MODULE 1 EXAM STUDY SHEET(CHHS)

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106 Terms

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health education specialist

an individual who has met, at a minimum, baccalaureate-level required health education academic preparation qualifications, who serves a variety of settings, and is able to use appropriate educational strategies and methods to facilitate the development of policies, procedures, interventions, and systems conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities

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health

a constellation of factors-economic, social, political, ecological, and physical-that add up to health, high-quality lives for individuals and communities

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3

health education

any combination of planned learning experiences using evidence based practices and/or sound theories that provide the opportunity to acquire knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors

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4

community health

the health status of a defined group of people and the actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health

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5

public health

the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, communities, and individuals

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6

health promotion

any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities

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wellness

whereby an individual actively seeks a collection of prevention practices and processes in which all dimensions of that person's health are addressed to achieve optimal well-being and minimize conditions of illness

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global health

placing priority on improving health and achieving equity for all people worldwide

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9

population health

a cohesive, integrated, and comprehensive approach to health care that considers the distribution of health outcomes within a population, the health determinants that influence distribution of care, and the policies and interventions that affect and are affected by the determinants

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10

epidemiology

the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems

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rate

a measure of the frequency with which an event occurs in a defined population over a specified period of time

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death rate

the number of deaths per 100,000 resident population, sometimes referred to as mortality or fatality rates, are probably the most frequently used means of quantifying the seriousness of injury of disease

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crude rate

rate expressed for a total population

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adjusted rate

expressed for total population but is statistically adjusted for a certain characteristic, such as age

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specific rate

a rate for a particular population subgroup such as for a particular disease or for a particular age of people

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16

chain of infection model

a model used to explain the spread of a communicable disease from one host to another

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pathogenic transmission of illness

They can be spread through skin contact, bodily fluids, airborne particles, contact with feces, and touching a surface touched by an infected person.

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communicable disease model

the minimal requirements for the presence and spread of a communicable disease in a population

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elements of communicable disease model

-agent which is the element that must be present for a disease to spread

  • host is any susceptible organism that can be invaded by the agent -environment is all other factors that either prohibit or promote disease transmission

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multi-causation disease model

diseases that manifest themselves in people over a period of time and are not caused by a single factor but by combined factors

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element of multi-causation disease model

-genetics -behavioral choices -environmental conditions, social circumstances, and medical care

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health field concept

a framework that would subdivide the concept into principal elements so that the elements could be studied

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determinants of health

genetics, individual behavior, social circumstances, environmental and physical influences, health services

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primary prevention

changing health behaviors to reduce future disease incidence

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examples of primary prevention

washing you hands or getting the flu vaccine

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secondary prevention

early diagnosis of a disease condition

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examples of secondary prevention

Self breast exams, yearly cancer screenings, proper management of diabetes

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tertiary prevention

treatment of a disease condition to reduce complications or disability

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examples of tertiary prevention

physical therapy for stroke patients or fitness programs for heart attack patients

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socioecological approach

a multilevel, interactive approach that examines how physical, social, political, economic, and cultural dimensions influence behaviors and conditions

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31

early humans

-learned by trial and error to distinguish between things that were healthful and those that were harmful

  • the result of learning by observation and trial and error were eventually turned into rules and taboos -because so much was not known about health, diseases, and death, they were explained, in part, as acts of evil spirits and gods

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ancient society(Egyptians)

-primitive medicine due, in part, to priest-physicians -known for personal cleanliness -had drainage systems, each privies, and pharmaceutical preparations

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ancient society(hebrews)

-extended Egyptian hygienic thought -formulated probably the world's first hygienic code in the biblical book of Leviticus

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ancient society(greeks)

-first to put emphasis on disease prevention -balance among physical, mental, and spiritual

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asclepius

the god of medicine

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panacea

the daughter of asclepius who was given the ability to teat disease

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hygeia

the daughter of asclepius who was given the power to prevent disease

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asclepiads

Brotherhood that broke away from priests to practice medicine based on more rational principles

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Caduceus

the staff and serpent of the physician, was a symbol of the temples of asclepius

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40

Hippocrates

-developed theory of disease causation -taught that health was the result of balance and disease the result of imbalance -distinguished between endemic and epidemic diseases -first epidemiologist and father of medicine

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ancient society(romans)

-great engineers, builders, and administrators -first to build hospitals set up public medical services -aqueduct and underground sewer systems -developed a system of private medical practices -furthered the work of the greeks in the study of anatomy and the practice of surgery

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Middle Ages

-period of political and social unrest -health advance of previous cultures lost -little emphasis on cleanliness or hygiene -cleanliness was unimportant to those practicing the new religion(Christianity) -spread of leprosy by lepers -bubonic plague(Black Death) killed 20 to 35 million people -concept of disease contagion became more universally accepted

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renaissance

-characterized by gradual rebirth of thinking about the world and humankind in a more naturalistic and holistic fashion science reemerged as legitimate field of inquiry, numerous scientific advancements -disease and plague still ravaged Europe -medical care was rudimentary; bloodletting was a major form of treatment -barbers performed much of the surgery and dentistry because they had sharp instruments -disposal of human waste and severe uncleanliness were common problems -systematic inquiry slowly replaced superstitions of the Middle Ages

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44

Age of Enlightenment (1700's)

-period of revolution, industrialization, and growth of cities -health education/promotion had still not emerged as a profession

