Anatomy Chapter 7 appendicular skeleton

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The Pectoral Girdle

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The Pectoral Girdle

The bones that attach each upper limb to the axial skeleton form the pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle). This consists of two bones, the scapula and clavicle

<p>The bones that attach each upper limb to the axial skeleton form the pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle). This consists of two bones, the scapula and clavicle</p>
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Girdle means

One or more supporting bones, connect limb to trunk

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The pectoral girdle is more versatile, while the

pelvic girdle is stronger

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The axial skeleton forms the central axis of the body and consists of

the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

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The appendicular skeleton consists of the

pectoral and pelvic girdles, the limb bones, and the bones of the hands and feet.

<p>pectoral and pelvic girdles, the limb bones, and the bones of the hands and feet.</p>
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The pectoral girdle articulates with the trunk only at the

sternoclavicular joint

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The clavicle

  1. only horizontal bone in body

  2. has three regions: the medial end, the lateral end, and the shaft.

  3. Has sternal and acromial (broader and flatter) ends.

  4. fractures in middle

<ol><li><p>only horizontal bone in body</p></li><li><p>has three regions: the medial end, the lateral end, and the shaft.</p></li><li><p>Has sternal and acromial (broader and flatter) ends.</p></li><li><p>fractures in middle</p></li></ol>
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The sternal end of clavicle articulates with the

manubrium portion of sternum

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Scapula borders

Superior, medial and lateral borders

<p>Superior, medial and lateral borders</p>
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Scapula angles

superior, inferior and lateral angles

<p>superior, inferior and lateral angles</p>
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Scapula 3 fossa

  1. subscapular fossa - ventral side, slides over ribcage

  2. Supraspinous fossa

  3. infraspinous fossa

<ol><li><p>subscapular fossa - ventral side, slides over ribcage</p></li><li><p>Supraspinous fossa</p></li><li><p>infraspinous fossa</p></li></ol>
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Scapular spine acts as an attachment for the

trapezius muscle

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Acromion

The acromion forms the bony tip of the superior shoulder region and articulates with the lateral end of the clavicle, forming the acromioclavicular joint

<p>The acromion forms the bony tip of the superior shoulder region and articulates with the lateral end of the clavicle, forming the acromioclavicular joint</p>
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coracoid process (coracoid = "shaped like a crow's beak").

the coracoid process is located inferior to the lateral end of the clavicle. It is anchored to the clavicle by a strong ligament, and serves as the attachment site for muscles of the anterior chest and arm.

<p>the coracoid process is located inferior to the lateral end of the clavicle. It is anchored to the clavicle by a strong ligament, and serves as the attachment site for muscles of the anterior chest and arm.</p>
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The base of the hand contains eight bones, each called a

carpal bone

<p>carpal bone</p>
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the palm of the hand is formed by five bones, each called a

metacarpal bone

<p>metacarpal bone</p>
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The fingers and thumb contain a total of 14 bones, each of which is a

phalanx bone of the hand.

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The head of humerus articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula to form the

glenohumeral (shoulder) joint.

<p>glenohumeral (shoulder) joint.</p>
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Located on the lateral side of the proximal humerus is an expanded bony area called the

greater tubercle

<p>greater tubercle</p>
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The smaller lesser tubercle of the humerus is found

on the anterior aspect of the humerus.

<p>on the anterior aspect of the humerus.</p>
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intertubercular groove (sulcus)

provides passage for a tendon of the biceps brachii muscle.

<p>provides passage for a tendon of the biceps brachii muscle.</p>
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Anatomical vs surgical neck of humerus head

Anatomical neck is constricted to articular surface. Surgical neck is lower and is a common fracture site.

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The deltoid tuberosity is

a roughened, V-shaped region located on the lateral side in the middle of the humerus shaft. As its name indicates, it is the site of attachment for the deltoid muscle.

<p>a roughened, V-shaped region located on the lateral side in the middle of the humerus shaft. As its name indicates, it is the site of attachment for the deltoid muscle.</p>
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Trochlea and capitulum of distal humerus form

the elbow joint

<p>the elbow joint</p>
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trochlea, which articulates with the

ulna bone

<p>ulna bone</p>
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The capitulum articulates with the

radius bone of the forearm.

<p>radius bone of the forearm.</p>
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Superior to the trochlea is the

coronoid fossa, which receives the coronoid process of the ulna

<p>coronoid fossa, which receives the coronoid process of the ulna</p>
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above the capitulum is the

radial fossa, which receives the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed.

<p>radial fossa, which receives the head of the radius when the elbow is flexed.</p>
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the posterior humerus has the

olecranon fossa, a larger depression that receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the forearm is fully extended.

