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Medieval c800 - c1500

Key people

Cnut

  • United Anglo-Saxons with Vikings: marriage of Anglo-Saxon king Æthelred’s wife Emma

  • Appointed Anglo-Saxon earls, keeping peace between Vikings and Saxons

  • Religious tolerance to paganism and Christianity

  • Established laws to protect merchants & ensured fair trading practices

  • Encouraged development of towns & trade networking which helped stimulate economic growth

  • Influenced England with Viking culture & language: words and place names

William I

  • Norman conquest - victory over Anglo-Saxons

  • October 1066 Battle of Hastings - established rule of Normans over England

  • Feudal system - he strengthened control over country by rewarding loyal supporters with land therfore creates network of vessels to establish a hierarchical structure

  • 1085 Doomsday book - survey of land ownership data on resources of England, assess wealth and taxation which inspired census today

  • Castles and cathedrals - structures symbolise Norman power, maintained control over conquered territories. Present: Tower of London and Durham Cathedral

Edward I

  • Legal reforms - establish system common law, unified legal system

  • Parliament - representatives from different social class seen in present : MP’s

  • 1290 Edict of Expulsion - Expel Jews from England

  • Changed system from charters into towns where people could self govern

  • Promoted trade and commerce - rise of prosperous merchant class

Henry III

  • Introduction of Exchequer - Control royal finances seen today chancellor exchequer

  • Tension between monarchy and Barons, Henry abused money spending causing outbreak: 1264 Baron’s war

  • Forced to accept limitations on authority

  • Establish system of justice - First legal code 1166 Assize of Clarendon

Why did Vikings migrate?

  • Raid - c789 to c865 raided England and Scotland, attacking villages and monastries close to coast to acquire valuable goods

  • Attracted to rich mineral deposits lead, iron, copper and silver used to construct buildings, and make tools and weapons

  • Religion - please God of war Odin by conquering land in England and winning war to be rewarded in afterlife and reach Valhalla

  • Agriculture - England had fertile soil to provide land needed for crops to flourish and feed their families

  • Vikings originated from Scandinavia a rugged terrain and had harsh climates

  • Trade - England had well established trade networks and prosperous towns which were beneficial for skilled Viking traders 866 Vikings captured York as base for defeating, Northumbria, East Anglia and Mercia

  • 878 Treaty of Wedmore, established Viking danelaw

Why did Normans migrate?

  • Normans from Normandy and Northern France, invaded England 1066

  • Led by William

  • Believed William promised English throne by Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson

  • After Edward’s death, Harold became king: huge betrayal broken promise

  • Receive support from pope, who backed invasion (believed to have God on their side)

  • England’s wealth for soil and trading links attractive

  • 1066 Battle of Hastings - Normans defeated Saxon army

  • Norman Nobles and merchants, migrated to England, gain land, promised by William to help him establish control in England

Why did Jews migrate?

  • 1070 Invited by William as money lenders England Christian: sin ‘usury’ to lend money not allowed to charge interest. William required spending money on building castles and cathedrals asked jews for help

  • Given special status as property of king, their families followed and established small community

  • William safeguarded their rights and gave royal protection

Why did Lombardy bankers migrate?

  • Henry III wanted to replace Jewish money lenders with Christians because anti-Semitic attitudes were becoming common

  • Invited powerful Italian banking families to England as money lenders to help fund war

  • Offered royal protection

  • Gave opportunity to trade wool and cloth

  • Most of Europe: Christian attracted to churches built by Norman England

Why did Flemish Weavers migrate?

  • 1348 Black death killed 30% to 40% of England’s population

  • Many skilled and unskilled work available in England - Financial benefit

  • To set up new businesses

  • Most of Europe: Christian attracted to churches built by Norman England

Why did Hansa Merchants migrate?

  • 1348 Black death killed 30% to 40% of England’s population

  • 1303 Edward I gave right to trade as merchants

  • Given royal protection

  • Britain known for abundant supply of high-quality wool (high demand in Europe)

  • Saw potential profit in emerging markets

  • Sought to capitalise expanding British economy

What did Vikings experience?