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miasmas theory

disease caused from the vapors (or miasmas) coming from rotting refuse

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Dr. James Lind

discovered scurvy could be controlled by lime juice

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Dr. Edward Jenner

discovered a vaccine for smallpox

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1800's

-little happens in first half of the century to improve the public's health -overcrowding and industrialization caused many public health problems

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Dr. John Snow

removes pump handle and discovered source of cholera epidemic

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Louis Pasteur

proposed germ theory of disease

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51

20th century

-Healthy People objectives -access to health care and Healthy People objectives -access to health care -studies on factors that drive the cost of health care

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52

philosophy

a statement summarizing the attitudes, principles, beliefs, values, and concepts held by an individual or a group

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importance of philosophy

without philosophy, a person may fall into the trap of thinking that opinion is the same as fact when this happens it becomes much more difficult for a person, regardless of occupation, to be open to new ideas or concepts

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54

health philosophies

the mind and body disappear as recognizable realities and in their stead comes the acknowledgment of a whole being...man is essentially a unified integrated organism

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55

cognitive-based philosophy

A health education program that emphasizes increased learning and knowledge gains

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behavior change philosophy

involves a health education specialist using behavioral contracts, goal setting, and self-monitoring to try to foster a modification of an unhealthy habit in an individual with whom they are working

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freeing/functioning philosophy

philosophy emphasizes people making the best health decisions based on their needs and interests

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social change

emphasizes the role of health education specialists in creating social, economic, and political change that benefits the health of individuals and groups

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59

eclectic health education/promotion philosophy

any health education/promotion approach that seems appropriate to the situation

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60

concept

the primary elements of theories

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theory

a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict the events of the situations

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model

a composite, a mixture of ideas or concepts taken from any number of theories and used together

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construct

a concept that has been developed, created, or adopted for use with a specific theory

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why use theory?

theory helps organize various forms of knowledge so that they take on meaning that would not occur if the pieces of knowledge were presented in isolation

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65

what is generalized planning model?

a model that contains the following five tasks assessing needs, setting goals/objectives, developing interventions, implementing interventions, and evaluating results

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characteristics of intrapersonal behavior change

focus on factors within individuals such as knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, developmental history, past experiences, motivation, skills, and behavior

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Health Belief Model (HBM)

concern for health, susceptibility and perceived thread, cost of reducing barriers

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68

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

beliefs and attitudes related to behavior, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control

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Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)

attitudes, judgements, thought processes; continuum theory,peripheral and central routes of thought;variables affect attitudes

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Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model (IMB)

HIV education

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Transtheoretical Model of Change

stages of chage, decisional balance, self-efficacy, processes of change

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Precaution Adoption Process Model

decision theory; quick deliberate actions

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characteristics interpersonal theories

the opinions, thoughts, behavior, advice, and support of the people surrounding an individual influence his or her feelings and behavior, and the individual has a reciprocal effect on those people

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social cognitive theory

asserts that the social environment, the personal characteristics of the individual, and behavior interact and influence each other

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75

social network theory

social network refers to the "person-centered web of social relationships" and this term was sued to describe villagers' social relationships and characteristics that were not traditional social units like families

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Social Capital Theory

Social capital is a collective asset, a feature of communities rather than the property of individuals. As such, individuals both contribute to it and use it, but they cannot own it

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PRECEDE-PROCEED

social, epidemiological, education and ecological assessments with implementation and evalution

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78

intervention mapping

needs assessment, objectives, theory, production, adoption/implementation

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79

CDCynergy

health communications; 6 phases

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80

SMART

marketing applied to analysis, planning, execution, evaluation

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MAPP

local health depts.; visioning and community assessments; strategic issues; partnerships

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generalized model

pre-planning; needs, goals, objectives, interventions, evaluation

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83

characteristics of all planning models

?

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84

steps in planning models

?

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85

ethics

the study of morality

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86

metaphysics

the study of the nature of reality

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epistemology

the study of knowledge

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common moral ground

a larger meeting ground in which the best of all these theories and systems can operate meaningfully with a minimum of conflict and opposition

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value of life

the philosophy that human beings should revere life and accept death

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90

goodness

"good" and "right are at the corse of every ethical theory however theorists may disagree on what is good and bad and right and wrong, but they all strive for goodness and rightness

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nonmaleficence

the non-infliction of harm to others

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beneficence

describes the principle of doing good, demonstration kindness, showing compassion, and helping others

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justice

the principle deals with people treating other people fairly and justly in distributing goodness (benefits) and badness (burdens)

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individual freedom/autonomy

means that people, being individuals with individual differences, must have the freedom to choose their own ways and means of being moral within the framework of the first four basic principles

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ethical issues for community interventions

-confidentiality -consent -disclosure -competence -conflict of interest -grossly unethical behavior -general ethical responsibilities

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96

decision-making philosophy

philosophy that uses scenarios to develop skill in analyzing potential solutions

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97

10 step making model

1)Define the problem, identify the ethical issue, and gather relevant information 2)Identify who will be affected. 3)Contemplate the ultimate goals and ideals. 4)Identify the alternatives (viable courses of action). 5)Consider the consequences of the alternatives. 6)Consider the nature of the alternatives. 7)Reflect on yourself. 8)Reflect on society and the environment. 9)Apply the categorical imperative. 10)Choose an alternative, provide a rationale, act, and monitor the results.

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98

pandemic

an outbreak over a wide geographic area, without specific geographic boundaries

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99

epidemic

an unexpectedly large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related event in a particular population

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endemic

occurs regularly in a population as a matter of course, such as heat diseases in the United States

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