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→ The belief that people’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture.
War between the Ottomans and Russia, for a warm water port.
The Ottomans won only because they got help from France and England.
This all proved that keeping the balance of power would be difficult task.
Russification- Forcing people to give into Russian culture
Nationalism would also be the cause for some countries uniting like Italy and Prussia (Germany).
Unification of Italy:
Some Italian provinces were ruled by Austria
Giuseppe Mazzini- “The Soul”
Camillo di Cavour- “The Brain“
Garibaldi- “The Sword“
Italy was finally united in 1861
Unification of Germany:
Germany started out as Prussia
They were ruled by a king. During this time it was Wilhelm I. He was supported by the Junkers.
King Wilhelm I appointed a prime minister to rule over Prussia.
Prime Minister: Otto Von Bismarck.
He was quite popular, and helped out the king to make a bigger military
He made realpolitik.
Was known as “The Iron Chancellor” for his powerful rule.
“Blood and Iron”- Bismarck’s idea that to accomplish their goals they have to use war.
The 7 week war:
Prussia(Germany) Vs Austria
Prussia and Austria disagree over borders of the new land which they both conquered.
This pushes Austria to declare war on Prussia
Prussia easily wins, taking over the land which they fought for, and more from Austria.
The Franco-Prussian War:
Prussia(Germany) Vs. France
A few German states were still independent
Bismark makes a fake telegraph making fun of the French.
This pushes France to declare war on Prussia.
The German states feel scared so the Prussians come to “help them”
Prussia beats France, and keeps their armies the German states, essentially taking them over.
All of this makes France really made at Prussia, so Europe starts to divide into two sides.
Also Prussia undid the balance of power in Europe by uniting into Germany.