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Heath, Fitness, and Well-Being

  • HEALTH: a complete state of an individual’s physical, mental, and social well-being.

  • FITNESS: the condition of being physically fit and healthy, enabling an individual to execute and perform daily activities.

  • WELLBEING: a state of being physically and mentally comfortable, happy, and healthy.

1.1 Physical, Emotional, And Social Health, Fitness, And Well-Being

Impacts of Participating In Physical Activities And Sports To Promote Health, Fitness, And Well-Being

  • To Physical Health:

    1. Improving cardiovascular functions and endurance

    2. Enhances body systems

    3. Reduces risk of acquiring illness/diseases

    4. Reduces chances of injury

    5. Enhances ability to execute and perform well on daily tasks

  • To Mental Health:

    1. Stress Reduction 

    2. Release of endorphins and serotonin (improving mood)

    3. Self-Regulation

    4. Higher Self-Esteem

    5. Productivity

  • To Social Health

    1. Develops a sense of community

    2. Increased empathy and motivation

    3. Promotes discipline and accountability

    4. Enables goal-setting abilities

1.2 The Consequence of Sedentary Lifestyle

Sedentary Lifestyle

  • Sedentary Lifestyle: refers to spending numerous hours per day just sitting and lying down, lacking significant physical movements one must acquire daily.

  • Consequences Of A Sedentary Lifestyle:

    • Weight Gain or Obesity

    • Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Diabetes

    • Poor Sleeping Routines

    • Low Self-Esteem

    • Metabolic Syndrome

    • Anxiety and/or Depression

    • Cancer

Obesity And How It Affects Physical Activity And Sports Performance

  • Obesity: refers to an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that risks one’s health.

  • Impact on Physical Activity And Sports Performance: It limits an individual's stamina, cardiovascular endurance, speed, flexibility, agility, and power.

    • On Physical Health

      • Increases risk of acquiring cardiovascular diseases

      • High Blood Pressure

      • Sleep Apnea

      • Diabetes

      • Cancer

    • On Mental Health

      • Loss of Confidence

      • Depression

    • On Social Health

      • Isolation

Somatotypes

  • Somatotypes: These refer to the classification of one’s physique type and body shape.

  • Types Of Somatotypes And Characteristics:

    1. Endomorph:

      • Physical Characteristics: Stout and round (strong bones)

      • Metabolic Characteristics: Slow Metabolism (often carries excess body fat)

      • Training Advantage: Quick to gain muscles (naturally strong) 

      • Training Disadvantage: Difficulty in losing weight

    2. Mesomorph: People who have the classic V shape, with narrow hips and a wedge-shaped body.

      • Physical Characteristics: Athletic and Muscular

      • Metabolic Characteristics: Fast Metabolism (easily gains and loses weight)

      • Training Advantage: Responds well to both resistance and aerobic training

      • Training Disadvantage: Requires a variety of workouts (Can be overtrained)

    3. Ectomorph: People with naturally long and lean body types.

      • Physical Characteristics: Small chest, thin hips, long and lean body

      • Metabolic Characteristics: Fast Metabolism (slow muscle gains)

      • Training Advantage: Loses weight easily (naturally fit)

      • Training Disadvantage: Slow muscle gain 

Identifying The Most Suitable Body Types For Particular Sports Or Position

  • Strength And Power Sports: best suits body types who can build their body strength.

    • Body Type: Endomorphs

    • Suitable Sport: Weightlifting, bodybuilding, soccer, hockey, rugby and power sports

  • Aerobic Endurance Sports: best suits light muscular body types.

    • Body Type: Mesomorphs

    • Suitable Sport: Marathons, triathlons, cross-country skiing, racquet sports, hockey, golf, soccer, and figure skating.

  • Endurance Sports: best suits light and agile body types as they are better with thermoregulation.

    • Body Type: Ectomorphs

    • Suitable Sport: Marathons, triathlons, tennis and squash, gymnastics, ballet, and basketball.

1.3 Energy Use, Diet, Nutrition and Hydration

Energy, Diet and Nutrition

  • Energy: the ability to do work. It is measured in calories (Kcal) and obtained from the food we eat.

  • Nutrition: a process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health, development, and growth that promotes productivity.

    1. Reasons for having a balanced diet: A balanced diet contains lots of different types of food to provide the suitable nutrients, vitamins, and minerals required.

      • Unused energy is stored as fat, which could cause obesity (particularly saturated fat)

      • Suitable energy can be available for activity

      • The body needs nutrients for energy, growth, and hydration.

    2. The role of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and vitamins/minerals: A balanced diet contains 55–60% carbohydrate, 25–30% fat, and 15–20% protein.

      • Carbohydrates: the main and preferred energy source for all types of exercise, of all intensities.

      • Fat: also a source of energy as It provides more energy than carbohydrates but only at low-intensity

      • Protein: for muscle tissue growth and repair.

      • Vitamins and Minerals: maintaining the efficient working of the body systems and general health.

Reasons for Maintaining Water Balance (Hydration)

  • Dehydration: occurs when your body loses more fluid than you take in. An individual can prevent dehydration by a balanced water intake (hydration).

  • Impacts of Dehydration:

    • blood thickening (slows blood flow)

    • increases heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, heart requires to work harder

    • Increased body temperature (overheat)

    • Increased reaction time (slow response and poorer decision-making)

    • muscle fatigue/cramps.

.

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Heath, Fitness, and Well-Being

  • HEALTH: a complete state of an individual’s physical, mental, and social well-being.

