# Percentage Yield

## Percentage yield compares actual and theoretical yield

• The amount of product you get is known as the yield

• The more reactants you start with, the higher the actual yield will be

• But the percentage yield doesn’t depend on the amount of reactants you started with, it’s a percentage

• Percentage yield = mass of product actually made(g) / maximum theoretical mass of product x 100

• Maximum theoretical mass can be calculated using balanced reaction equation

• Percentage yield is always somewhere between 0 and 100%

• 100% yield means that you get all the product you expected to get

• 0% yield means that no reactants were converted into products

• Industrial processes should have as high a percentage yield as possible to reduce waste and reduce costs

## Yield are always less than 100%

• In real life, you never get a 100% yield

• Some products or reactant always gets lost along the way, and that goes fr big industrial process as well as school lab experiments

• Depends on what sort of reaction it is and what apparatus is being used

## Not all reactants react to make a product

• In reversible reactions the products can turn back into reactant so the yield will never be 100%

• For example, in the Haber process at the same time as the reaction N2 + 3H2 - 2NH3 is taking place, the reverse reaction is also happening

• This means it never goes to completion