Protists

What is it?

  • It is an organism that is not an animal, plant, fungus, or prokaryote

  • Kingdom: Protista

  • “The Very First” (the very first eukaryotes)

Evolution

  • First eukaryotic organisms on earth

  • 1.5 billion years ago (bya)

  • Endosymbitotic Theory: Eukaryotic cells may have evolved when multiple cells joined together into one.

Classification(s)

  • Animal-like

  • Plant-like

  • Fungus-like

Animal-like Protists (Unicellular):

Characteristics:

  • All Heterotrophs

  • 4 phyla: These are determined by movement

  • Some are decomposers

  • Base of some food chains

  • Some cause disease

Types:

Zooflagellates:

  • They’re apart of the Phylum: Zoomastigina

  • They swim using flagella

    • Can either have 1 or 2

  • Absorb food through their cell membrane

  • Reproduce sexually (conjugation) or asexually

Sarcodines:

  • Phylum: Sarcodina

  • Moving cytoplasmic extensions called psuedopods

  • Amoeboid movement

  • Capture food with psuedopods: food vacuole

    • Food Vacuole: an organelle where food is stored after it’s captured

      • Can cause disease (Pathogenic)

        • Entomoeba

        • Giardia causes disease that causes diarrhea

          Amoeba (Kingdom:Protista/ Phylum; Sarcodina)

Ciliates:

  • Phylum: Ciliophora

  • Move through the use of cilia: hair-like projections that allows ciliates to move and get food

  • Ciliate Anatomy (Paramecium)

    • Trichocycts: structures used for defense

    • Macronucleus: “working library” of genetic info (used for reproduction)

    • Micronucleus: “reserve copy” of genetic info (used for reproduction)

    • Gullet (Oral Groove): where food is trapped

      • The food is collected here until it is stored in the food vacuoles

    • Anal pore: where waste product is emptied

Contractile vacuole (sun shaped): collects/disperses water; maintains homeostasis

Paramecium (Kingdom: Protista/ Phylum: Ciliaphora)

Ciliates Conjugation:

  • Usually reproduce asexually: Mitosis

  • Can exchange DNA through conjugation

  • No NEW organisms are creates; simply an exchange of genetic info

  • Occurs under stress (environmental pressures)

Sporozoans:

  • Phylum: Sporozoa

  • Do not move on their own

  • They are parasitic

  • Have complex life cycles

  • Malaria: caused by a type of protist called. . .

    • Plasmodium

Plant-like Protists: Unicellular Algae

Ecology:

  • Phytoplankton: base of most aquatic food webs

  • Algal blooms

    • “red tides”

Types:

Euglenophytes:

  • Phylum: Euglenophyta

    • Phyta: “plant-like”

  • Have two flagella

  • No cell wall; instead they have Pellicle

  • Have eyespot: helps organism find sunlight to aide in photosynthesis

  • Euglena (Kingdom: Protista/ Phylum: Euglenophyta)

Chrysophytes:

  • Phylum: Chrysophyta

  • Gold-colored

  • Cell walls have carbohydrate Pectin rather than cellulose

Diatoms:

  • Phylum: Bacillarophyta

  • Cell walls of Silicon (Si)

Dinoflagellates:

  • Phylum: Pyrrophyta

  • Usually luminescent

Plant-like Protists: Multicellular Algae

Red Algae:

  • Phylum: Rhodophyta

    • “Red plants”

  • Live at great depths

  • Contain chlorophyll as well as Phycobillins (extra pigment) (absorb blue light, give off reddish color)

Brown Algae:

  • Phylum: Pheophyta

    • “Dusty plants”

  • Have chlorophyll and fucoxanthin

  • Largest and most complex algae

  • Marine

Green Algae:

  • Phylum: Chlorophyta

    • “green plants”

  • Share many characteristic with plants

    • Cell wall of cellulose

    • Chlorophyll a and b

    • Hypothesized to be the ancestor of modern plants

Human Use of Algae:

Medications:

  • Treat ulcers, arthritis, and blood pressure

Food:

  • Sushi wrap

  • Algin (thickener) in candy bars, ice cream, pudding, salad dressing

Industry:

  • Used to make plastics and waxes

Fungi-like Protists:

  • Heterotrophs

  • Decomposes

  • Lack cell wall

  • Have centrioles

  • Plant diseases: potato famine

    • Two Groups

      • Slime Molds

        • Free-living cells in soil on the surface

      • Water Molds

        • Thrive on dead or decaying organic material in water, or plant

        • (parasite)(on land)

Fungi:

  • Eukaryotic

  • Heterotrophs

    • Digest food on the outside of their body (external digestion), then absorb it

    • All are multicellular, except yeasts

  • Cell walls

    • Made of chitin

Structure:

  • Hyphae: thin filaments that make up fungi

    • Each hypha are only one cell thick

    • Can form cross-walls

  • Fungi bodies are composed of many hyphae tangled into a mass called:

    • Mycelium: where food is absorbed (buried underground)