<p>olecranon fossa, a larger depression that receives the olecranon process of the ulna when the forearm is fully extended.</p>
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Medial and lateral epicondyles are for

attachment points for muscles that act on the forearm, wrist, and hand.

<p>attachment points for muscles that act on the forearm, wrist, and hand.</p>
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When hit what nerve makes arm feel numb?

Ulnar nerve, which is next to the medial epicondyle

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The proximal end of the ulna resembles a crescent wrench with its large, C-shaped trochlear notch.

This region articulates with the trochlea of the humerus as part of the elbow joint.

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coronoid process of the ulna

inferior margin of the trochlear notch is formed by a prominent lip of bone. Also gives stability to the joint.

<p>inferior margin of the trochlear notch is formed by a prominent lip of bone. Also gives stability to the joint.</p>
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radial notch of the ulna

This area is the site of articulation between the proximal radius (head of radius) and the ulna. Allows pronation & supination of the hand

<p>This area is the site of articulation between the proximal radius (head of radius) and the ulna. Allows pronation &amp; supination of the hand</p>
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The posterior and superior portions of the proximal ulna make up the olecranon process

which forms the bony tip of the elbow.

<p>which forms the bony tip of the elbow.</p>
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interosseous membrane of the forearm (or antebrachial interosseus membrane)

a sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the ulna and radius bones.

<p>a sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the ulna and radius bones.</p>
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head of the ulna

The small, rounded area that forms the distal end. RADIUS HEAD IS AT PROXIMAL END

<p>The small, rounded area that forms the distal end. RADIUS HEAD IS AT PROXIMAL END</p>
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styloid process of the ulna

a short bony projection is projecting from the posterior side of the ulnar head. increases concavity to stabilize the wrist.

<p>a short bony projection is projecting from the posterior side of the ulnar head. increases concavity to stabilize the wrist.</p>
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Radius head is disc-shaped and articulates with

capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna.

<p>capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna.</p>
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The small depression on the surface of the head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus as part of the elbow joint, whereas the smooth, outer margin of the head articulates

with the radial notch of the ulna at the proximal radioulnar joint.

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neck of the radius is the narrowed region immediately below the expanded head. Inferior to this point on the medial side is the

radial tuberosity, an oval-shaped, bony protuberance that serves as a muscle attachment point for biceps brachii

<p>radial tuberosity, an oval-shaped, bony protuberance that serves as a muscle attachment point for biceps brachii</p>
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deltoid tuberoisty on humerus and radial tuberosity on

radius

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The lateral end of the radius has a pointed projection called

the styloid process of the radius. This provides attachment for ligaments that support the lateral side of the wrist joint. Compared to the styloid process of the ulna, the styloid process of the radius projects more distally, thereby limiting the range of movement for lateral deviations of the hand at the wrist joint.

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ulnar notch of the radius

This shallow depression articulates with the head of the ulna. Allow pronation and supination of hand.

<p>This shallow depression articulates with the head of the ulna. Allow pronation and supination of hand.</p>
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The wrist and base of the hand are formed by a series of

eight small carpal bones

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4 proximal carpal bones (lateral to medial)

scaphoid ("boat-shaped"), lunate ("moon- shaped"), triquetrum ("three-cornered"), and pisiform ("pea-shaped") bones.

<p>scaphoid (&quot;boat-shaped&quot;), lunate (&quot;moon- shaped&quot;), triquetrum (&quot;three-cornered&quot;), and pisiform (&quot;pea-shaped&quot;) bones.</p>
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4 distal carpal bones (lateral to medial) are

trapezium ("table"), trapezoid ("resembles a table"), capitate ("head-shaped"), and hamate ("hooked bone") bones.

<p>trapezium (&quot;table&quot;), trapezoid (&quot;resembles a table&quot;), capitate (&quot;head-shaped&quot;), and hamate (&quot;hooked bone&quot;) bones.</p>
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How many metacarpal bones (long bones) in one hand?

5

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How many phalanges in one hand?

14 long bones, numbered from thumb to pinky. Proximal, medial, distal. EXCEPT THUMB! It lacks middle phalanx.

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The pelvic girdle (hip girdle) is formed by a single bone,

the hip bone or coxal bone (coxal = "hip"), which serves as the attachment point for each lower limb.

<p>the hip bone or coxal bone (coxal = &quot;hip&quot;), which serves as the attachment point for each lower limb.</p>
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The bony pelvis is the entire structure formed by

the two hip bones, the sacrum, and, attached inferiorly to the sacrum, the coccyx

<p>the two hip bones, the sacrum, and, attached inferiorly to the sacrum, the coccyx</p>
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acetabulum

The three areas of each hip bone, the ilium, pubis, and ischium, converge centrally to form a deep, cup-shaped cavity called the acetabulum

<p>The three areas of each hip bone, the ilium, pubis, and ischium, converge centrally to form a deep, cup-shaped cavity called the acetabulum</p>
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The large opening in the anteroinferior hip bone between the ischium and pubis is the

obturator foramen. This space is largely filled in by a layer of connective tissue and serves for the attachment of muscles on both its internal and external surfaces.

