1.1 - Chemistry and Chemicals
The composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter are examined in chemistry.
For all the substances that make up our world, the matter is yet another word.
Maybe you can think of chemistry only in a lab where a chemist works with a white cloth.
A chemical is a substance with the same composition and characteristics wherever it is found.
You see all things consisting of one or more chemicals
The study of the composition, structure, properties, and reactions of the matter is chemistry.
A chemical is any material that, wherever it is found, has the same composition and characteristics.
1.2 - Scientific Method: Thinking Like a Scientist
Observations, the first step in science is to comment on nature and ask questions about what you observe.
When an observation seems always true, it can be declared as a law that predicts and is often measurable in this regard.
However, this observation cannot be explained by the law
In the assumption, a scientist creates a hypothesis that provides an explanation of an observation or law.
Experiments are made to find a relationship between the hypothesis and the observations to determine if an assumption is true or false.
The experimental results can confirm the hypothesis
Conclusion/Theory, If the results are analyzed, it is concluded that the hypothesis is true or wrong.
The scientific method is a method that begins with observations, hypothesis forming, and testing to explain natural phenomena.
A hypothesis can become a theory after repeated successful experiments.
1.3 - Studying and Learning Chemistry
If we want to recall new information, we need to connect it with prior knowledge that we can retrieve.
This can be achieved by developing study habits that involve a lot of practice testing how new information can be collected.
Many students find it beneficial to learn with a group.
In one group, students are motivated by learning and learning together to study, to fill gains, and to make misunderstandings right.
The peer correction process is not permitted by studying alone.
In a group, when discussing reading and problems with other students, you can discuss your ideas more thoroughly.
A plan for chemistry learning uses the text's features to help develop a successful approach to chemistry learning.
You can successfully learn chemical concepts through learning goals, reviews, problems analysis, and test them first in this chapter and work on sample problems, studies, and problems in the field at the end of each section.
1.4 - Key Math Skills for Chemistry
The place value for each of the digits in that number may be identified for each number.
These location values have names like the ones
Divide the parts by the total (full) and multiply by 100 percent to determine a percentage
When a value (percent) describes the number of parts of an item in 100 of those items.
This represents a percentage.
To solve a particular variable equation, ensure that both sides of the equation have the same mathematical operations.
You must remove that same symbol or number on the opposite side of the symbol or number is removed.
If a symbol or number is deleted by adding it, the same symbol or number should be added on the other side.
You must divide each side by the same symbol or number if you cancel a symptom, or number by dividing it.
If you cancel by multiplying a symbol or number, you must multiply the same symbol or number on both sides.
See the label and the vertical (y) axis numbers.
The label shows that the ball volume has been measured in liters (L).
The horizontal axis label (x) shows that the ballon temperature was measured in degrees Celsius (°C).
The volume in liters is measured at a specific temperature at each point in the diagram.
A line is obtained when these points are connected.
The chart shows that the gas volume increases as the gas temperature rises. This is called a direct connection.
The chart is now used to determine the volume at different temperatures.
Chemical problems involve a number of mathematical skills.
Place values are identified, positive and negative values are used to calculate percentages and equations are resolved and graphs are interpreted.
1.5 - Writing Numbers in Scientific Notation
There are two parts of a number written in scientific notice: a coefficient and 10 power.
When it helps to make places easier to count, we add spaces between three-digit sets.
However, we will see that writing large and small numbers in scientific reports is more convenient.
There are two parts to a number in the scientific notice, a coefficient and a power of 10.
The capacity of 10 is positive when a number greater than 1 is converted into a science
The power of 10 is negative if a number below 1 is written in the scientific record.