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Purposive Communication

❖ Language - came from the latin word “lingua” meaning “language ; tongue” refers to the codes, ciphers

  • Is the medium of communication, it serves as a code for transmission of messages between or among people.

  • Is a tool used to express ideas and feelings that results into understanding

  • Part of culture

  • Is a cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication

  • Is a dynamic human capacity to communicate and has systems of phonology (sounds), rules (grammar) and vocabulary (lexicon)

  • Which has no sound but only vocabulary

  • It is the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way

Characteristics of Language ● Language is creative and productive - consist of a finite set of rules which can generate an infinite number of sentences

● Language is constantly changing - words may be pronounced differently

  • Old forms may be replaced.

  • Words from other languages may become part of the lexicon of a language

● Languages are unique - every language has its own inventory of sounds, grammatical units and syntactic patterning

● Languages are similar - they all have sound system and words or phrases that ,ay function as nominals, verbals, adverbials and adjectivals

● Language is adequate for its own speakers - serves the purpose of the culture of its users

  • No language is better or worse, more complete or more beautiful than any other language

Difference between human and animal language

  • Human language is culturally transmitted

  • Animal language is genetically transmitted

  • does not have subsystems of sounds and of meaning

  • animals do not use languages as humans do

Functions of Language in a Communication Process Language serves as a medium Language is used as culture identity Language is used as an art of conversation

Languages serves as interactive tool and socialization Language is used to create common ideas

Varieties of Spoken and Written Language

Local Everyday Written

Local Everyday Oral

Local Specialized Written

Local Specialized Oral

Global Everyday Written

Global Everyday Spoken

Global Specialized Written

Global Specialized Spoken

❖ Spoken language - produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language

❖ Written language - representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system

Variety of Language ● Standard Language or Standard Variety - it may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization

● Pidgin - a new language which develops in situations where speakers of different languages need to communicate but do not share a common language

  • A limited vocabulary, some elements of which are taken from local languages and are not native languages, but arise out of language contact between speakers of other languages

● Creole - it is a pidgin that becomes the first language of the children and the mother tongue of a community

● Dialect - a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary

Types of Dialect ● Regional Dialect - also known as regiolect or topolect

  • A distinct form of a language spoken in a particular geographical area

  • Form of speech transmitted from a parent to a child is a distinct regional dialect, that dialect is said to be child’s vernacular

● Ethnolect - spoken by a specific ethnic group

● Sociolect - also known as social dialect

  • Used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group, or any other social group

● Idiolect - languages spoken by each individual

❖ Registered language describes the various styles of language available for writing or speaking

Two basic forms of register: formal and informal

● Formal register - used in a professional setting

● Informal register - used with friends, family and hanging out with people in a casual setting

5 Distinct Language Register

● Frozen Language - refers to historic language or communication that is intended to remain unchanged, like a constitution or a prayer

● Formal Language - used in professional, academic, or legal settings where communication is expected to be respectful, uninterrupted and restrained.

  • Slang is never used and contractions are rare

● Consultative Language - used in conversation when they are speaking with someone who has specialized knowledge or who is offering advice

● Casual Language - a very informal in tone and full of a range of words and grammar that identify it as being casual

  • It is used when they are with friends, close acquaintances and co-workers and family

● Intimate Language - reserved for special occasions, usually between only two people and often in private

● Official signs - produced with a top down discourse

● Signs produced by an individual or a group but not officially recognized - a bottom up discourse

● Message - is a communication or statement conveyed from one person or group to another

● Top down discourse - public

● Bottom down discourse - private

Kinds of Signs ● Regulatory - indicates authority and is official or legally prohibited

● Infrastructural - labels things or directs for the maintenance of a building or any infrastructure

● Commercial - which advertises or promotes a product, an event or a service in commerce

● Transgressive - if it violates (intentionally or accidentally) the conventional semiotics or is in wrong place, like graffiti

What is the Purpose of the Message?