<p>obturator foramen. This space is largely filled in by a layer of connective tissue and serves for the attachment of muscles on both its internal and external surfaces.</p>
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Hip bones from medial view

Illiac fossa, pectineal and arcuate lines, auricular surface and illiac tuberosity

<p>Illiac fossa, pectineal and arcuate lines, auricular surface and illiac tuberosity</p>
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longest and strongest bone of the body, and accounts for approximately one-quarter of a person's total height.

The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh region

<p>The femur, or thigh bone, is the single bone of the thigh region</p>
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Each adult hip bone is formed by three separate bones that fuse together during the late teenage years. These bony components are

the ilium, ischium, and pubis

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The ilium

is the fan-like, superior region that forms the largest part of the hip bone. It is firmly united to the sacrum at the largely immobile sacroiliac joint

<p>is the fan-like, superior region that forms the largest part of the hip bone. It is firmly united to the sacrum at the largely immobile sacroiliac joint</p>
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The ischium

forms the posteroinferior region of each hip bone. It supports the body when sitting.

<p>forms the posteroinferior region of each hip bone. It supports the body when sitting.</p>
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The pubis

forms the anterior portion of the hip bone. The pubis curves medially, where it joins to the pubis of the opposite hip bone at a specialized joint called the pubic symphysis.

<p>forms the anterior portion of the hip bone. The pubis curves medially, where it joins to the pubis of the opposite hip bone at a specialized joint called the pubic symphysis.</p>
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iliac crest

When you place your hands on your waist, you can feel the arching, superior margin of the ilium along your waistline. Able to palpate it.

<p>When you place your hands on your waist, you can feel the arching, superior margin of the ilium along your waistline. Able to palpate it.</p>
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auricular surface of the ilium

articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint.

<p>articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint.</p>
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greater sciatic notch

The large, inverted U-shaped indentation located on the posterior margin of the lower ilium is called the

<p>The large, inverted U-shaped indentation located on the posterior margin of the lower ilium is called the</p>
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The large, roughened area of the inferior ischium is the ischial tuberosity.

This serves as the attachment for the posterior thigh muscles and also carries the weight of the body when sitting.

<p>This serves as the attachment for the posterior thigh muscles and also carries the weight of the body when sitting.</p>
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ischial ramus.

Projecting superiorly and anteriorly from the ischial tuberosity is a narrow segment of bone called the ischial ramus.

<p>Projecting superiorly and anteriorly from the ischial tuberosity is a narrow segment of bone called the ischial ramus.</p>
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the slightly curved posterior margin of the ischium above the ischial tuberosity is the lesser sciatic notch.

The bony projection separating the lesser sciatic notch and greater sciatic notch is the ischial spine.

<p>The bony projection separating the lesser sciatic notch and greater sciatic notch is the ischial spine.</p>
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The superior pubic ramus

is the segment of bone that passes laterally from the pubic body to join the ilium.

<p>is the segment of bone that passes laterally from the pubic body to join the ilium.</p>
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The inferior pubic ramus extends downward to join

the ischial ramus.

<p>the ischial ramus.</p>
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The pubis curves medially, where it joins to the pubis of the opposite hip bone at a specialized joint called

the pubic symphysis

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The rounded, proximal end is the head of the femur

which articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip joint.

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The fovea capitis

a minor indentation on the medial side of the femoral head that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur.

<p>a minor indentation on the medial side of the femoral head that serves as the site of attachment for the ligament of the head of the femur.</p>
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The patella only articulates with the distal end of the

femur

<p>femur</p>
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This is a common area for fractures of the femur.

neck of the femur.

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The greater trochanter

is the large, upward, bony projection located above the base of the neck. Multiple muscles that act across the hip joint attach to the greater trochanter, which, because of its projection from the femur, gives additional leverage to these muscles. The greater trochanter can be felt just under the skin on the lateral side of your upper thigh.

<p>is the large, upward, bony projection located above the base of the neck. Multiple muscles that act across the hip joint attach to the greater trochanter, which, because of its projection from the femur, gives additional leverage to these muscles. The greater trochanter can be felt just under the skin on the lateral side of your upper thigh.</p>
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The lesser trochanter

is a small, bony prominence that lies on the medial aspect of the femur, just below the neck. A single, powerful muscle attaches to the lesser trochanter.

<p>is a small, bony prominence that lies on the medial aspect of the femur, just below the neck. A single, powerful muscle attaches to the lesser trochanter.</p>
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lateral condyle of the femur.

