Chapter 10 - Acids and Bases and Equilibrium
H+ is produced by Arrhenius acid, OH- is generated by Arrhenius base in aqueous solutions.
Acids taste sour, sting, and neutralize the foundations.
Bases are bitter, slippery, and acid-neutralizing.
Simple anionic acids use a prefix, whereas ic or ous acids are named with oxygen-containing polyatomic anions.
Acids are H+ donors and bases are H+ acceptors, according to Brønsted–Lowry theory.
The loss or gain of one H+ is linked to a conjugate acid-base pair.
The F- is the conjugate base, for example, when the HF acid gives H+. H3O+/H2O would be the other acid-base pair.
Strong acids are totally dissociated in water, and H+ is accepted as a basis for H2O.
Slightly dissociate weak acids in water, producing little H3O+.
The hydroxides of the 1A(1) and 2A(2) groups are strong bases and fully dissociate from water.
Ammonia, NH3, is an important weak base.
In a reversible reaction, the chemical balance occurs if the rate of the reverse reaction is equal to its rates.
At equilibrium, reactants and products are not further affected as reverse and forward reactions continue.
When reactants are removed or products are added to a balanced mixture, the system moves to reactants to restore balance
When reactants are added or products are removed from the balanced mix, the system moves toward the product to restore balance.
A few water molecules in pure waters transfer H+ to other water molecules, which produce small but equal H3O+ and OH- amounts.
The molar levels of H3O+ and OH- are 1,0 * 10-7 M in pure water each.
Kw = [H3O+] The expression of water dissociation = 1,0 * 10-14 at 25 degrees Celsius.
[H3O+] is higher than [OH-] in acidic solutions.
The [OH-] is larger than the [H3O+] in basic solutions.
The pH scale is the [H3O+] of solution for a range of numbers, typically 0 to 14.
A pH of 7.0 is available in a neutral solution.
The pH is lower than 7.0 is acidic solutions; the pH in basic solutions is higher than 7.0.
The negative logarithm of pH ion concentration, pH = -log[H3O+], is the mathematical pH.
In the production of hydrogen gas and salt, an acid reacts with a metal.
The carbonate or bicarbonate reaction of acid produces carbon dioxide, water, and salt.
An acid reacts with a basis for water and salt in neutralization.
An acid sample with a known amount of a base is neutralized in the titration.
The acid concentration is calculated based on the volume and molarity of the base.
When small amounts of acid or base are added, a buffer solution resists pH changes.
A buffer has either a faint acid, salt, or a weak base, and salt
A buffer with the addition of OH reacts with weak acid, and the salt anion reacts with the addition of H3O+.