● Informative Message - to promote understanding, encourage action, stimulate thinking or promote ideas

  • Prevalent in business communication

● Persuasive Message - occurs when a person attempts to convince an individual or group to take certain specific actions

● A Goodwill Message Letter should be courteous and friendly in tone

  • Handwritten notes will give an added touch of Sincerity and Intimacy where appropriate

  • Be sincere in sending thanks for a favor or for hard work

  • Tell what the favor means to you

  • Avoid superlatives and gushiness

  • Maintain credibility with sincere, simple statements

How is the message conveyed by the text and/or author?

Simplicity - if you want to be remembered leave behind technical language and empty words

Memorable Words - the brain has an aesthetic sense which is attracted by elements such as symmetry and rhythm

Be brief -forget about never-ending speeches and try instead to use a limited number of words that could phrase your message with precision

Positive Messages - connecting the message with emotions and transmitting hope will help your audience to accept the message and remember

Credibility - confusing messages will cause doubts about the veracity of your message activating a defensive response in your audience

Visualization - if our messages can trigger mental images, it will be easier for our audience to remember and recalling such memories in the future

Coherence - even if you want to try several topics, our attention is limited and the working memory will filter most of the information

Novelty - surprising our audience with unknown information or data will help them to make sense of our message and remember

Using question - the mental effort of processing the answer will make them get connected to the topic and help them to remember

Context - the audience should know the importance of the message and how it is related to their need and ambitions

● Demography

❖ Socio-economic data - describes a user includes attributes such as age, income, education, gender or geographic location

❖ Demographic data - you can target your campaign for example at young people (e.g. age 18-24) both female and male from towns with a population larger than 20,000

❖ In media, the target audience refers to the person or group for whom a message is created ❖ Mainstream media producers in particular want to reach as many people as possible, because larger audiences are more attractive to advertisers

What other ways of presenting the message are there? Know your audience Presenting the right content in front of the right audience is the holy grail to presentation success

Do your research It doesn’t matter if you know your audience very well if you don’t

know your topic at all

Be authentic and real It’s okay to be nervous when giving a presentation. Don’t mind your imperfections, we all have them

Be a likable presenter Building rapport with your audience is a must. The more rapport you build, the more people will like and trust you. They’ll be more willing to listen to your message

Make a promise in your introduction Great presenters make a promise when they begin their presentation. It’s sort of like signposting your presentation. You let your audience know you’ve got something awesome in store for them. But they need to pay attention to your presentation so they can benefit from it

Focus on one key theme You don’t want your presentation to be all over the place. Instead, you want to focus on one topic and one topic alone. If you branch out into unrelated subjects or topics, you will lose your audience

Tell a story When it comes to presentations, audiences soak up stories like sponges. Make sure your story is actually related to your topic

Choose the right words Don’t try to impress your audience with the use of highfalutin words, it can backfire on you. Make your audience pay attention and listen to your presentation

Break the Ice It is important that it should somehow enhance your presentation in a way, and not detract from the message

End your presentation strongly The conclusion is the last step to make your message memorable

● Presentation Media - a stand-alone presentation that includes information, presented with slides, video or digital presentation and includes sound

Traditional Visual and Audio Media Overhead Transparencies

Flip Charts

Whiteboard Document Camera

Sound Recording Video

Using Computer Technology Digital Slides Real-Time Web Access

Using Tools of Technology Keep it simple

Keep the number of images you present manageable

Emphasize your key ideas

Combine variety with coherence

Show what you can’t say

Use large lettering

Use close up shots and other images

PowerPoint Presentation Tips Go for creativity - create your own design. Try different combination and let your creativity flow Images say more than a thousand words - make the images more powerful Colors are nice - flat colors are beautiful and contrast Big is beautiful - think big, think bold Use good fonts - comic sans and georgia will do

Infographics are amazing - use simple infographics Text is evil - use the 10-20-30 rule. Too many text will catch the attention of the audience from you Get inspired - remember your ultimate goal