The distal end of the femur has medial and lateral bony expansions. On the lateral side, the smooth portion that covers the distal and posterior aspects of the lateral expansion is the lateral condyle of the femur.

<p>The distal end of the femur has medial and lateral bony expansions. On the lateral side, the smooth portion that covers the distal and posterior aspects of the lateral expansion is the lateral condyle of the femur.</p>
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linea aspera ("rough line")

This is the roughened ridge that passes distally along the posterior side of the mid-femur. Multiple muscles of the hip and thigh regions make long, thin attachments to the femur along the linea aspera.

<p>This is the roughened ridge that passes distally along the posterior side of the mid-femur. Multiple muscles of the hip and thigh regions make long, thin attachments to the femur along the linea aspera.</p>
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lateral epicondyle of the femur

The roughened area on the outer, lateral side of the condyle is the lateral epicondyle of the femur.

<p>The roughened area on the outer, lateral side of the condyle is the lateral epicondyle of the femur.</p>
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the smooth region of the distal and posterior medial femur is the

medial condyle of the femur, and the irregular outer, medial side of this is the medial epicondyle of the femur.

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the knee joint

The lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia to form the knee joint .

<p>The lateral and medial condyles articulate with the tibia to form the knee joint .</p>
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intercondylar fossa

Posteriorly, the medial and lateral condyles are separated by a deep depression called the intercondylar fossa

<p>Posteriorly, the medial and lateral condyles are separated by a deep depression called the intercondylar fossa</p>
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Anteriorly, the smooth surfaces of the condyles join together to form a wide groove called the

patellar surface, which provides for articulation with the patella bone.

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largest sesamoid bone of the body

The patella (kneecap)

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Patella base (superior part) has what tendon

quadriceps tendon

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Patella apex (inferior part) has what ligament

patellar ligament

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The proximal end of the tibia is greatly expanded. The two sides of this expansion form the

medial condyle of the tibia and the lateral condyle of the tibia.

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The tibia does not have epicondyles.

True

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The top surface of each condyle is smooth and flattened. These areas articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur to form the

knee joint

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The tibial tuberosity is an elevated area on the anterior side of the tibia, near its proximal end.

Serves as attachment site of patellar ligament

<p>Serves as attachment site of patellar ligament</p>
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interosseous membrane of the leg,

the sheet of dense connective tissue that unites the tibia and fibula bones.

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The fibula is the slender bone located on the lateral side of the leg. The fibula does not bear weight.

It serves primarily for muscle attachments and thus is largely surrounded by muscles.

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The large expansion found on the medial side of the distal tibia is the medial malleolus ("little hammer").

This forms the large bony bump found on the medial side of the ankle region. Both the smooth surface on the inside of the medial malleolus and the smooth area at the distal end of the tibia articulate with the talus bone of the foot as part of the ankle joint.

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The head of the fibula is the small, knob-like, proximal end of the fibula. It articulates with the

inferior aspect of the lateral tibial condyle, forming the proximal tibiofibular joint. Does not articulate with femur!!!

<p>inferior aspect of the lateral tibial condyle, forming the proximal tibiofibular joint. Does not articulate with femur!!!</p>
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The distal end of the fibula forms the lateral malleolus

which forms the easily palpated bony bump on the lateral side of the ankle. The deep (medial) side of the lateral malleolus articulates with the talus bone of the foot as part of the ankle joint. The distal fibula also articulates with the fibular notch of the tibia.

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94

There are how many tarsal bones?

seven. three are proximal and four are distal

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The bones of the foot are divided into three groups.

The posterior foot is formed by the seven tarsal bones. The mid-foot has the five metatarsal bones. The toes contain the phalanges.

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Three proximal tarsal bones:

  1. Talus: receives weight, it is on the calcaneus. Most superior bone.

  2. Calcaneus: Transfers weight to ground - heel (palpate)

  3. Navicular: articulates with the distal tarsal bones

<ol><li><p>Talus: receives weight, it is on the calcaneus. Most superior bone.</p></li><li><p>Calcaneus: Transfers weight to ground - heel (palpate)</p></li><li><p>Navicular: articulates with the distal tarsal bones</p></li></ol>
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Calcaneal tendon

aquilles tendon

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Four distal tarsal bones

medial intermediate and lateral cuneiforms. Cuboid.

<p>medial intermediate and lateral cuneiforms. Cuboid.</p>
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The cuneiforms

have a broad superior surface and a narrow inferior surface, which together produce the transverse (medial-lateral) curvature of the foot.

<p>have a broad superior surface and a narrow inferior surface, which together produce the transverse (medial-lateral) curvature of the foot.</p>
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We have arches in the foot to prevent

compression of blood vessels and nerves

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