  • Set up own shops, markets and workshops

  • Conquered each division of kingdoms, except Wessex

  • Some rich, because of trading links developed with Europe

  • Relations between Vikings and Saxons, generally good

  • Settled Vikings (Danes) fought Saxons daily between boundary of Danelaw

  • 937 Relations worse After Danelaw brought under Saxon control: Danes raiding again and attacked by Saxons

  • 1016 Cnut first Danish king of England relations improved, because of earldoms gave Saxon Nobles large areas of land

  • 1002 Saint Brice’s day massacre

What did Normans experience?

  • 1066 Normans establish control over England

  • Experienced hostility and resentment from Saxons due to destruction Normans caused

  • Feudal system ensured Normans as positions of authority over Saxons

  • Land entirely owned by king, kept some for himself, gave some to church, and shared rest among nobles, who were loyal

  • Establish control using Doomsday book

What did Jews experience?

  • Lend money in return for royal protection

  • Well respected in local communities because of financial support they offered to small businesses

  • Increasingly anti-Semitism people resent paying interest on loans

  • 1275 Statute of Jewry - Jews wear yellow armband, meant Jews forbidden charging interest on loans. Jews became poor

  • 1290 Jews expelled, by Edward I

What did Lombardy bankers experience?

  • 1220 powerful Italian banking families working in London

  • Did well after 1290 expulsion

  • Letters of denizen available to rich

  • Not persecuted

  • Accepted by public and monarchy

What did Flemish Weavers experience?

  • Had specialised skills English weavers didn’t have: cause jealousy

  • Competition between workers

  • Welcomed because they taught their skills to English weavers, and helped cloth trade flourish and employment to increase

  • 1381 Peasants revolt - murdered, craft guilds complained ‘foreigners’ taking work from them

What did Hansa Merchants experience?

  • Given a right to trade in England, by Edward I

  • Set up Steelyard in London, where they directed and controlled trade with Hanseatic league and other parts of Europe

  • Paid lower taxes, people jealous of privileges given by king

  • Mid 1400s, German merchants controlled most of English cloth industry

  • 150 killed 1381 Peasants revolt

  • English burned Hansa Steelyard and destroyed goods, craft guilds complain ‘foreigners’ taking work from them. Targeted again c15

What impact did Vikings have?

  • ‘Things’ introduced democracy, members voted on laws and agreed on punishment for guilty

  • Raids led Saxons to develop fortified towns

  • New words into language

What impact did Normans have?

  • Develop Saxon system of government into established parliament with lords and commons

  • New laws:

    1. Forest laws - Royal Forest, where king controlled who could hunt

    2. Murdrum - Fine paid by Saxons, if Norman was murdered and culprit wasn’t found

    3. 1370 Letters of denization - Individual migrant same rights as English people

    4. 1440 Parliament levied tax on ‘aliens’ (defined legally: first generation migrants)

  • Church so important in daily life clergy had more power and influence

  • Number of monks and nuns 400% between 1066 and 1500

  • Church organisation, hierarchal, parish priest at bottom and archbishops at top drew English church more into christendom

  • Saxon Bishops and archbishops removed and replaced by Normans

  • Built motte and bailey castles and cathedrals from stone replaced wooden churches with stone

  • New words into language Norman, French and Saxon English, came together as middle English

  • Feudal system established heirarchy changed land, ownership and obligation and duties between people in different levels of society - After Norman invasion king owned all land in England, however, under Saxon rule kings were one of the small number of land owners

  • Doomsday book influenced modern day census

What impact did Jews have?

  • Jewish merchants and money lenders contribute to growth of local economies

  • Hebrew language and script impacts on English manuscripts and writing practices

  • Shared knowledge of medicine, astronomy and philosophy

  • Money lenders provide loans to the king and merchants, which expanded growth, trade and business

  • Boost England’s economy

What impact did Lombardy Bankers have?

  • Turned loan money to finance trade thelp pay buildings, such as castles, warehouses and banks

  • Lent money to monarchs for military campaigns

  • Turned London into financial hub

  • Language: bank, credit, devt

  • Expension of merchant trade boosts England’s economy

What impact did Flemish Weavers have?