  • Fruiting Body: reproductive structure above the soil (“mushroom” part)

Reproduction:

  • Asexually

    • Hyphae break off and grow on their own

    • Spores: a reproductive cell that scatters and grow new organisms

  • Sexually

    • Fusion of (+) and (-) nuclei that happens inside the fruiting body

    • There are no males or females

Spreading:

  • Spores are carried through wind or attached onto animals for them carry

Classification:

  • Common

  • Sac

  • Club

  • Imperfect

Common:

  • Phylum: Zygomycetes

  • Life cycle includes a Zygosporangium: resting spore that contains zygotes (until conditions become favorable to spread)

  • Bread Mold:

    • Structure and Function of Bread Mold:

      • Rhizopus Stolonifer

      • Rhizoids (mycelium): rootlike hyphae that penetrate the bread’s surface

  • Stolons: stem like hyphae that run along surface

  • Sporangiophores: hyphae that push into air

    • Contain 40,000 spores; each able to grow new fungus

Sac Fungi:

  • Phylum: Ascomycota

  • Ascus: reproductive structure that contains spores

  • Largest phylum of fungi

  • Yeasts:

    • Unicellular fungi

    • Used for baking and brewing

    • Dry granules are ascospores

    • Budding: asexual reproduction

Club Fungi:

  • Phylum: Basidiomycota

  • Specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club

    • Basidium (spores): the whole cap itself

  • Life Cycle:

    • Mushroom cap; has gills; lines with basidia

    • 2 haploid nuclei fuse creating diploid zygote

    • Undergoes meiosis, producing haploid basidiospores

    • Basidiospores are then scattered

  • Edible and Inedible

    • Many wild mushrooms are poisonous

    • Can look identical to edible types

    • Don't eat the shrooms

    • Club Fungi (Kingdom: Fungi/ Phylum: Basidiomycota)

Imperfect Fungi:

  • Phylum: Deuteromycota

  • Varied

  • Placed in this phylum because a sexual phase has never been documented by researchers

  • Majority of them resemble ascomycetes

  • Penecillium

Fungi Ecology: Decomposers

  • All Heterotrophs

  • Most are saprobes: obtain food from dead or decaying organic matter

  • Maintain equilibrium in every ecosystem

  • Parasites:

    • Plant

      • Wheat rust

      • Corn smut

    • Human

      • Ringworm

      • Athlete’s Foot

    • Animal

      • Cordyceps in grasshoppers in Costa Rica

JO

Protists and Fungi

Protists

What is it?

  • It is an organism that is not an animal, plant, fungus, or prokaryote

  • Kingdom: Protista

  • “The Very First” (the very first eukaryotes)

Evolution

  • First eukaryotic organisms on earth

  • 1.5 billion years ago (bya)

  • Endosymbitotic Theory: Eukaryotic cells may have evolved when multiple cells joined together into one.

Classification(s)

  • Animal-like

  • Plant-like

  • Fungus-like

Animal-like Protists (Unicellular):

Characteristics:

  • All Heterotrophs

  • 4 phyla: These are determined by movement

  • Some are decomposers

  • Base of some food chains

  • Some cause disease

Types:

Zooflagellates:

  • They’re apart of the Phylum: Zoomastigina

  • They swim using flagella

    • Can either have 1 or 2

  • Absorb food through their cell membrane

  • Reproduce sexually (conjugation) or asexually

Sarcodines:

  • Phylum: Sarcodina

  • Moving cytoplasmic extensions called psuedopods

  • Amoeboid movement

  • Capture food with psuedopods: food vacuole

    • Food Vacuole: an organelle where food is stored after it’s captured

      • Can cause disease (Pathogenic)

        • Entomoeba

        • Giardia causes disease that causes diarrhea

          Amoeba (Kingdom:Protista/ Phylum; Sarcodina)

Ciliates:

  • Phylum: Ciliophora

  • Move through the use of cilia: hair-like projections that allows ciliates to move and get food

  • Ciliate Anatomy (Paramecium)

    • Trichocycts: structures used for defense

    • Macronucleus: “working library” of genetic info (used for reproduction)

    • Micronucleus: “reserve copy” of genetic info (used for reproduction)

    • Gullet (Oral Groove): where food is trapped

      • The food is collected here until it is stored in the food vacuoles

    • Anal pore: where waste product is emptied

Contractile vacuole (sun shaped): collects/disperses water; maintains homeostasis

Paramecium (Kingdom: Protista/ Phylum: Ciliaphora)

Ciliates Conjugation:

  • Usually reproduce asexually: Mitosis

  • Can exchange DNA through conjugation

  • No NEW organisms are creates; simply an exchange of genetic info

  • Occurs under stress (environmental pressures)

Sporozoans:

  • Phylum: Sporozoa

  • Do not move on their own

  • They are parasitic

  • Have complex life cycles

  • Malaria: caused by a type of protist called. . .