Tips in using presentation media

  • Consider your room and audience

  • Practice with your media

  • Speak to your audience not your media

Always Remember This: ● 10-20-30 - 10 Slides, 20 Minutes, 30 Font Size ● 1-6-6 -1 main idea, 6 bullets point, 6 Words per Bullet ● 7-7 - 7 Lines, 7 Words ● 9Ps - Prior Presentation Prevents Poor Performance of the Person Putting on the Presentation

Communication - serves five major purposes: to inform, to express feelings, to imagine, to influence and to meet social expectations. Each of these purposes is reflected in a form of communication

Communication for Various Purposes ● Informative, Persuasive and Argumentative Communication ● Public Speaking ● Making Inquiries

❖ Informative messages attempt to present an objective– that is truthful and unbiased— view of the topics being considered

❖ Persuasive communication is any message whose sole purpose is to get the listener to support and transform their thinking in favor of the presenter’s perspective. It is about creating an attitude change to influence social behavior

❖ Argumentative communication is considered a subset of assertiveness because, while all argumentation is assertive, not all assertiveness is argumentative. Argumentative individuals advocate positions on controversial issues and verbally attack other people’s contradictory perspectives

❖ Public Speaking is speaking in public

To have competence in oral communication, you must:

  1. Listen attentively to identify the conveyed meaning

  2. Collaborate with others

  3. Use critical thinking and problem solving skills

  4. Give appropriate feedback

  5. Converse with others of different backgrounds

Communication has to: A. To inform B. To persuade

C. To entertain

D. To build good will

Methods of Delivery

● Manuscript their Speech-Speakers intend to read aloud their speech

● Memorized Speech- Speakers memorize their speech word for word

● Impromptu- Speakers give sudden speech to grant a request to say something to particular group

● Extemporaneous Speech- Speakers intend to present well-crafted speech. It is prepared and rehearsed ahead of time

Manners of Speech

  1. Observe ethically sound goods

  2. Prepare all the time

3. Tell the truth

4. Be sensible and sensitive

Components of a Speech A. Introduction a. Attention getter b. Initial Summary

c. Speaker’s credibility d. Relevance of the Topic e. Self-introduction f. Thesis Statement

B. Body a. Main Idea 1 (Supporting detail 1 and 2) b. Main Idea 2 (Supporting detail 1 and 2) c. Main Idea 3 (Supporting detail 1 and 2) d. Conclusion (Closure, summary, call to action, powerful closing statement)

Power Tips for Beginning and Ending a Speech ● Analogy - a comparison between two things, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification ● Anecdote - a short amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person ● Humor - the quality of being amusing or comic, especially as expressed in literature or speech ● Provocative Rhetorical Questions - Why are some people able to achieve things that seem impossible

  • Why do some people achieve things that seem impossible ● Quotation - a group of words taken from a text or speech and repeated by someone other than original author or speaker ● Startling Statistics - examples: out of every three

Considered to have an effective speech and be a good public speaker:

  1. Audience

  2. Logistic

● Venue ● Facilities

  1. Content of report/speech/lecture

Preparing an Effective Presentation

  1. Organize your thoughts

  2. Have a strong opening

  3. Define terms early

  4. Finish with a bang

  5. Design PowerPoint slides to introduce important information

  6. Time yourself

  7. Create effective notes for yourself

  8. Practice, practice, practice

Presenting effectively

  1. Be excited

  2. Speak with confidence

  3. Make eye contact with the audience

  4. Avoid reading from the screen

  5. Blank the screen when a slide is unnecessary

  6. Use a pointer only when necessary

  7. Explain your equations and graphs

  8. Pause

  9. Avoid filler words

  10. Relax

  11. Breathe

  12. Acknowledge the people who supported your research

JC

Purposive Communication

❖ Language - came from the latin word “lingua” meaning “language ; tongue” refers to the codes, ciphers

  • Is the medium of communication, it serves as a code for transmission of messages between or among people.

