Chapter 14 - Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines, and Amides
A carboxylic acid is a hydroxylic group, which is connected to a carbonyl group, which has a functional carboxylic acid.
The name of the IUPAC is derived from the substitution of thee for oic acid in the alkanoic name.
Formal acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have the common names of carboxylic acids with one to four carbon atoms.
The carboxy group consists of O bisH and C'O polar bonds, making a carboxylic acid soluble in water from one to five carbon atoms.
Carboxylic acids dissociate a little like weak acids by providing water with hydrogen ions, which forms carboxylate and hydronium ions.
The base neutralizes carboxylic acids and produces water and salt for Carboxylate.
An ester replaces the hydroxyl group H of a carboxylic acid with an alkyl or aromatic group.
A carboxylic acid reacts to an ester in the presence of a strong acid with an alcohol.
A water molecule is removed: oscillation of Carboxylic Acid and oscillation molecule of Alcohol.
Esters are called in two terms: alcohol alkyl group and carboxyl name obtained by substituting ic acid for ate.
Acid hydrolysis takes place by adding water to the carboxylic acid and alcohol production.
Esters are subjected to basic hydrolysis, or saponification, to salt and alcohol.
Alkyl groups are alphabetically followed by amines in the common names of simple amines.
A primary (1°), secondary (2°), or tertiary (3°) amine constitutes a nitrogen atom attached to a single, two or 3 alkyl, or an aromatic group.
Water-soluble amines of up to six carbon atoms
Ammonia and hydroxide ions are produced as weak in water
Ammonium salts are produced when amines react with acids. Ammonium salts are solids, water-soluble and odorless as ionic compounds.
Amides are derivatives of carboxylic acids where −afterNH2 or a primary or secondary amine group is replaced with the hydroxyl group.
Amides form when ammonia or primary or secondary amines in heat react to carboxylic acids.
The names of Amides are substituted by amide for oic acid or ic acid.
The N- prefix is used to designate any carbon group attached to the nitrogen atom.
A carboxylic acid and ammonium salt are produced by amide hydrolysis by acid.
A carboxylate salt and an amine are produced by hydrolysis of an amide by a base.