The immediate response to the defeat of Napoleon was the desire to contain revolution and the revolutionary forces by restoring much of the old order.
In March 1814, even before Napoleon had been defeated, his four major enemies—Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia—had agreed to remain united, not only to defeat France but also to ensure peace after the war.
After Napoleon’s defeat, this Quadruple Alliance restored the Bourbon monarchy to France in the person of Louis XVIII and agreed to meet at a congress in Vienna in September 1814 to arrange a final peace settlement.
To re-establish peace and stability in Europe, Metternich claimed it was necessary to restore the legitimate monarchs who would preserve traditional institutions.
This had already been done in France and Spain with the restoration of the Bourbons, as well as in a number of the Italian states where rulers had been returned to their thrones.
Due to these territorial arrangements, Vienna believed that they were forming a new balance of power that would prevent anyone from dominating exploration. This was also made in fear of France because there was a fear that France was still too strong.
The Ideology of Conservation:
The peace arrangements of 1815 were the beginning of many forces unleashed due to the French Revolution. Metternich and his kind were representatives of the ideology known as conservatism.
European powers’ fear of revolution and war led them to develop the Concert of Europe.
The Principle of Intervention:
Metternich was especially disturbed by the revolts in Italy because he saw them as a threat to Austria’s domination of the peninsula.
Austria, Prussia, and Russia authorized France to invade Spain to crush the revolt against Ferdinand VII. In the spring of 1823, French forces restored the Bourbon monarch.
Revolt of Latin America:
Although much of North America had been freed of European domination in the eighteenth century by the American Revolution, Latin America remained in the hands of the Spanish and Portuguese.
By the end of the eighteenth century, the ideas of the Enlightenment and the new political ideals seemed very good.
The principles of the equality of all people in the eyes of the law, free trade, and a free press proved very attractive.
The Greek Revolt:
Conservative Domination The European States:
Between 1815 and 1830, the conservative domination of Europe evident in the Concert of Europe was also apparent in domestic affairs as conservative governments throughout Europe worked to maintain the old order.
In 1815, Great Britain was governed by the aristocratic landowning classes that dominated both houses of Parliament.
Suffrage for elections to the House of Commons, controlled by the landed gentry, was restricted and unequal, especially in light of the changing distribution of the British population due to the Industrial Revolution.
The Congress of Vienna had established nine states in Italy. Much of Italy was under Austrian domination, and all the states had extremely reactionary governments eager to smother any liberal or nationalist sentiment.
Everywhere in Europe, the revolutionary upheavals of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries made the ruling elites nervous about social disorder and the potential dangers to their lives and property.
At the same time, the influx of large numbers of people from the countryside into the rapidly growing cities had led to horrible living conditions, poverty, unemployment, and great social dissatisfaction.
The first half of the nineteenth century witnessed a significant increase in crime, especially against property, in Britain, France, and Germany.
The rise in property crimes provoked a severe reaction among middle-class urban residents, who feared that the urban poor posed a threat to their security and possessions.
New police forces soon appeared to defend the propertied classes from criminals and social misfits.