  • Is a tool used to express ideas and feelings that results into understanding

  • Part of culture

  • Is a cognitive ability to learn and use systems of complex communication

  • Is a dynamic human capacity to communicate and has systems of phonology (sounds), rules (grammar) and vocabulary (lexicon)

  • Which has no sound but only vocabulary

  • It is the method of human communication, either spoken or written, consisting of the use of words in a structured and conventional way

Characteristics of Language ● Language is creative and productive - consist of a finite set of rules which can generate an infinite number of sentences

● Language is constantly changing - words may be pronounced differently

  • Old forms may be replaced.

  • Words from other languages may become part of the lexicon of a language

● Languages are unique - every language has its own inventory of sounds, grammatical units and syntactic patterning

● Languages are similar - they all have sound system and words or phrases that ,ay function as nominals, verbals, adverbials and adjectivals

● Language is adequate for its own speakers - serves the purpose of the culture of its users

  • No language is better or worse, more complete or more beautiful than any other language

Difference between human and animal language

  • Human language is culturally transmitted

  • Animal language is genetically transmitted

  • does not have subsystems of sounds and of meaning

  • animals do not use languages as humans do

Functions of Language in a Communication Process Language serves as a medium Language is used as culture identity Language is used as an art of conversation

Languages serves as interactive tool and socialization Language is used to create common ideas

Varieties of Spoken and Written Language

Local Everyday Written

Local Everyday Oral

Local Specialized Written

Local Specialized Oral

Global Everyday Written

Global Everyday Spoken

Global Specialized Written

Global Specialized Spoken

❖ Spoken language - produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language

❖ Written language - representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system

Variety of Language ● Standard Language or Standard Variety - it may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization

● Pidgin - a new language which develops in situations where speakers of different languages need to communicate but do not share a common language

  • A limited vocabulary, some elements of which are taken from local languages and are not native languages, but arise out of language contact between speakers of other languages

● Creole - it is a pidgin that becomes the first language of the children and the mother tongue of a community

● Dialect - a regional or social variety of a language distinguished by pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary

Types of Dialect ● Regional Dialect - also known as regiolect or topolect

  • A distinct form of a language spoken in a particular geographical area

  • Form of speech transmitted from a parent to a child is a distinct regional dialect, that dialect is said to be child’s vernacular

● Ethnolect - spoken by a specific ethnic group

● Sociolect - also known as social dialect

  • Used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group, or any other social group

● Idiolect - languages spoken by each individual

❖ Registered language describes the various styles of language available for writing or speaking

Two basic forms of register: formal and informal

● Formal register - used in a professional setting

● Informal register - used with friends, family and hanging out with people in a casual setting

5 Distinct Language Register

● Frozen Language - refers to historic language or communication that is intended to remain unchanged, like a constitution or a prayer

● Formal Language - used in professional, academic, or legal settings where communication is expected to be respectful, uninterrupted and restrained.

  • Slang is never used and contractions are rare

● Consultative Language - used in conversation when they are speaking with someone who has specialized knowledge or who is offering advice

● Casual Language - a very informal in tone and full of a range of words and grammar that identify it as being casual

  • It is used when they are with friends, close acquaintances and co-workers and family

● Intimate Language - reserved for special occasions, usually between only two people and often in private

● Official signs - produced with a top down discourse

● Signs produced by an individual or a group but not officially recognized - a bottom up discourse

● Message - is a communication or statement conveyed from one person or group to another

● Top down discourse - public

● Bottom down discourse - private

Kinds of Signs ● Regulatory - indicates authority and is official or legally prohibited

● Infrastructural - labels things or directs for the maintenance of a building or any infrastructure

● Commercial - which advertises or promotes a product, an event or a service in commerce

● Transgressive - if it violates (intentionally or accidentally) the conventional semiotics or is in wrong place, like graffiti

What is the Purpose of the Message?