  • Towns in East Anglia grew and developed because Flemish Weavers settled there

  • Skilled weavers wove high-quality fine wollen cloth which merchants exported to Europe (high demand)

  • England economy changed from being based on raw materials (wool) to manufactured goods (cloth)

  • Boost economy by paying taxes on importa and exports

  • Filled job slots allows economy to grow after Black Death

  • Source of English wealth for centuries

  • World famous tectile business: cloth production rose rapidly

What impact did Hansa Merchants have?

  • Ports and warehouses grew because of Hansa Merchants

  • Traded goods in Europe grew rich and invested money in banks

  • Turned England into key trading centre

  • Helped economy get back on track after Black Death

Case study - Vikings in York

866 Vikings captured York, turned into multicultural and prosperous city where thousands of merchants and skilled migrants worked created trading links with Europe, Russia and North Africa

Why did Vikings migrate to York? (Jorvik)

  1. Centre of Anglo-Saxon government had only mint in northern England

  2. Surrounded by fertile land

  3. Good trade routes in England and overseas easy to travel due to strong transport links

  4. Wealthy

  5. Vikings conquered Northumbria, capturing York 866 and finally in 867

What experience did Vikings have in York?

  • Vikings kept stone Saxon Church in York

  • Churches built in Viking settlements outside York

  • Coins minted in York had Christian symbol: linked trade with Christianity

  • Viking kings converted to Christianity

  • Inside York, Saxons and Vikings live peacefully

  • Fighting was common among rulers

What impact did Viking conquering York have?

  • York grew under Vikings

  • Between 867 and 950 15,000 migrated

  • Skilled migrants worked on different trades, cloth workers, wood, toners, jewellery makers, metal workers, potters, blacksmiths, and glassmakers

  • Hundreds of houses and workshops built

  • York became multicultural migrants came from Germany, Netherlands, Ireland and Scotland

  • Trade flourished Vikings used already established routes

Timeline

866 - York captured by Vikings

927 - Saxon King Athelstan took control of York and large parts of Danelaw

939 - Vikings recaptured York

954 - Saxons took over again

1016-35 - Viking King Cnut ruled whole of England

M

Medieval c800 - c1500

Key people

Cnut

  • United Anglo-Saxons with Vikings: marriage of Anglo-Saxon king Æthelred’s wife Emma

  • Appointed Anglo-Saxon earls, keeping peace between Vikings and Saxons

  • Religious tolerance to paganism and Christianity

  • Established laws to protect merchants & ensured fair trading practices

  • Encouraged development of towns & trade networking which helped stimulate economic growth

  • Influenced England with Viking culture & language: words and place names

William I

  • Norman conquest - victory over Anglo-Saxons

  • October 1066 Battle of Hastings - established rule of Normans over England

  • Feudal system - he strengthened control over country by rewarding loyal supporters with land therfore creates network of vessels to establish a hierarchical structure

  • 1085 Doomsday book - survey of land ownership data on resources of England, assess wealth and taxation which inspired census today

  • Castles and cathedrals - structures symbolise Norman power, maintained control over conquered territories. Present: Tower of London and Durham Cathedral

Edward I

  • Legal reforms - establish system common law, unified legal system

  • Parliament - representatives from different social class seen in present : MP’s

  • 1290 Edict of Expulsion - Expel Jews from England

  • Changed system from charters into towns where people could self govern

  • Promoted trade and commerce - rise of prosperous merchant class

Henry III

  • Introduction of Exchequer - Control royal finances seen today chancellor exchequer

  • Tension between monarchy and Barons, Henry abused money spending causing outbreak: 1264 Baron’s war

  • Forced to accept limitations on authority

  • Establish system of justice - First legal code 1166 Assize of Clarendon

Why did Vikings migrate?

  • Raid - c789 to c865 raided England and Scotland, attacking villages and monastries close to coast to acquire valuable goods

  • Attracted to rich mineral deposits lead, iron, copper and silver used to construct buildings, and make tools and weapons

  • Religion - please God of war Odin by conquering land in England and winning war to be rewarded in afterlife and reach Valhalla

  • Agriculture - England had fertile soil to provide land needed for crops to flourish and feed their families

  • Vikings originated from Scandinavia a rugged terrain and had harsh climates

  • Trade - England had well established trade networks and prosperous towns which were beneficial for skilled Viking traders 866 Vikings captured York as base for defeating, Northumbria, East Anglia and Mercia

  • 878 Treaty of Wedmore, established Viking danelaw

Why did Normans migrate?