    • Plasmodium

Plant-like Protists: Unicellular Algae

Ecology:

  • Phytoplankton: base of most aquatic food webs

  • Algal blooms

    • “red tides”

Types:

Euglenophytes:

  • Phylum: Euglenophyta

    • Phyta: “plant-like”

  • Have two flagella

  • No cell wall; instead they have Pellicle

  • Have eyespot: helps organism find sunlight to aide in photosynthesis

  • Euglena (Kingdom: Protista/ Phylum: Euglenophyta)

Chrysophytes:

  • Phylum: Chrysophyta

  • Gold-colored

  • Cell walls have carbohydrate Pectin rather than cellulose

Diatoms:

  • Phylum: Bacillarophyta

  • Cell walls of Silicon (Si)

Dinoflagellates:

  • Phylum: Pyrrophyta

  • Usually luminescent

Plant-like Protists: Multicellular Algae

Red Algae:

  • Phylum: Rhodophyta

    • “Red plants”

  • Live at great depths

  • Contain chlorophyll as well as Phycobillins (extra pigment) (absorb blue light, give off reddish color)

Brown Algae:

  • Phylum: Pheophyta

    • “Dusty plants”

  • Have chlorophyll and fucoxanthin

  • Largest and most complex algae

  • Marine

Green Algae:

  • Phylum: Chlorophyta

    • “green plants”

  • Share many characteristic with plants

    • Cell wall of cellulose

    • Chlorophyll a and b

    • Hypothesized to be the ancestor of modern plants

Human Use of Algae:

Medications:

  • Treat ulcers, arthritis, and blood pressure

Food:

  • Sushi wrap

  • Algin (thickener) in candy bars, ice cream, pudding, salad dressing

Industry:

  • Used to make plastics and waxes

Fungi-like Protists:

  • Heterotrophs

  • Decomposes

  • Lack cell wall

  • Have centrioles

  • Plant diseases: potato famine

    • Two Groups

      • Slime Molds

        • Free-living cells in soil on the surface

      • Water Molds

        • Thrive on dead or decaying organic material in water, or plant

        • (parasite)(on land)

Fungi:

  • Eukaryotic

  • Heterotrophs

    • Digest food on the outside of their body (external digestion), then absorb it

    • All are multicellular, except yeasts

  • Cell walls

    • Made of chitin

Structure:

  • Hyphae: thin filaments that make up fungi

    • Each hypha are only one cell thick

    • Can form cross-walls

  • Fungi bodies are composed of many hyphae tangled into a mass called:

    • Mycelium: where food is absorbed (buried underground)

  • Fruiting Body: reproductive structure above the soil (“mushroom” part)

Reproduction:

  • Asexually

    • Hyphae break off and grow on their own

    • Spores: a reproductive cell that scatters and grow new organisms

  • Sexually

    • Fusion of (+) and (-) nuclei that happens inside the fruiting body

    • There are no males or females

Spreading:

  • Spores are carried through wind or attached onto animals for them carry

Classification:

  • Common

  • Sac

  • Club

  • Imperfect

Common:

  • Phylum: Zygomycetes

  • Life cycle includes a Zygosporangium: resting spore that contains zygotes (until conditions become favorable to spread)

  • Bread Mold:

    • Structure and Function of Bread Mold:

      • Rhizopus Stolonifer

      • Rhizoids (mycelium): rootlike hyphae that penetrate the bread’s surface

  • Stolons: stem like hyphae that run along surface

  • Sporangiophores: hyphae that push into air

    • Contain 40,000 spores; each able to grow new fungus

Sac Fungi:

  • Phylum: Ascomycota

  • Ascus: reproductive structure that contains spores

  • Largest phylum of fungi

  • Yeasts:

    • Unicellular fungi

    • Used for baking and brewing

    • Dry granules are ascospores

    • Budding: asexual reproduction

Club Fungi:

  • Phylum: Basidiomycota

  • Specialized reproductive structure that resembles a club

    • Basidium (spores): the whole cap itself

  • Life Cycle:

    • Mushroom cap; has gills; lines with basidia

    • 2 haploid nuclei fuse creating diploid zygote

    • Undergoes meiosis, producing haploid basidiospores

    • Basidiospores are then scattered

  • Edible and Inedible

    • Many wild mushrooms are poisonous

    • Can look identical to edible types

    • Don't eat the shrooms

    • Club Fungi (Kingdom: Fungi/ Phylum: Basidiomycota)

Imperfect Fungi:

  • Phylum: Deuteromycota

  • Varied

  • Placed in this phylum because a sexual phase has never been documented by researchers

  • Majority of them resemble ascomycetes

  • Penecillium

Fungi Ecology: Decomposers

  • All Heterotrophs

  • Most are saprobes: obtain food from dead or decaying organic matter

  • Maintain equilibrium in every ecosystem

  • Parasites:

    • Plant

      • Wheat rust

      • Corn smut

    • Human

      • Ringworm

      • Athlete’s Foot

    • Animal

      • Cordyceps in grasshoppers in Costa Rica