● Informative Message - to promote understanding, encourage action, stimulate thinking or promote ideas

  • Prevalent in business communication

● Persuasive Message - occurs when a person attempts to convince an individual or group to take certain specific actions

● A Goodwill Message Letter should be courteous and friendly in tone

  • Handwritten notes will give an added touch of Sincerity and Intimacy where appropriate

  • Be sincere in sending thanks for a favor or for hard work

  • Tell what the favor means to you

  • Avoid superlatives and gushiness

  • Maintain credibility with sincere, simple statements

How is the message conveyed by the text and/or author?

Simplicity - if you want to be remembered leave behind technical language and empty words

Memorable Words - the brain has an aesthetic sense which is attracted by elements such as symmetry and rhythm

Be brief -forget about never-ending speeches and try instead to use a limited number of words that could phrase your message with precision

Positive Messages - connecting the message with emotions and transmitting hope will help your audience to accept the message and remember

Credibility - confusing messages will cause doubts about the veracity of your message activating a defensive response in your audience

Visualization - if our messages can trigger mental images, it will be easier for our audience to remember and recalling such memories in the future

Coherence - even if you want to try several topics, our attention is limited and the working memory will filter most of the information

Novelty - surprising our audience with unknown information or data will help them to make sense of our message and remember

Using question - the mental effort of processing the answer will make them get connected to the topic and help them to remember

Context - the audience should know the importance of the message and how it is related to their need and ambitions

● Demography

❖ Socio-economic data - describes a user includes attributes such as age, income, education, gender or geographic location

❖ Demographic data - you can target your campaign for example at young people (e.g. age 18-24) both female and male from towns with a population larger than 20,000

❖ In media, the target audience refers to the person or group for whom a message is created ❖ Mainstream media producers in particular want to reach as many people as possible, because larger audiences are more attractive to advertisers

What other ways of presenting the message are there? Know your audience Presenting the right content in front of the right audience is the holy grail to presentation success

Do your research It doesn’t matter if you know your audience very well if you don’t

know your topic at all

Be authentic and real It’s okay to be nervous when giving a presentation. Don’t mind your imperfections, we all have them

Be a likable presenter Building rapport with your audience is a must. The more rapport you build, the more people will like and trust you. They’ll be more willing to listen to your message

Make a promise in your introduction Great presenters make a promise when they begin their presentation. It’s sort of like signposting your presentation. You let your audience know you’ve got something awesome in store for them. But they need to pay attention to your presentation so they can benefit from it

Focus on one key theme You don’t want your presentation to be all over the place. Instead, you want to focus on one topic and one topic alone. If you branch out into unrelated subjects or topics, you will lose your audience

Tell a story When it comes to presentations, audiences soak up stories like sponges. Make sure your story is actually related to your topic

Choose the right words Don’t try to impress your audience with the use of highfalutin words, it can backfire on you. Make your audience pay attention and listen to your presentation

Break the Ice It is important that it should somehow enhance your presentation in a way, and not detract from the message

End your presentation strongly The conclusion is the last step to make your message memorable

● Presentation Media - a stand-alone presentation that includes information, presented with slides, video or digital presentation and includes sound

Traditional Visual and Audio Media Overhead Transparencies

Flip Charts

Whiteboard Document Camera

Sound Recording Video

Using Computer Technology Digital Slides Real-Time Web Access

Using Tools of Technology Keep it simple

Keep the number of images you present manageable

Emphasize your key ideas

Combine variety with coherence

Show what you can’t say

Use large lettering

Use close up shots and other images

PowerPoint Presentation Tips Go for creativity - create your own design. Try different combination and let your creativity flow Images say more than a thousand words - make the images more powerful Colors are nice - flat colors are beautiful and contrast Big is beautiful - think big, think bold Use good fonts - comic sans and georgia will do