  • Normans from Normandy and Northern France, invaded England 1066

  • Led by William

  • Believed William promised English throne by Edward the Confessor and Harold Godwinson

  • After Edward’s death, Harold became king: huge betrayal broken promise

  • Receive support from pope, who backed invasion (believed to have God on their side)

  • England’s wealth for soil and trading links attractive

  • 1066 Battle of Hastings - Normans defeated Saxon army

  • Norman Nobles and merchants, migrated to England, gain land, promised by William to help him establish control in England

Why did Jews migrate?

  • 1070 Invited by William as money lenders England Christian: sin ‘usury’ to lend money not allowed to charge interest. William required spending money on building castles and cathedrals asked jews for help

  • Given special status as property of king, their families followed and established small community

  • William safeguarded their rights and gave royal protection

Why did Lombardy bankers migrate?

  • Henry III wanted to replace Jewish money lenders with Christians because anti-Semitic attitudes were becoming common

  • Invited powerful Italian banking families to England as money lenders to help fund war

  • Offered royal protection

  • Gave opportunity to trade wool and cloth

  • Most of Europe: Christian attracted to churches built by Norman England

Why did Flemish Weavers migrate?

  • 1348 Black death killed 30% to 40% of England’s population

  • Many skilled and unskilled work available in England - Financial benefit

  • To set up new businesses

  • Most of Europe: Christian attracted to churches built by Norman England

Why did Hansa Merchants migrate?

  • 1348 Black death killed 30% to 40% of England’s population

  • 1303 Edward I gave right to trade as merchants

  • Given royal protection

  • Britain known for abundant supply of high-quality wool (high demand in Europe)

  • Saw potential profit in emerging markets

  • Sought to capitalise expanding British economy

What did Vikings experience?

  • Set up own shops, markets and workshops

  • Conquered each division of kingdoms, except Wessex

  • Some rich, because of trading links developed with Europe

  • Relations between Vikings and Saxons, generally good

  • Settled Vikings (Danes) fought Saxons daily between boundary of Danelaw

  • 937 Relations worse After Danelaw brought under Saxon control: Danes raiding again and attacked by Saxons

  • 1016 Cnut first Danish king of England relations improved, because of earldoms gave Saxon Nobles large areas of land

  • 1002 Saint Brice’s day massacre

What did Normans experience?

  • 1066 Normans establish control over England

  • Experienced hostility and resentment from Saxons due to destruction Normans caused

  • Feudal system ensured Normans as positions of authority over Saxons

  • Land entirely owned by king, kept some for himself, gave some to church, and shared rest among nobles, who were loyal

  • Establish control using Doomsday book

What did Jews experience?

  • Lend money in return for royal protection

  • Well respected in local communities because of financial support they offered to small businesses

  • Increasingly anti-Semitism people resent paying interest on loans

  • 1275 Statute of Jewry - Jews wear yellow armband, meant Jews forbidden charging interest on loans. Jews became poor

  • 1290 Jews expelled, by Edward I

What did Lombardy bankers experience?

  • 1220 powerful Italian banking families working in London

  • Did well after 1290 expulsion

  • Letters of denizen available to rich

  • Not persecuted

  • Accepted by public and monarchy

What did Flemish Weavers experience?

  • Had specialised skills English weavers didn’t have: cause jealousy

  • Competition between workers

  • Welcomed because they taught their skills to English weavers, and helped cloth trade flourish and employment to increase

  • 1381 Peasants revolt - murdered, craft guilds complained ‘foreigners’ taking work from them

What did Hansa Merchants experience?

  • Given a right to trade in England, by Edward I

  • Set up Steelyard in London, where they directed and controlled trade with Hanseatic league and other parts of Europe

  • Paid lower taxes, people jealous of privileges given by king

  • Mid 1400s, German merchants controlled most of English cloth industry

  • 150 killed 1381 Peasants revolt

  • English burned Hansa Steelyard and destroyed goods, craft guilds complain ‘foreigners’ taking work from them. Targeted again c15

What impact did Vikings have?