  • FITNESS: the condition of being physically fit and healthy, enabling an individual to execute and perform daily activities.

  • WELLBEING: a state of being physically and mentally comfortable, happy, and healthy.

1.1 Physical, Emotional, And Social Health, Fitness, And Well-Being

Impacts of Participating In Physical Activities And Sports To Promote Health, Fitness, And Well-Being

  • To Physical Health:

    1. Improving cardiovascular functions and endurance

    2. Enhances body systems

    3. Reduces risk of acquiring illness/diseases

    4. Reduces chances of injury

    5. Enhances ability to execute and perform well on daily tasks

  • To Mental Health:

    1. Stress Reduction 

    2. Release of endorphins and serotonin (improving mood)

    3. Self-Regulation

    4. Higher Self-Esteem

    5. Productivity

  • To Social Health

    1. Develops a sense of community

    2. Increased empathy and motivation

    3. Promotes discipline and accountability

    4. Enables goal-setting abilities

1.2 The Consequence of Sedentary Lifestyle

Sedentary Lifestyle

  • Sedentary Lifestyle: refers to spending numerous hours per day just sitting and lying down, lacking significant physical movements one must acquire daily.

  • Consequences Of A Sedentary Lifestyle:

    • Weight Gain or Obesity

    • Cardiovascular Diseases

    • Diabetes

    • Poor Sleeping Routines

    • Low Self-Esteem

    • Metabolic Syndrome

    • Anxiety and/or Depression

    • Cancer

Obesity And How It Affects Physical Activity And Sports Performance

  • Obesity: refers to an abnormal or excessive accumulation of fat that risks one’s health.

  • Impact on Physical Activity And Sports Performance: It limits an individual's stamina, cardiovascular endurance, speed, flexibility, agility, and power.

    • On Physical Health

      • Increases risk of acquiring cardiovascular diseases

      • High Blood Pressure

      • Sleep Apnea

      • Diabetes

      • Cancer

    • On Mental Health

      • Loss of Confidence

      • Depression

    • On Social Health

      • Isolation

Somatotypes

  • Somatotypes: These refer to the classification of one’s physique type and body shape.

  • Types Of Somatotypes And Characteristics:

    1. Endomorph:

      • Physical Characteristics: Stout and round (strong bones)

      • Metabolic Characteristics: Slow Metabolism (often carries excess body fat)

      • Training Advantage: Quick to gain muscles (naturally strong) 

      • Training Disadvantage: Difficulty in losing weight

    2. Mesomorph: People who have the classic V shape, with narrow hips and a wedge-shaped body.

      • Physical Characteristics: Athletic and Muscular

      • Metabolic Characteristics: Fast Metabolism (easily gains and loses weight)

      • Training Advantage: Responds well to both resistance and aerobic training

      • Training Disadvantage: Requires a variety of workouts (Can be overtrained)

    3. Ectomorph: People with naturally long and lean body types.

      • Physical Characteristics: Small chest, thin hips, long and lean body

      • Metabolic Characteristics: Fast Metabolism (slow muscle gains)

      • Training Advantage: Loses weight easily (naturally fit)

      • Training Disadvantage: Slow muscle gain 

Identifying The Most Suitable Body Types For Particular Sports Or Position

  • Strength And Power Sports: best suits body types who can build their body strength.

    • Body Type: Endomorphs

    • Suitable Sport: Weightlifting, bodybuilding, soccer, hockey, rugby and power sports

  • Aerobic Endurance Sports: best suits light muscular body types.

    • Body Type: Mesomorphs

    • Suitable Sport: Marathons, triathlons, cross-country skiing, racquet sports, hockey, golf, soccer, and figure skating.

  • Endurance Sports: best suits light and agile body types as they are better with thermoregulation.

    • Body Type: Ectomorphs

    • Suitable Sport: Marathons, triathlons, tennis and squash, gymnastics, ballet, and basketball.

1.3 Energy Use, Diet, Nutrition and Hydration

Energy, Diet and Nutrition

  • Energy: the ability to do work. It is measured in calories (Kcal) and obtained from the food we eat.

  • Nutrition: a process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health, development, and growth that promotes productivity.

    1. Reasons for having a balanced diet: A balanced diet contains lots of different types of food to provide the suitable nutrients, vitamins, and minerals required.

      • Unused energy is stored as fat, which could cause obesity (particularly saturated fat)

      • Suitable energy can be available for activity

      • The body needs nutrients for energy, growth, and hydration.

    2. The role of carbohydrates, fat, protein, and vitamins/minerals: A balanced diet contains 55–60% carbohydrate, 25–30% fat, and 15–20% protein.

      • Carbohydrates: the main and preferred energy source for all types of exercise, of all intensities.

      • Fat: also a source of energy as It provides more energy than carbohydrates but only at low-intensity

      • Protein: for muscle tissue growth and repair.

      • Vitamins and Minerals: maintaining the efficient working of the body systems and general health.

Reasons for Maintaining Water Balance (Hydration)

  • Dehydration: occurs when your body loses more fluid than you take in. An individual can prevent dehydration by a balanced water intake (hydration).

  • Impacts of Dehydration:

    • blood thickening (slows blood flow)

    • increases heart rate, irregular heart rhythm, heart requires to work harder

    • Increased body temperature (overheat)

    • Increased reaction time (slow response and poorer decision-making)

    • muscle fatigue/cramps.

.