Infographics are amazing - use simple infographics Text is evil - use the 10-20-30 rule. Too many text will catch the attention of the audience from you Get inspired - remember your ultimate goal

Tips in using presentation media

  • Consider your room and audience

  • Practice with your media

  • Speak to your audience not your media

Always Remember This: ● 10-20-30 - 10 Slides, 20 Minutes, 30 Font Size ● 1-6-6 -1 main idea, 6 bullets point, 6 Words per Bullet ● 7-7 - 7 Lines, 7 Words ● 9Ps - Prior Presentation Prevents Poor Performance of the Person Putting on the Presentation

Communication - serves five major purposes: to inform, to express feelings, to imagine, to influence and to meet social expectations. Each of these purposes is reflected in a form of communication

Communication for Various Purposes ● Informative, Persuasive and Argumentative Communication ● Public Speaking ● Making Inquiries

❖ Informative messages attempt to present an objective– that is truthful and unbiased— view of the topics being considered

❖ Persuasive communication is any message whose sole purpose is to get the listener to support and transform their thinking in favor of the presenter’s perspective. It is about creating an attitude change to influence social behavior

❖ Argumentative communication is considered a subset of assertiveness because, while all argumentation is assertive, not all assertiveness is argumentative. Argumentative individuals advocate positions on controversial issues and verbally attack other people’s contradictory perspectives

❖ Public Speaking is speaking in public

To have competence in oral communication, you must:

  1. Listen attentively to identify the conveyed meaning

  2. Collaborate with others

  3. Use critical thinking and problem solving skills

  4. Give appropriate feedback

  5. Converse with others of different backgrounds

Communication has to: A. To inform B. To persuade

C. To entertain

D. To build good will

Methods of Delivery

● Manuscript their Speech-Speakers intend to read aloud their speech

● Memorized Speech- Speakers memorize their speech word for word

● Impromptu- Speakers give sudden speech to grant a request to say something to particular group

● Extemporaneous Speech- Speakers intend to present well-crafted speech. It is prepared and rehearsed ahead of time

Manners of Speech

  1. Observe ethically sound goods

  2. Prepare all the time

3. Tell the truth

4. Be sensible and sensitive

Components of a Speech A. Introduction a. Attention getter b. Initial Summary

c. Speaker’s credibility d. Relevance of the Topic e. Self-introduction f. Thesis Statement

B. Body a. Main Idea 1 (Supporting detail 1 and 2) b. Main Idea 2 (Supporting detail 1 and 2) c. Main Idea 3 (Supporting detail 1 and 2) d. Conclusion (Closure, summary, call to action, powerful closing statement)

Power Tips for Beginning and Ending a Speech ● Analogy - a comparison between two things, typically for the purpose of explanation or clarification ● Anecdote - a short amusing or interesting story about a real incident or person ● Humor - the quality of being amusing or comic, especially as expressed in literature or speech ● Provocative Rhetorical Questions - Why are some people able to achieve things that seem impossible

  • Why do some people achieve things that seem impossible ● Quotation - a group of words taken from a text or speech and repeated by someone other than original author or speaker ● Startling Statistics - examples: out of every three

Considered to have an effective speech and be a good public speaker:

  1. Audience

  2. Logistic

● Venue ● Facilities

  1. Content of report/speech/lecture

Preparing an Effective Presentation

  1. Organize your thoughts

  2. Have a strong opening

  3. Define terms early

  4. Finish with a bang

  5. Design PowerPoint slides to introduce important information

  6. Time yourself

  7. Create effective notes for yourself

  8. Practice, practice, practice

Presenting effectively

  1. Be excited

  2. Speak with confidence

  3. Make eye contact with the audience

  4. Avoid reading from the screen

  5. Blank the screen when a slide is unnecessary

  6. Use a pointer only when necessary

  7. Explain your equations and graphs

  8. Pause

  9. Avoid filler words

  10. Relax

  11. Breathe

  12. Acknowledge the people who supported your research