  • ‘Things’ introduced democracy, members voted on laws and agreed on punishment for guilty

  • Raids led Saxons to develop fortified towns

  • New words into language

What impact did Normans have?

  • Develop Saxon system of government into established parliament with lords and commons

  • New laws:

    1. Forest laws - Royal Forest, where king controlled who could hunt

    2. Murdrum - Fine paid by Saxons, if Norman was murdered and culprit wasn’t found

    3. 1370 Letters of denization - Individual migrant same rights as English people

    4. 1440 Parliament levied tax on ‘aliens’ (defined legally: first generation migrants)

  • Church so important in daily life clergy had more power and influence

  • Number of monks and nuns 400% between 1066 and 1500

  • Church organisation, hierarchal, parish priest at bottom and archbishops at top drew English church more into christendom

  • Saxon Bishops and archbishops removed and replaced by Normans

  • Built motte and bailey castles and cathedrals from stone replaced wooden churches with stone

  • New words into language Norman, French and Saxon English, came together as middle English

  • Feudal system established heirarchy changed land, ownership and obligation and duties between people in different levels of society - After Norman invasion king owned all land in England, however, under Saxon rule kings were one of the small number of land owners

  • Doomsday book influenced modern day census

What impact did Jews have?

  • Jewish merchants and money lenders contribute to growth of local economies

  • Hebrew language and script impacts on English manuscripts and writing practices

  • Shared knowledge of medicine, astronomy and philosophy

  • Money lenders provide loans to the king and merchants, which expanded growth, trade and business

  • Boost England’s economy

What impact did Lombardy Bankers have?

  • Turned loan money to finance trade thelp pay buildings, such as castles, warehouses and banks

  • Lent money to monarchs for military campaigns

  • Turned London into financial hub

  • Language: bank, credit, devt

  • Expension of merchant trade boosts England’s economy

What impact did Flemish Weavers have?

  • Towns in East Anglia grew and developed because Flemish Weavers settled there

  • Skilled weavers wove high-quality fine wollen cloth which merchants exported to Europe (high demand)

  • England economy changed from being based on raw materials (wool) to manufactured goods (cloth)

  • Boost economy by paying taxes on importa and exports

  • Filled job slots allows economy to grow after Black Death

  • Source of English wealth for centuries

  • World famous tectile business: cloth production rose rapidly

What impact did Hansa Merchants have?

  • Ports and warehouses grew because of Hansa Merchants

  • Traded goods in Europe grew rich and invested money in banks

  • Turned England into key trading centre

  • Helped economy get back on track after Black Death

Case study - Vikings in York

866 Vikings captured York, turned into multicultural and prosperous city where thousands of merchants and skilled migrants worked created trading links with Europe, Russia and North Africa

Why did Vikings migrate to York? (Jorvik)

  1. Centre of Anglo-Saxon government had only mint in northern England

  2. Surrounded by fertile land

  3. Good trade routes in England and overseas easy to travel due to strong transport links

  4. Wealthy

  5. Vikings conquered Northumbria, capturing York 866 and finally in 867

What experience did Vikings have in York?

  • Vikings kept stone Saxon Church in York

  • Churches built in Viking settlements outside York

  • Coins minted in York had Christian symbol: linked trade with Christianity

  • Viking kings converted to Christianity

  • Inside York, Saxons and Vikings live peacefully

  • Fighting was common among rulers

What impact did Viking conquering York have?

  • York grew under Vikings

  • Between 867 and 950 15,000 migrated

  • Skilled migrants worked on different trades, cloth workers, wood, toners, jewellery makers, metal workers, potters, blacksmiths, and glassmakers

  • Hundreds of houses and workshops built

  • York became multicultural migrants came from Germany, Netherlands, Ireland and Scotland

  • Trade flourished Vikings used already established routes

Timeline

866 - York captured by Vikings

927 - Saxon King Athelstan took control of York and large parts of Danelaw

939 - Vikings recaptured York

954 - Saxons took over again

1016-35 - Viking King Cnut ruled whole of England